Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1366
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Cox M J - - 2003
Rotaviral associated disease of infants in the UK is seasonal and infection in adults not uncommon but the relationship between these has been little explored. Adult sera collected monthly for one year from routine hospital samples were screened for the presence of anti-group A rotavirus immunoglobulin M class antibodies as ...
Stone Patricia W - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To determine the costs of the interventions aimed at controlling the 4-month outbreak and to determine the attributable length of stay (LOS) associated with infection and colonization with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. DESIGN: A retrospective cost analysis was conducted from the hospital perspective. A micro-costing approach was employed. The ...
Hilliard Nicholaus J - - 2003
Bacillus cereus is an uncommon but potentially serious bacterial pathogen causing infections of the bloodstream, lungs, and central nervous system of preterm neonates. A case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a 19-day-old preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, and clindamycin is described. Implications for ...
Lejkowski Marisa - - 2003
Autoimmune neutropenia of infancy is a primary, usually self-limiting, antineutrophil autoimmune phenomenon seen in infancy and early childhood. These infants are at a higher risk of infection, and early detection, particularly with the availability of newer therapeutic options such as hematopoietic growth factors, can allow close follow-up and, if needed, ...
Bandyopadhyay Sarmistha - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have demonstrated that infants can acquire human papillomavirus (HPV) infection at birth from their mothers. The aim of the present investigation was to determine prevalence of HPV infection among pregnant women and evaluate the extent of perinatal transmission of HPVs to infants. METHODS: The study included 135 ...
Maayan-Metzger A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics of febrile full term infants during the first days of life, and to discover the rate of serious bacterial infections among low risk neonates with systemic fever. DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study of 122 cases and 122 controls in a single institution. RESULTS: Weight loss, ...
Mekmullica Jutarat - - 2003
To identify the risk factors for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection among infants in Bangkok, Thailand, a case-control study was conducted during 1997-1999. Blood samples were collected from 257 Thai infants aged 6 months to 2 years. Serum samples were assayed for specific EBV IgG antibodies based on a commercial enzyme-linked ...
Yasuda Ayako - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Preterm infants are at greater risk of symptomatic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection than term infants. Breast milk is the main source of perinatal CMV infections. This study evaluated the kinetics of CMV load in breast milk and the rate of postnatal CMV transmission via breast milk from mothers to their ...
Totet Anne - - 2003
This study describes the molecular typing of Pneumocystis jiroveci organisms from 5 nonpremature immunocompetent infants who developed a primary infection. Four P. jiroveci internal transcribed spacer (ITS) types were identified. All have been previously described in reports concerning immunosuppressed adults with pneumocystosis. Present data suggest that identical types can be ...
Ng P C - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: A prospective study to investigate the pattern of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses in preterm infants with systemic infection. METHODS: Very low birthweight infants in whom infection was suspected when they were > 72 hours of age were eligible. A full sepsis screen was performed in each episode. Key ...
Numazaki Kei - - 2003
The clinical characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis respiratory tract infections in Japanese neonates were investigated. Clinical, laboratory and microbiological characteristics of five infants with pneumonia due to C. trachomatis in early neonatal period were analyzed. Only C. trachomatis was identified in 4 infants. Both C. trachomatis and cytomegalovirus was identified in ...
Harrison Wendy A - - 2003
Handwashing and hand drying are key elements of infection control. Paper towels are generally accepted as the most hygienic means of drying hands and are often distributed from generic dispensers. Effective dispensing of towels is of importance economically and may influence infection control objectives if hands become contaminated during hand ...
D'Amico Christine J - - 2003
Premature infants are at higher risk of infection because of their immature physiological status as well as environmental factors. The 2 principle sources of newborn infection are the nursery environment and the mother. There is limited information available regarding appropriate cleaning of breast pump attachments to minimize the risk of ...
Usukura Yukihiro - - 2003
PURPOSE: A nationwide questionnaire survey was carried out in 77 major neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) facilities in Japan. The survey investigated severe, hospital acquired infections occurring in extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants at each institution. METHODS: The nationwide questionnaire survey involved 77 major NICU facilities and ELBW infants born ...
Kitajima Hiroyuki - - 2003
Reports of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and normal newborn nurseries in Japan were investigated, and various methods of preventing transmission were evaluated. In the late 1980s, MRSA which had spread in adult wards also invaded NICU. Very low birthweight or premature infants had ...
Rilling V - - 2003
The aim of this study was to evaluate a commercial Western blot IgG/IgM assay for use in the early serological diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. This assay compares the immunological profile of mother and infant and allows differentiation between passive transmitted maternal antibodies and newly synthesized antibodies of the infant within ...
Totet Anne - - 2003
The frequency of Pneumocystis jiroveci (human-derived Pneumocystis) in immunocompetent infants developing acute respiratory syndromes has recently been evaluated and has been shown to be close to 25%. Until now, there have been no data on the genomic characteristics of the fungus in these patients, while molecular typing of P. jiroveci ...
Brayfield Brad P - - 2003
The specific route and timing of human herpesvirus (HHV) 8 infection in regions where Kaposi sarcoma is endemic are not known. HHV-8 infection and any risk factors that may be associated with HHV-8, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection, were monitored during the 12-month postdelivery period for 416 ...
Chapman Rachel L - - 2003
Candida infections have become an increasingly frequent problem in neonatal intensive care units, particularly among extremely low birth weight infants. Transmission occurs both vertically and horizontally, with Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis as the predominant species. Multiple risk factors have been identified with prior antibiotic exposure, presence of a central ...
Mussi-Pinhata Marisa Márcia - - 2003
Maternal antibodies may protect the fetus and neonate against severe forms of CMV-caused disease, therefore this study investigated the efficiency of the placental transfer of naturally acquired, maternal total anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG and neutralizing antibodies at different gestational ages. The study was conducted on 182 healthy CMV-seropositive Brazilian mothers and ...
Casanova-Román M - - 2003
Infections by Leuconostoc species bacteria are uncommon, and usually affect patients with an underlying disease, or those fitted with a venous catheter or subjects previously treated with vancomycin. The most common clinical presentation is fever secondary to a central venous line infection. We report a case of Leuconostoc sp. bacteremia ...
Glavina-Durdov Merica - - 2003
In various stressful conditions, the thymus is subjected to incidental involution, mostly due to the thymocytolytic effect of secreted glucocorticosteroids. The aim of this study was to examine acute thymic involution in sick neonates and to compare the morphological grade with some clinical and laboratory parameters. The influence of the ...
Auriti C - - 2003
The clinical records a years cohort of 280 newborn infants consecutively hospitalized for 48 h or more in our neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) were reviewed. Information on the infants' conditions during the first 12h of life, and on the procedures used in the NICU, were collected. Statistical significance was tested ...
Ando Y - - 2003
Human T-lymphotropic virus Type-I (HTLV-I) infects children via mother's milk. Infection of Human T-lymphotropic virus Type-I (HTLV-I) was investigated by long-term follow-up surveys of modified milk-fed children. Our observations of modified milk-fed infants revealed that: 1 of 154 (0.6%) at year 1, 5 of 129 (3.9%) at 1.5 years, and ...
Melamed R - - 2003
We describe an outbreak of Acinetobacter baumannii in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and our investigation to determine the source and mode of transmission and identify the population at risk. A case (infected infant) was defined as a patient hospitalized in the NICU during the outbreak period, with clinical ...
Chapman Rachel L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Persistent bacteremia despite antibiotic therapy has been correlated with adverse outcomes, including focal suppurative complications and death. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS) are the most common cause of nosocomial infection in infants requiring neonatal intensive care and might yield more substantial pathology if infection were persistent. METHODS: To compare the severity ...
Nakai Hideo - - 2003
PURPOSE: We evaluate clinical characteristics of primary vesicoureteral reflux in infants in a multicenter study in Japan with special reference to the relation of renal parenchymal damage to urinary tract infection and gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Infants younger than 1 year old with primary vesicoureteral reflux were recruited from 14 ...
Noyola Daniel E - - 2003
The incidence of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in Mexico is unknown. We evaluated the presence of cytomegalovirus infection in 560 newborn infants at a public general hospital. There were five (0.89%) infected newborns. Infants with congenital infection were more likely to be born to primigravid mothers (P = 0.01) and were ...
Kurtz J - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is rare, but associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. After a baby, subsequently proven to have HSE, had initially been diagnosed as non-accidental injury (NAI), we reviewed the clinical features and radiology of infants with HSE recently diagnosed by our laboratory. METHODS: Screening ...
Cruccetti A - - 2003
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Cytokines are essential for the prevention of microbial infections. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in infancy is associated with an increased risk of infection, and this could be related to altered cytokine production. The aim of the study was to determine if cytokine production is altered in monocytes from surgical ...
Mohan P P International Neonatal Immunotherapy Study, National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Oxford, UK. - - 2003
Rotavirus infection is the most common neonatal nosocomial viral infection. Epidemics with the newer P(6)G9 strains have been reported in neonatal units worldwide. These strains can cause severe symptoms in most infected infants. Infection control measures become necessary and the utilisation of hospital resources increase. Local mucosal immunity in the ...
Berger Angelika - - 2002
BACKGROUND: It is known that infections with Serratia marcescens can take a progressive course in preterm infants and that meningoencephalitis with this pathogen exhibits an extremely bad neurologic prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report on five cases of septicemia with Serratia marcescens in preterm infants during a nosocomial outbreak. Three ...
Halstead Scott B - - 2002
The age distribution of cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) in infants under the age of 1 year are reported from Bangkok, Thailand, and for the first time for Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Yangon, Myanmar; and Surabaya, Indonesia. The four dengue viruses were isolated from ...
Uduman S A - - 2002
We report an outbreak of Serratia marcescens infection in a special-care baby unit (SCBU) of a university-affiliated community hospital in the United Arab Emirates. The outbreak involved 36 infants and lasted for 20 weeks. Seven of the colonized infants developed invasive illnesses in the form of bacteraemia (four cases), bacteraemic ...
Wen L Z - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of intrauterine human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection on pregnancy outcomes and infant development. METHODS: The study group consisted of the HCMV-IgM-positive offspring of 75 pregnant women, and a control group of the non-infected offspring of 73 pregnant women. Chorionic villi, amnionic fluid, and umbilical blood were ...
Byington Carrie L - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The importance of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) as a pathogen in febrile infants </=90 days of age is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether febrile infants 90 days of age and younger evaluated for sepsis have evidence of HHV-6 DNA in plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODS: Febrile infants </=90 ...
Reddy Pramod P - - 2002
Urinary tract infections can result in significant morbidity and represent one of the most common urological conditions that the pediatrician and family practitioner encounter in the pediatric patient population. The prevalence of UTI in girls may be as high as 8.1%. UTIs also represent the most commonly identified serious bacterial ...
Kjemtrup Anne M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: A premature infant in California developed respiratory distress associated with infection with a protozoal parasite, Babesia. The infant had received two blood transfusions, one from the father and one from an anonymous donor (Donor A). This study describes the follow-up required to identify the source and species of Babesia ...
Graham Philip L PL - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: When the incidence of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection or colonization increased in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), we sought to further our understanding of the relationship among colonization with MSSA, endemic infection, and clonal spread. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was used to determine risk factors for ...
Widdowson Marc-Alain - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: In December 1999, an outbreak of diarrhea was reported in a general hospital neonatal medium care unit (NMCU) caused by a novel strain of rotavirus with genotype P[6], G9. An investigation was conducted to determine risk factors for illness among neonates. DESIGN: Rotavirus diagnosis was by latex agglutination and ...
Van Rompay Koen K A - - 2002
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of infant macaques is a useful animal model to determine whether topical (oral) administration of antiviral compounds to the nursing infant could reduce human immunodeficiency virus transmission through breast-feeding. The reverse-transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir was selected because of previous demonstrations that systemic drug levels are effective ...
Wu Fann - - 2002
Nosocomial infections among infants in neonatal intensive care units are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Efforts to rapidly detect, contain and ultimately prevent cross-transmission of these pathogens require constant vigilance by members of the epidemiology team. A vital component of an epidemiological evaluation is the ability to assess ...
Saiman Lisa - - 2002
Infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) have many risk factors for infection. Compared with older children and adults, infants, particularly premature infants, are relatively immunocompromised. Patients in the NICU have intrinsic risk factors for infections due to immunological "deficiencies" or inadequate development of mechanical barriers such as skin ...
Were F N - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Neonatal pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. The problem is known to be higher in resource poor third world countries. Organisms (such as chlamydia) not covered by routine laboratory tests and regular antibiotic regimes may frequently contribute towards the causation of late ...
Dzik Jolanta M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: In newborn full-term and preterm infants the urine nitrites and nitrates (NOx) were measured, in order to investigate the effects of different pathological conditions (infection, hypoxia) on systemic nitric oxide production. METHODS: Urine nitrites and nitrates were determined by means of the Griess reaction, after reduction of nitrates to ...
Bauer Sofia - - 2002
Four preterm newborn infants with severe multisystem Coxsackie virus B infection were treated with an oral suspension of pleconaril (5 mg/kg per day). The patients had myocarditis, fulminant hepatitis, meningoencephalitis and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. All four infants recovered, and no adverse effects of the treatment were noted. pleconaril needs to ...
- - 2002
Pertussis (i.e., whooping cough) is associated typically with an inspiratory "whoop," prolonged paroxysmal cough, and posttussive vomiting; however, persons infected with Bordetella pertussis sometimes experience atypical symptoms, making prompt recognition difficult and probably increasing infection transmission. All infants aged <6 months and any infants who have not yet received 3 ...
Turner Dan - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Information on the causative agents of acute otitis media (AOM) in infants <2 months of age is limited. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: To analyze the etiology, pathogen susceptibility patterns, clinical presentation and frequency of serious bacterial infections in infants <2 months of age with AOM and to determine the ...
Luxmore Brett - - 2002
It was the impression of 1 of the authors that band counts in febrile infants < or =60 days of age were much higher as reported from the clinical laboratory at Children's Hospital Medical Center of Akron, Ohio, than they had been at Strong Memorial Hospital in Rochester, New York. ...
Lupetti Antonella - - 2002
This report describes the nosocomial acquisition of Candida parapsilosis candidemia by one of the six premature newborns housed in the same room of a neonatal intensive care unit at the Ospedale Santa Chiara, Pisa, Italy. The infant had progeria, a disorder characterized by retarded physical development and progressive senile degeneration. ...
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