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Patel Shyama D SD *Department of Pediatrics/Newborn Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10025, - - 2014
Neonatal encephalopathy resulting from HI (hypoxia-ischaemia) continues to be a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in infants and children, affecting 1-2/1000 live term births and up to 60% of pre-term births. In order to understand the pathophysiology of this insult, as well as design therapeutic interventions, it is important ...
Shemie Sam D SD Canadian Blood Services and Division of Critical Care, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, 2300 Tupper Street room C-806, Montreal, QC, H3H 1P3, Canada, - - 2014
This report summarizes the results of the first phase in the development of international guidelines for death determination, focusing on the biology of death and the dying process, developed by an invitational forum of international content experts and representatives of a number of professional societies. Precise terminology was developed in ...
Avhad Rajendra R Assistant Professor, Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Government Dental College and Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, - - 2014
A cleft lip and palate consists of fissures of the upper lip and/or palate, and is the most commonly seen orofacial anomaly that involves the middle third of the face. Early treatment of patients with a cleft lip and palate is important because of esthetic, functional, and psychological concerns. Nasoalveolar ...
Zanelli S S Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Hypoxemic events are common in sick preterm and term infants and represent the most common cause of seizures in the newborn period. Neonatal seizures often lack clinical correlates and are only recognized by electroencephalogram (EEG). The mechanisms leading from a hypoxic/ischemic insult to acute seizures in neonates remain poorly understood. ...
Falkenstein-Hagander Kathy K Department of Pediatrics, Skåne University Hospital Malmö, Lund University, Sweden; Department of Anesthesiology, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, - - 2014
To determine the prevalence of various types of viruses in infants hospitalised due to respiratory distress, compare molecular diagnostic tests and evaluate symptom severity METHODS: All 136 nasopharyngeal aspirates from infants hospitalised for respiratory distress over a nine-month period were analysed for virus type by in-house respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) ...
Carcillo Joseph A JA Department of Pediatrics and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
This is a synopsis of the term newborn and infant portion of the 2007 document (Brierley et al., Crit Care Med 2009;37(2):666-88) which examined and graded new studies performed to test the utility and efficacy of the 2002 recommendations. This 2007 document examined and graded relevant new treatment and outcome ...
Nimbalkar Somashekhar Marutirao SM Professor, Department of Paediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College , Karamsad, Gujarat, India - - 2014
Tracheal Agenesis (TA) presents with respiratory distress at birth. Diagnosis requires recognition of clinical signs in newborns like failure of endotracheal intubation, respiratory distress with absent air entry over both side of chest and inaudible cry. We describe a TA Floyd Type I with a Tracheo-Oesophageal Fistula (TOF) without other ...
Richter Linda L Human Sciences Research Council, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South - - 2014
Throughout Africa, Peer Mentors who are women living with HIV (WLH) are supporting pregnant WLH at antenatal and primary healthcare clinics (McColl in BMJ 344:e1590, 2012). We evaluate a program using this intervention strategy at 1.5 months post-birth. In a cluster randomized controlled trial in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, eight clinics were ...
Zhou Wei-Qin WQ Department of Pediatrics, BaYi Children's Hospital Affiliated to the Clinical Medical College of the General Hospital of Beijing Military Region, Southern Medical University, Beijing, - - 2014
Information about clinical outcomes of very preterm (VPT) infants in tertiary neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting is scant in China. This study aimed to investigate the mortality and morbidity of VPT infants admitted to BaYi Children's Hospital, which serves as a NICU referral center for the city of Beijing, ...
Rotheram-Borus Mary Jane MJ Global Center for Children and Families, University of California, Los Angeles, California, United States of - - 2014
We evaluate the effect of clinic-based support by HIV-positive Peer Mentors, in addition to standard clinic care, on maternal and infant well-being among Women Living with HIV (WLH) from pregnancy through the infant's first year of life. In a cluster randomized controlled trial in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, eight clinics were ...
Tsai Ming-Horng MH Division of Neonatology and Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Yunlin, Taiwan ; College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan ; Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chiayi, - - 2014
Polymicrobial bloodstream infections (PBSIs) have been associated with complex underlying medical conditions and a high incidence of specific microorganisms in several settings, but the relevant data are scarce in neonates. Positive blood cultures from January 2004 to December 2011 in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Chang Gung Memorial ...
Sullivan Brynne A BA Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, - - 2014
To identify clinical conditions associated with a large increase (spike) in the heart rate characteristics index in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Retrospective medical record review within a day of all large heart rate characteristics index spikes (increase of ≥3 from the previous 5-day average) in VLBW infants at ...
Fernandes Ricardo M RM Department of Pediatrics, Santa Maria Hospital, Lisbon Academic Medical Centre, Portugal2Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, University of Lisbon, - - 2014
CLINICAL QUESTION Are glucocorticoids, alone or combined with bronchodilators, associated with reduced admission rates, length of stay, or improvements in clinical severity scores without increased adverse effects in infants and young children with acute viral bronchiolitis? BOTTOM LINE There is no consistent clinically relevant association of single therapy with systemic ...
Maastrup Ragnhild R Knowledge Centre for Breastfeeding Infants with Special Needs at Department of Neonatology, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark ; Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden ; Danish National Panel of Experts on Breastfeeding Infants with Special - - 2014
Evidence-based knowledge of how to guide the mothers of preterm infants in breastfeeding establishment is contradictive or sparse. The aim was to investigate the associations between pre-specified clinical practices for facilitating breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding at discharge as well as adequate duration thereof. A prospective survey based on questionnaires was ...
Ji Jun J State Key Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Institute of Industrial Process Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China ; Department of Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of - - 2014
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major source of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Since there is no specific diagnostic test or risk of progression model available for NEC, the diagnosis and outcome prediction of NEC is made on clinical grounds. The objective in this study was to develop and validate new ...
Yilmaz Osman O Department of Pediatric Cardiology, District Training and Research Hospital, Erzurum, 25070, - - 2014
Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) is rare in infants. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the most common cause of SVCS in children. Swelling in the face and neck are the most common clinical symptoms associated with this syndrome. However, these clinical findings are also observed in allergic diseases, which therefore often leads ...
Markham Kara B KB Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, - - 2014
To evaluate whether progestin prophylaxis influenced the odds of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth among pregnant women with a previous preterm birth. A retrospective cohort study was performed evaluating outcomes of pregnant women with one or more previous preterm births who received prenatal care in a single academic prematurity clinic. Care ...
Turner Claudia - - 2013
Each year an estimated four million neonates die, the majority in the first week of life. One of the major causes of death is sepsis. Proving the incidence and aetiology of neonatal sepsis is difficult, particularly in resource poor settings where the majority of the deaths occur. We conducted a ...
Haq Iram I Department of Paediatric Respiratory Medicine, Great North Children's Hospital, Queen Victoria Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom, NE1 4LP. Electronic address: - - 2013
High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) devices deliver an adjustable mixture of heated and humidified oxygen and air at a variable flow rate. Over recent years HFNC devices have become a frequently used method of non-invasive respiratory support in infants and preterm neonates that is generally popular amongst clinicians and nursing ...
McPherson Christopher C Department of Pharmacy, St. Louis Children's Hospital, 1 Children's Place, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the adverse consequences of untreated pain and stress on brain development in the preterm infant. Sucrose has widely been implemented as standard therapy for minor procedural pain. Anesthetics are commonly utilized in preterm infants during major surgery. Pharmacologic agents (benzodiazepines and opioids) have been ...
Heys Michelle M UCL Institute for Global Health, London, UK and Child Public Health Group, Imperial College River Island Academic Department, Paediatric Department, Northwick Park Hospital (NWLH NHS Trust), London, - - 2013
Aims:Accident and Emergency attendances continue to rise. Infants are disproportionately represented. This study examines the clinical reasons infants attend UK Accident and Emergency departments.Methods:A retrospective review of 6,667 infants aged less than one year attending Accident and Emergency at two district general hospitals in London from 1(st) April 2009 to ...
Ofek Shlomai N - - 2013
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major cause of mortality (25%) and morbidity including recurrent sepsis, dependence on parenteral nutrition, need for surgery, and survival with short bowel syndrome in preterm very low birth weight infants. Mortality (45-100%) and morbidity including the risk of long-term neurodevelopmental impairment are higher in extremely ...
Mugambi Mary N - - 2013
There is little or no information available on the impact of funding by the food industry on trial outcomes and methodological quality of synbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics research in infants. The objective of this study was to compare the methodological quality, outcomes of food industry sponsored trials versus non industry ...
Toso Paulina A - - 2013
to test the clinical utility of an early amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) to predict short-term neurological outcome in term newborns at risk of neurology injury. this was a prospective, descriptive study. The inclusion criteria were neonatal encephalopathy, neurologic disturbances, and severe respiratory distress syndrome. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, ...
Lee Ming-Luen - - 2013
Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a rare hematologic malignancy in children. Its presentations include anemia, thrombocytopenia, monocytosis, skin rash, marked hepatomegaly, and/or splenomegaly. Fever and respiratory involvement are common. Here, we report a case of a premature neonate with initial symptoms of respiratory distress. She gradually developed clinical manifestations of ...
Naicker Thirona - - 2013
We report two cases of complete non-mosaic trisomy 22 who were born within 15 months of each other in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. In an effort to consolidate diagnostic criteria to suspect trisomy 22 prior to chromosomal testing, we compare the clinical features of these infants with those of 23 ...
Garg Shalabh S Consultant Neonatologist, The James Cook University, Middlesbrough, United - - 2013
Despite surfactant and mechanical ventilation being the standard of care for preterm infants with respiratory failure, non-invasive respiratory support is increasingly being employed in neonatal units. The latter can be accomplished in a variety of ways but none of them have been proven so far to be superior to intubation ...
Sahni Rakesh - - 2013
This article highlights some of the important developmental characteristics that underpin common problems seen in moderate and late preterm infants. Preterm birth is associated with an increased prevalence of clinical problems caused by functional immaturities in a wide variety of organ systems, acquired problems, and problems associated with inadequate monitoring ...
Wallenstein Matthew B - - 2013
Moderate preterm infants remain at increased risk for adverse outcomes, including acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE). Evidence-based guidelines for management of hyperbilirubinemia in preterm infants less than 35 weeks' gestational age are not yet optimized. High concentrations of unconjugated bilirubin can cause permanent posticteric neurologic sequelae (kernicterus). Clinical manifestations of ABE in ...
Raju Tonse N K - - 2013
In spite of increased appreciation that all preterm infants and early term infants are at higher risk for mortality and morbidities compared with their term counterparts, there are many knowledge gaps affecting optimal clinical care for this vulnerable population. This article presents a research agenda focusing on the systems biology, ...
Silva Cicero T - - 2013
No study reported in the literature comprehensively compares findings on neonatal abdominal radiographs with sonography. To compare the findings on abdominal radiographs and sonograms in infants in intensive care, to better understand how the various intestinal gas patterns on radiographs relate to the spectrum of appearances on sonography and, second, ...
Carey Abigail S - - 2013
-Human genomes harbor copy number variants (CNVs), regions of DNA gains or losses. While pathogenic CNVs are associated with congenital heart disease (CHD), their impact on clinical outcomes is unknown. This study sought to determine whether pathogenic CNVs among infants with single ventricle (SV) physiology were associated with inferior neurocognitive ...
Cölgeçen Özel Emine E Department of Dermatology, Bozok University Faculty of Medicine, Yozgat, Turkey. - - 2013
Scabies is a common parasitic human infection in infants and children. However, diagnostic pitfalls are frequent in infants, in whom the clinical presentation is usually atypical and different from that in adults. In nodular scabies, lesions may be clinically or histologically misdiagnosed as Langerhans cell histiocytosis, insect bite reaction, non-Langerhans ...
Zaidi Anita K M AK Aga Khan University, Karachi, - - 2013
Newborns and young infants suffer high rates of infections in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Timely access to appropriate antibiotic therapy is essential for reducing mortality. In an effort to develop community case management guidelines for young infants, 0-59 days old, with clinically diagnosed severe infections, or with fast breathing, ...
Fike Candice D CD 1 Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, and Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, Tennessee, - - 2013
Abstract Infants with forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH) that persist or develop beyond the first week of life are an understudied group of patients with up to 40%-60% mortality. The clinical management of the progressive PH that develops in these infants is challenging because of the nonspecific signs and symptoms ...
Roberts C T - - 2013
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) has proven to be an effective mode of non-invasive respiratory support in preterm infants; however, many infants still require endotracheal ventilation, placing them at an increased risk of morbidities such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Several other modes of non-invasive respiratory support beyond NCPAP, including synchronised ...
Choudry Q - - 2013
The relationship between the presence and severity of sonographically diagnosed developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and the clinical abnormality of limitation of hip abduction (LHA) was investigated. A prospective, longitudinal, selective 'at risk' and neonatal instability hip ultrasound programme between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2005. 2876 neonates/infants ...
Basra M K A - - 2013
The Infants' Dermatitis Quality of Life Index (IDQoL) is a questionnaire completed by parents assessing the impact of atopic dermatitis on the Quality of Life (QoL) of infants aged from 0-3 years. The aim was to review all clinical and psychometric data on the use of IDQoL from its inception ...
Pampal Arzu - - 2013
Rectal duplication (RD) cysts are rare congenital anomalies that can be diagnosed with the presence of another opening in the perineum. They seldom accompany anorectal malformations (ARM). Two cases of RD accompanying ARM at opposite ends of the phenotypic spectrum, are described. A 3-month-old baby and a 2-year-old girl with ...
Khirani Sonia - - 2013
Noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is recognized as an effective treatment for severe airway obstruction in young children. The aim of the study was to compare a clinical and a physiological setting of noninvasive CPAP in infants with nocturnal alveolar hypoventilation due to severe upper airway obstruction (UAO) or ...
Lucas Ruth - - 2013
Breast milk intake is recommended for late preterm infants. Many mothers provide expressed breast milk during hospitalization and anticipate transitioning their late preterm infant to full feedings at-breast after discharge. However, some infants take months to transition to full feedings at-breast. This article describes the case of a mother and ...
Kotlow Lawrence A - - 2013
Successful breastfeeding is dependent upon an infant's ability to correctly latch onto a mother's breast. If an infant is born with oral soft tissue abnormalities such as tongue-tie or lip-tie, breastfeeding may become challenging or impossible. During the oral evaluation of an infant presenting with breastfeeding problems, one area that ...
Lingappan Krithika - - 2013
Neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Inflammation secondary to sepsis and NEC increases morbidity, especially those related to the lung, brain and eye. Therapeutic strategies that target inflammation and decrease the emergence of antibiotic resistance are urgently needed. Lactoferrin (Lf) is a multifunctional ...
Breslin Eamonn - - 2013
Pre-eclampsia is a placental, inflammatory disease modified by maternal anti-oxidant status to give a syndrome. In its most severe forms pre-eclampsia is followed by maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Bilirubin is a known antioxidant and as such is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Hence ...
Evers Kathinka - - 2013
Access to other minds once presupposed other individuals' expressions and narrations. Today, several methods have been developed which can measure brain states relevant for assessments of mental states without 1st person overt external behavior or speech. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and trace conditioning are used clinically to identify patterns of ...
Libraty Daniel H DH Division of Infectious Disease and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, - - 2013
Human breast milk is known to contain immunoprotective, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory agents. In a prospective clinical study of dengue virus infections during infancy, we examined the correlation between breastfeeding and the development of febrile illnesses in an infant population. We found that breastfeeding status and the frequency of breastfeeding during ...
Liu F - - 2013
Aim: This study examined clinical features and neuroimaging characteristics of severe brain damage in premature infants with postnatal infection. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of two preterm infants who developed extensive encephalomalacia secondary to postnatal infection. Results: Two premature boys experienced serious postnatal infection at about 3 weeks after ...
Jawdeh Elie G Abu - - 2013
Apnea of prematurity and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) are both common occurrences in preterm infants and widely perceived to be causally related. We seek in this review to provide a potential guideline for neonatal GER non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic therapy. Available physiologic data suggest that when there is a temporal relationship apnea ...
Pires Gabriel Natan - - 2013
Clinical aspects of the mother-infant relationship and related issues are well studied and very relevant to medical practice. Nevertheless, some approaches in this context cannot plausibly be investigated in humans due to their ethical implications and to the potential harm to the mother's and child's health. Studies on maternal behavior ...
Stone M L - - 2013
Objective:Earlier diagnosis and treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants, before clinical deterioration, might improve outcomes. A monitor that measures abnormal heart rate characteristics (HRC) of decreased variability and transient decelerations was developed as an early warning system for sepsis. As NEC shares pathophysiologic features with sepsis, we tested ...
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