Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1337
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Linder N - - 2004
The finding that 10% povidone-iodine skin disinfectant may compromise thyroid function in premature infants prompted its replacement with 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate solution in 70% isopropanol. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rates of true infection and contamination associated with the use of these two disinfectants in ...
Nguyen Thanh Hung - - 2004
A prospective study of clinical and cytokine profiles of 107 infants with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/dengue shock syndrome (DSS) was conducted. Fever, petechiae on the skin, and hepatomegaly were the most common clinical findings associated with DHF/DSS in infants. DSS occurred in 20.5% of the patients. Hemoconcentration and thrombocytopenia were ...
Marom D - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the serum nitric oxide levels in healthy neonates and in infants with bacteremia. METHODS: We performed a prospective study in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. The serum nitric oxide levels were measured in all infants at birth (basal) and in the infected neonates also on the ...
Ng Pak C - - 2004
The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly contagious infection caused by a newly discovered strain of coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Infants born to pregnant women with SARS did not appear to acquire the infection through vertical transmission. Some newborn infants, however, developed severe intrauterine growth retardation and life-threatening gastrointestinal complications. ...
Voudris Konstantinos - - 2004
A 3-month-old male infant with cytomegalovirus infection and intractable partial seizures was treated with ganciclovir for 6 weeks. The drug was well tolerated, and virus shedding in the cerebrospinal fluid and urine was eliminated, although infantile spasms at the age of 6 months appeared. At the age of 12 months, ...
Austin N C - - 2004
Systemic fungal infection has increased in prevalence in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) caring for very low birth weight infants. It is associated with a prolonged stay and an increase in morbidity and mortality. An assessment of the use of oral prophylactic antifungals to prevent systemic infection is needed. To ...
Ungerer R L S - - 2004
Early onset bacterial infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. Various factors that increase the risk of neonatal infection have been identified. It is unclear whether asymptomatic newborn infants born to mothers with one or more of these risk factors should receive antibiotics prophylactically rather ...
Iwanaga Manabu - - 2004
A 6-week-old immunocompetent girl developed protein-losing gastroenteropathy (PLGE) and retinitis associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. At presentation, CMV antigenaemia (6 cells/46,000 white blood cells) and its DNA were detected in the patient's blood and in the mother's milk. Intravenous ganciclovir and gamma-globulin rapidly ameliorated all symptoms and CMV antigenaemia disappeared. ...
Sauerbrei A - - 2003
Patients with congenital varicella syndrome (CVS) typically present with clinical symptoms consisting of skin lesions, neurological defects, eye diseases, and/or limb hypoplasia. In rare cases, isolated manifestations in the brain or eye have been reported. The varicella-zoster virus (VZV), as the causative agent of CVS, could only be detected in ...
Janjindamai Waricha - - 2003
A case of vertical transmission of dengue infection in the perinatal period is reported. The mother, a term pregnancy, had acute dengue the day before admission. The infant was born at term and developed fever on the fifth day of life which lasted for 5 days. No bleeding or plasma ...
Stanisic Danielle I - - 2003
Maternal Abs generated as a result of prior exposure to infectious agents such as the malaria parasite are transferred from the mother through the placenta to the fetus. Numerous studies have attributed the resistance to malaria infection observed in neonates and infants up to 6 mo of age to the ...
Hoffman Jill A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in the neonate (SPIN) are relatively unusual events (1%-11% of neonatal sepsis) but are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Previous reports suggest that invasive SPIN is associated with prolonged rupture of membranes, maternal colonization/illness, prematurity, early-onset pneumonia presentation (<72 hours), and high mortality (50%). The ...
Brown Julie C - - 2003
To compare the time to positive culture with the time to clinical detection of serious bacterial infection (SBI) in young infants, a retrospective case series of 949 infants age 0-60 days, who had a body fluid cultured in the emergency department or within 24 hours of admission was analyzed. Times ...
Porto Isabel - - 2003
Infections involving helminths or parasitic worms affect more than 25% of the population worldwide. Because lactating women and their infants are often affected by the complications of these infections such as iron deficiency anemia and malnutrition, they benefit the most from drug therapy. However, scientific literature offers little information regarding ...
Chapman Rachel L - - 2003
Until the 1980s, recovery of Candida species from normally sterile body sites in high-risk infants was often dismissed as contamination. Such delay in diagnosis often resulted in death, multifocal disease, or significant morbidity, outcomes that still occur today. Problems establishing the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis persist, while the frequency of ...
Bliss Joseph M - - 2003
Candida is a leading cause of late onset infection (> 3 days of age) in the premature infant. Therefore, decisions about the diagnosis and management of infections caused by Candida are commonplace in the neonatal intensive care unit. Despite this fact, there are few comparative trials about treatment of neonatal ...
van Benten Inesz - - 2003
Respiratory infections in infancy may protect against developing Th2-mediated allergic disease (hygiene hypothesis). To estimate the relative contribution of particular viruses to the development of the immune system and allergic disease, we investigated longitudinally the prevalence of respiratory viral infections in infants. One hundred and twenty-six healthy infants were included ...
Biggar Robert J - - 2003
We examined birth order and delivery route as risk factors for mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 in 315 twin pairs born in Malawi during 1994-1998. No antiretroviral drugs were administered to these subjects. Infections were detected by polymerase chain reaction and were stratified as having occurred either in ...
Yalaz Mehmet - - 2003
Species of the genus Acremonium (Cephalosporium) are opportunistic micro-organisms that are environmentally widespread saprophytes in soil and can, very rarely, be pathogenic in humans. Disseminated infection has been described in patients with immunodeficiency, but has previously been reported in only one neonate. A preterm infant with Acremonium strictum fungaemia is ...
Huang Q Sue - - 2003
Echovirus type 33 (E33) is a relatively uncommon enterovirus. An E33 outbreak during the winter of 2000 in New Zealand led to 75 virologically-confirmed cases of E33 infection (2.6 cases per 100,000 individuals). Sixty-six (88%) of the 75 patients were aged <30 years, with the highest rates of infection recorded ...
Titus M Olivia - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Neonates with fever generally undergo a full, invasive septic evaluation to exclude serious bacterial infection (SBI). The risk of SBI in febrile older infants and children with documented respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection has been found to be negligible. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence ...
Cox M J - - 2003
Rotaviral associated disease of infants in the UK is seasonal and infection in adults not uncommon but the relationship between these has been little explored. Adult sera collected monthly for one year from routine hospital samples were screened for the presence of anti-group A rotavirus immunoglobulin M class antibodies as ...
Stone Patricia W - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To determine the costs of the interventions aimed at controlling the 4-month outbreak and to determine the attributable length of stay (LOS) associated with infection and colonization with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. DESIGN: A retrospective cost analysis was conducted from the hospital perspective. A micro-costing approach was employed. The ...
Hilliard Nicholaus J - - 2003
Bacillus cereus is an uncommon but potentially serious bacterial pathogen causing infections of the bloodstream, lungs, and central nervous system of preterm neonates. A case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a 19-day-old preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, and clindamycin is described. Implications for ...
Lejkowski Marisa - - 2003
Autoimmune neutropenia of infancy is a primary, usually self-limiting, antineutrophil autoimmune phenomenon seen in infancy and early childhood. These infants are at a higher risk of infection, and early detection, particularly with the availability of newer therapeutic options such as hematopoietic growth factors, can allow close follow-up and, if needed, ...
Bandyopadhyay Sarmistha - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have demonstrated that infants can acquire human papillomavirus (HPV) infection at birth from their mothers. The aim of the present investigation was to determine prevalence of HPV infection among pregnant women and evaluate the extent of perinatal transmission of HPVs to infants. METHODS: The study included 135 ...
Maayan-Metzger A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics of febrile full term infants during the first days of life, and to discover the rate of serious bacterial infections among low risk neonates with systemic fever. DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study of 122 cases and 122 controls in a single institution. RESULTS: Weight loss, ...
Mekmullica Jutarat - - 2003
To identify the risk factors for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection among infants in Bangkok, Thailand, a case-control study was conducted during 1997-1999. Blood samples were collected from 257 Thai infants aged 6 months to 2 years. Serum samples were assayed for specific EBV IgG antibodies based on a commercial enzyme-linked ...
Yasuda Ayako - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Preterm infants are at greater risk of symptomatic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection than term infants. Breast milk is the main source of perinatal CMV infections. This study evaluated the kinetics of CMV load in breast milk and the rate of postnatal CMV transmission via breast milk from mothers to their ...
Totet Anne - - 2003
This study describes the molecular typing of Pneumocystis jiroveci organisms from 5 nonpremature immunocompetent infants who developed a primary infection. Four P. jiroveci internal transcribed spacer (ITS) types were identified. All have been previously described in reports concerning immunosuppressed adults with pneumocystosis. Present data suggest that identical types can be ...
Ng P C - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: A prospective study to investigate the pattern of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses in preterm infants with systemic infection. METHODS: Very low birthweight infants in whom infection was suspected when they were > 72 hours of age were eligible. A full sepsis screen was performed in each episode. Key ...
Numazaki Kei - - 2003
The clinical characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis respiratory tract infections in Japanese neonates were investigated. Clinical, laboratory and microbiological characteristics of five infants with pneumonia due to C. trachomatis in early neonatal period were analyzed. Only C. trachomatis was identified in 4 infants. Both C. trachomatis and cytomegalovirus was identified in ...
Harrison Wendy A - - 2003
Handwashing and hand drying are key elements of infection control. Paper towels are generally accepted as the most hygienic means of drying hands and are often distributed from generic dispensers. Effective dispensing of towels is of importance economically and may influence infection control objectives if hands become contaminated during hand ...
D'Amico Christine J - - 2003
Premature infants are at higher risk of infection because of their immature physiological status as well as environmental factors. The 2 principle sources of newborn infection are the nursery environment and the mother. There is limited information available regarding appropriate cleaning of breast pump attachments to minimize the risk of ...
Usukura Yukihiro - - 2003
PURPOSE: A nationwide questionnaire survey was carried out in 77 major neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) facilities in Japan. The survey investigated severe, hospital acquired infections occurring in extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants at each institution. METHODS: The nationwide questionnaire survey involved 77 major NICU facilities and ELBW infants born ...
Kitajima Hiroyuki - - 2003
Reports of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and normal newborn nurseries in Japan were investigated, and various methods of preventing transmission were evaluated. In the late 1980s, MRSA which had spread in adult wards also invaded NICU. Very low birthweight or premature infants had ...
Rilling V - - 2003
The aim of this study was to evaluate a commercial Western blot IgG/IgM assay for use in the early serological diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. This assay compares the immunological profile of mother and infant and allows differentiation between passive transmitted maternal antibodies and newly synthesized antibodies of the infant within ...
Totet Anne - - 2003
The frequency of Pneumocystis jiroveci (human-derived Pneumocystis) in immunocompetent infants developing acute respiratory syndromes has recently been evaluated and has been shown to be close to 25%. Until now, there have been no data on the genomic characteristics of the fungus in these patients, while molecular typing of P. jiroveci ...
Brayfield Brad P - - 2003
The specific route and timing of human herpesvirus (HHV) 8 infection in regions where Kaposi sarcoma is endemic are not known. HHV-8 infection and any risk factors that may be associated with HHV-8, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection, were monitored during the 12-month postdelivery period for 416 ...
Chapman Rachel L - - 2003
Candida infections have become an increasingly frequent problem in neonatal intensive care units, particularly among extremely low birth weight infants. Transmission occurs both vertically and horizontally, with Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis as the predominant species. Multiple risk factors have been identified with prior antibiotic exposure, presence of a central ...
Mussi-Pinhata Marisa Márcia - - 2003
Maternal antibodies may protect the fetus and neonate against severe forms of CMV-caused disease, therefore this study investigated the efficiency of the placental transfer of naturally acquired, maternal total anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG and neutralizing antibodies at different gestational ages. The study was conducted on 182 healthy CMV-seropositive Brazilian mothers and ...
Casanova-Román M - - 2003
Infections by Leuconostoc species bacteria are uncommon, and usually affect patients with an underlying disease, or those fitted with a venous catheter or subjects previously treated with vancomycin. The most common clinical presentation is fever secondary to a central venous line infection. We report a case of Leuconostoc sp. bacteremia ...
Glavina-Durdov Merica - - 2003
In various stressful conditions, the thymus is subjected to incidental involution, mostly due to the thymocytolytic effect of secreted glucocorticosteroids. The aim of this study was to examine acute thymic involution in sick neonates and to compare the morphological grade with some clinical and laboratory parameters. The influence of the ...
Auriti C - - 2003
The clinical records a years cohort of 280 newborn infants consecutively hospitalized for 48 h or more in our neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) were reviewed. Information on the infants' conditions during the first 12h of life, and on the procedures used in the NICU, were collected. Statistical significance was tested ...
Ando Y - - 2003
Human T-lymphotropic virus Type-I (HTLV-I) infects children via mother's milk. Infection of Human T-lymphotropic virus Type-I (HTLV-I) was investigated by long-term follow-up surveys of modified milk-fed children. Our observations of modified milk-fed infants revealed that: 1 of 154 (0.6%) at year 1, 5 of 129 (3.9%) at 1.5 years, and ...
Melamed R - - 2003
We describe an outbreak of Acinetobacter baumannii in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and our investigation to determine the source and mode of transmission and identify the population at risk. A case (infected infant) was defined as a patient hospitalized in the NICU during the outbreak period, with clinical ...
Chapman Rachel L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Persistent bacteremia despite antibiotic therapy has been correlated with adverse outcomes, including focal suppurative complications and death. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS) are the most common cause of nosocomial infection in infants requiring neonatal intensive care and might yield more substantial pathology if infection were persistent. METHODS: To compare the severity ...
Nakai Hideo - - 2003
PURPOSE: We evaluate clinical characteristics of primary vesicoureteral reflux in infants in a multicenter study in Japan with special reference to the relation of renal parenchymal damage to urinary tract infection and gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Infants younger than 1 year old with primary vesicoureteral reflux were recruited from 14 ...
Noyola Daniel E - - 2003
The incidence of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in Mexico is unknown. We evaluated the presence of cytomegalovirus infection in 560 newborn infants at a public general hospital. There were five (0.89%) infected newborns. Infants with congenital infection were more likely to be born to primigravid mothers (P = 0.01) and were ...
Kurtz J - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is rare, but associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. After a baby, subsequently proven to have HSE, had initially been diagnosed as non-accidental injury (NAI), we reviewed the clinical features and radiology of infants with HSE recently diagnosed by our laboratory. METHODS: Screening ...
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