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Results 501 - 550 of 1336
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Mohan P - - 2003
Rotavirus infection is the most common neonatal nosocomial viral infection. Epidemics with the newer P(6)G9 strains have been reported in neonatal units worldwide. These strains can cause severe symptoms in most infected infants. Infection control measures become necessary and the utilisation of hospital resources increase. Local mucosal immunity in the ...
Berger Angelika - - 2002
BACKGROUND: It is known that infections with Serratia marcescens can take a progressive course in preterm infants and that meningoencephalitis with this pathogen exhibits an extremely bad neurologic prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report on five cases of septicemia with Serratia marcescens in preterm infants during a nosocomial outbreak. Three ...
Halstead Scott B - - 2002
The age distribution of cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) in infants under the age of 1 year are reported from Bangkok, Thailand, and for the first time for Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Yangon, Myanmar; and Surabaya, Indonesia. The four dengue viruses were isolated from ...
Uduman S A - - 2002
We report an outbreak of Serratia marcescens infection in a special-care baby unit (SCBU) of a university-affiliated community hospital in the United Arab Emirates. The outbreak involved 36 infants and lasted for 20 weeks. Seven of the colonized infants developed invasive illnesses in the form of bacteraemia (four cases), bacteraemic ...
Wen L Z - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of intrauterine human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection on pregnancy outcomes and infant development. METHODS: The study group consisted of the HCMV-IgM-positive offspring of 75 pregnant women, and a control group of the non-infected offspring of 73 pregnant women. Chorionic villi, amnionic fluid, and umbilical blood were ...
Byington Carrie L - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The importance of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) as a pathogen in febrile infants </=90 days of age is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether febrile infants 90 days of age and younger evaluated for sepsis have evidence of HHV-6 DNA in plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODS: Febrile infants </=90 ...
Reddy Pramod P - - 2002
Urinary tract infections can result in significant morbidity and represent one of the most common urological conditions that the pediatrician and family practitioner encounter in the pediatric patient population. The prevalence of UTI in girls may be as high as 8.1%. UTIs also represent the most commonly identified serious bacterial ...
Kjemtrup Anne M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: A premature infant in California developed respiratory distress associated with infection with a protozoal parasite, Babesia. The infant had received two blood transfusions, one from the father and one from an anonymous donor (Donor A). This study describes the follow-up required to identify the source and species of Babesia ...
Graham Philip L PL - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: When the incidence of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection or colonization increased in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), we sought to further our understanding of the relationship among colonization with MSSA, endemic infection, and clonal spread. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was used to determine risk factors for ...
Widdowson Marc-Alain - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: In December 1999, an outbreak of diarrhea was reported in a general hospital neonatal medium care unit (NMCU) caused by a novel strain of rotavirus with genotype P[6], G9. An investigation was conducted to determine risk factors for illness among neonates. DESIGN: Rotavirus diagnosis was by latex agglutination and ...
Van Rompay Koen K A - - 2002
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of infant macaques is a useful animal model to determine whether topical (oral) administration of antiviral compounds to the nursing infant could reduce human immunodeficiency virus transmission through breast-feeding. The reverse-transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir was selected because of previous demonstrations that systemic drug levels are effective ...
Wu Fann - - 2002
Nosocomial infections among infants in neonatal intensive care units are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Efforts to rapidly detect, contain and ultimately prevent cross-transmission of these pathogens require constant vigilance by members of the epidemiology team. A vital component of an epidemiological evaluation is the ability to assess ...
Saiman Lisa - - 2002
Infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) have many risk factors for infection. Compared with older children and adults, infants, particularly premature infants, are relatively immunocompromised. Patients in the NICU have intrinsic risk factors for infections due to immunological "deficiencies" or inadequate development of mechanical barriers such as skin ...
Were F N - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Neonatal pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. The problem is known to be higher in resource poor third world countries. Organisms (such as chlamydia) not covered by routine laboratory tests and regular antibiotic regimes may frequently contribute towards the causation of late ...
Dzik Jolanta M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: In newborn full-term and preterm infants the urine nitrites and nitrates (NOx) were measured, in order to investigate the effects of different pathological conditions (infection, hypoxia) on systemic nitric oxide production. METHODS: Urine nitrites and nitrates were determined by means of the Griess reaction, after reduction of nitrates to ...
Bauer Sofia - - 2002
Four preterm newborn infants with severe multisystem Coxsackie virus B infection were treated with an oral suspension of pleconaril (5 mg/kg per day). The patients had myocarditis, fulminant hepatitis, meningoencephalitis and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. All four infants recovered, and no adverse effects of the treatment were noted. pleconaril needs to ...
- - 2002
Pertussis (i.e., whooping cough) is associated typically with an inspiratory "whoop," prolonged paroxysmal cough, and posttussive vomiting; however, persons infected with Bordetella pertussis sometimes experience atypical symptoms, making prompt recognition difficult and probably increasing infection transmission. All infants aged <6 months and any infants who have not yet received 3 ...
Turner Dan - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Information on the causative agents of acute otitis media (AOM) in infants <2 months of age is limited. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: To analyze the etiology, pathogen susceptibility patterns, clinical presentation and frequency of serious bacterial infections in infants <2 months of age with AOM and to determine the ...
Luxmore Brett - - 2002
It was the impression of 1 of the authors that band counts in febrile infants < or =60 days of age were much higher as reported from the clinical laboratory at Children's Hospital Medical Center of Akron, Ohio, than they had been at Strong Memorial Hospital in Rochester, New York. ...
Lupetti Antonella - - 2002
This report describes the nosocomial acquisition of Candida parapsilosis candidemia by one of the six premature newborns housed in the same room of a neonatal intensive care unit at the Ospedale Santa Chiara, Pisa, Italy. The infant had progeria, a disorder characterized by retarded physical development and progressive senile degeneration. ...
Triolo Valérie - - 2002
Candiduria is rare in newborns and infants, occurring most often in patients with risk factors. When associated with a candidal bezoar in the urinary tract, candiduria is usually treated by systemic amphotericin B and flucytosine plus local irrigation with amphotericin B. We describe the successful treatment of five newborns with ...
Michelow Ian C - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Identification of infants with Treponema pallidum infection of the central nervous system remains challenging. METHODS: We used rabbit-infectivity testing of the cerebrospinal fluid to detect T. pallidum infection of the central nervous system in infants born to mothers with syphilis. The results were compared with those of clinical, radiographic, ...
Tarhan N Cagla - - 2003
We present a 10-month-old child with central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) secondary to chronic active hepatitis due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. A total of 35 paediatric cases of pontine and/or extrapontine myelinolysis are reported and, to our knowledge, CPM secondary to CMV hepatitis in an infant has not been previously reported. ...
Morel Anne-Sophie - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Patient-to-patient transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) has been well described. We report the first documented outbreak of probable transmission of MRSA from a mother to 3 of her preterm quadruplet infants postnatally. METHODS: Routine surveillance of clinical microbiologic laboratory reports revealed an ...
Wang Wen - - 2002
We report the discovery of a rickettsia-like organism (RLO) in cultured freshwater Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. The RLO caused tremor disease and was apparently responsible for a mass mortality (30 to 90%) in 2 provinces in southeast China. Moribund crabs were investigated from different districts during outbreaks in 1999 ...
Guibourdenche Jean - - 2002
BACKGROUND: We evaluated procalcitonin (PCT) assay in the emergency diagnosis of neonatal bacterial infection, especially in preterm infants, relative to C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen. METHODS: One hundred and twenty neonates (32 preterm), of whom 21 were infected, were tested. RESULTS: Concentrations of PCT, CRP and fibrinogen in uninfected infants ...
Sheridan E - - 2002
An infant with congenital rubella syndrome was born to a young mother who had recently arrived in the UK. The infection was not detected before birth, and transmission to another infant was documented. This case highlights the emerging importance of rubella as an imported infection in the developed world and ...
Horne Rosemary S C - - 2002
Numerous studies have postulated a link between recent infection and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). In this study we contrasted arousal responses from sleep in infants on the day of discharge from hospital following an infection with those when fully recovered and also with well age-matched control infants. Thirteen term ...
Dorman E K - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: In endemic areas, maternal malaria infection is usually asymptomatic. However, it is known that infected maternal erythrocytes sequester in the intervillous space of the placenta. There is a strong association between placental malaria infection and both low birth weight (LBW) and severe maternal anemia. We aimed to determine whether ...
Fischler Björn - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The authors have previously described an association between cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and intrahepatic and extrahepatic forms of neonatal cholestasis. Pediatric use of the antiviral drug ganciclovir to treat patients with CMV infection has increased. In this study, infants with CMV infection and cholestasis were treated with ganciclovir. METHODS: Six ...
Schoen Edgar J - - 2002
PURPOSE: We describe an uncircumcised male infant and a female neonate treated for infant urinary tract infection who had multiple hormonal and electrolyte abnormalities consistent with the diagnosis of transient pseudohypoaldosteronism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed these 2 cases. RESULTS: In each case successful treatment of infant urinary tract ...
Panagopoulou Paraskevi - - 2002
Trichosporon asahii causes white piedra, an infection of hair shafts and onychomycosis in immunocompetent patients, as well as various localized or disseminated invasive infections in immunodeficient hosts. We describe a 26-week gestation 890-g vaginally delivered female neonate who had severe respiratory distress syndrome and on the sixth day of life ...
Leibovitz Eugene - - 2002
Candida infections are increasingly being recognized as a major cause of septicaemia in neonatal intensive care units, and are associated with high morbidity (25%) and mortality (25-54%). Low birth weight pre-term infants are especially vulnerable to this devastating disease. The most frequently encountered fungal infections are caused by Candida albicans, ...
Sierig Gabriele - - 2002
Infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among low birth weight (LBW) infants. The aims of our study were: (1) to investigate whether serum antibody concentrations in 62 LBW infants (1,500-2,500 g) were normalized by 1 year of life, and (2) to determine the clinical relevance of humoral ...
Marks Kyla A - - 2002
Increased survival of extremely low birth weight infants depends on the use of indwelling catheters. These catheters expose the infant to the risk of thrombus formation and line infection. When intracardiac thromboses become infected, the entity is indistinguishable from infective endocarditis and exposes the infant to prolonged sepsis and risk ...
Dammann Olaf - - 2002
Only sparse information is available about a possible association between antenatal infection outside the brain and subsequent cognitive limitations among preterm infants. Based on published studies, we provide a theoretical schema that links them via the fetal inflammatory response and neonatal white matter damage. We conclude that the relationship between ...
Persson E - - 2002
In a retrospective study of neonatal septicaemia and meningitis carried out in 1987-1996 in the Göteborg area of Sweden, 305 cases during the first 28 d of life were found. The incidence was 3.7/1000 live births, which was higher than that found in a study from 1975 to 1986 in ...
Edgar David - - 2002
Serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in 46 samples from 46 infants undergoing intensive care were studied. Residual serum remaining after routine electrolyte analysis was utilised. sICAM-1 levels were determined by ELISA. Blind retrospective chart review was employed to determine whether infants were infected. Serum levels were significantly ...
Kaufman D - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infection is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. We evaluated the efficacy of prophylactic fluconazole in preventing fungal colonization and invasive infection in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial over a 30-month period in 100 preterm infants with birth ...
Afolabi B M - - 2001
A total of 446 infants in the first 6 months of life who presented at an urban children's hospital with complaints of any illness whatsoever were recruited into a study with the aim of determining the contribution of malaria to infant morbidity in a malaria-endemic urban area in Nigeria. Sixty-eight ...
McKenney W M - - 2001
Neonates are vulnerable to infection from prenatal and postnatal exposure to microorganisms. The immaturity of the immune system in neonates and illness and/or prematurity place these infants at significant risk for bacterial invasion and systemic infection. Long-term sequelae include, but are not limited to, prolonged hospital stays and increased risk ...
Hsu M L - - 2001
Cytomegalovirus causes pneumonia, hepatitis, thrombocytopenia, and hemolytic anemia. Cytomegalovirus adrenalitis in premature infants, however, is rare. This report described a premature newborn who had progressively worsening hyperbilirubinemia, pancytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly at the age of 4 days. The baby's mother had prolonged rupture of amniotic membrane for about 8 weeks. The ...
Sauerbrei A - - 2001
Neonatal varicella is mostly caused by maternal chickenpox acquired during the last 3 weeks of pregnancy. Transplacentally transmitted infections occur in the first 10 to 12 days of life, whereas chickenpox after that time is most likely acquired by postnatal infection. If the mother develops rash between days 4 and ...
Maschmann J - - 2001
In addition to seroprevalence and transmission rate, the clinical symptoms of postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in infants with a very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g; <32 weeks gestational age at birth) were assessed in a 3-year prospective study. CMV monitoring included serologic testing (of the mother and child) and ...
Updegrove K K - - 2001
Midwives care for women throughout their childbearing years, guiding them through decisions made about themselves and their newborn children. The decision to circumcise a male infant depends on a number of factors, including medical, social, cultural, and religious considerations. Data surrounding medical benefits and risks of this surgery are inconsistent ...
Romano C - - 2001
Tinea capitis is the most frequent manifestation of dermatophyte infection in children, but because it is rare in the first months of life it is often misdiagnosed. Here we report 15 cases of tinea capitis observed in Italy in infants less than 1 year of age. There were 10 boys ...
Herr S M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Investigators have sought to establish "low-risk" criteria to identify febrile young infants who can be observed safely without antibiotics. Previous studies have used criteria for standard urinalysis to identify suspected urinary tract infection; however, cases of urinary tract infection have been missed. Enhanced urinalysis, using hemocytometer cell count and ...
Zafar N - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with an increasing rate of nosocomial infections in infants with very low birth weights. METHODS: Retrospective review of clinical and nosocomial infection databases for all infants with birth weights of 1500 g or less admitted to an academic neonatal intensive care unit between January ...
Mehr S S - - 2001
The objective of this study is to determine the plasma concentrations and diagnostic accuracy of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in newborn infection. One hundred and one newborn infants with clinical signs of infection during their primary hospitalization were investigated with the minimum of a blood culture, C-reactive protein (CRP), ...
Yamamoto A Y - - 2001
A rapid test for the diagnosis of congenital CMV infection is still needed. This study evaluated the usefulness of dried blood and urine samples collected on filter paper for detecting cytomegalovirus (CMV) by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay compared with the use of liquid urine. Samples were obtained from ...
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