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Khushf George - - 2010
Many accounts of the historical development of neurological criteria for determination of death insufficiently distinguish between two strands of interpretation advanced by advocates of a "whole-brain" criterion. One strand focuses on the brain as the organ of integration. Another provides a far more complex and nuanced account, both of death ...
Bernat James L - - 2010
The distinction between the "permanent" (will not reverse) and "irreversible" (cannot reverse) cessation of functions is critical to understand the meaning of a determination of death using circulatory-respiratory tests. Physicians determining death test only for the permanent cessation of circulation and respiration because they know that irreversible cessation follows rapidly ...
Shewmon D Alan - - 2010
In debates about criteria for human death, several camps have emerged, the main two focusing on either loss of the "organism as a whole" (the mainstream view) or loss of consciousness or "personhood." Controversies also rage over the proper definition of "irreversible" in criteria for death. The situation is reminiscent ...
Mejri Abdelwaheb - - 2010
Current recommendations suggest that routine screening for hypoglycemia should be performed in all term newborns with a birth weight (BW) below the 10th percentile. The impact of updated growth curves on the incidence of hypoglycemia in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborns has not been evaluated. To evaluate the occurrence and severity of ...
Ramara N S - - 2010
HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice at Mankweng clinic in the Limpopo province are experiencing specific problems with various feeding methods. This study was undertaken with the aim to explore and describe the socioeconomic and cultural experiences of HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice. ...
Bernat James L - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Death statutes permit physicians to declare death on the basis of irreversible cessation of circulatory-respiratory or brain functions. The growing practice of organ donation after circulatory determination of death now requires physicians to exercise greater specificity in circulatory-respiratory death determination. We studied circulatory-respiratory death determination to clarify its concept, ...
Tien Homer C N - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Combat fatalities are reported by the media as a frequent cause of military deaths, yet they may not reflect the most common and preventable ways that soldiers die. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the leading causes of death in the military and to identify modifiable ...
Boskabadi Hassan - - 2010
Late-onset sepsis is responsible for high morbidity and mortality in newborn infants in the world and in particular in developing countries. In this study, we evaluated whether clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters and measurements of serum interleukin-8 (IL-8) are able to discriminate between late neonatal sepsis and normal baby. This was ...
Antommaria Armand H Matheny - - 2010
Michael Potts, Paul A. Byrne, and David W. Evans are critical of donation after cardiac death (DCD). Contrary to the authors' assertion that the removal of vital organs is the proximate cause of death, the eventual fulfillment of the neurological criteria of death is solely dependant on the rate of ...
Vaudry Wendy - - 2010
Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is the most common congenital infection; however, the epidemiology in Canada has not been recently examined. The present prospective study pilots tools for a population-based study of cCMV infection in Canada by determining the maternal seroprevalence and risk factors, the clinical characteristics and the incidence of cCMV ...
Gracie Sara K - - 2010
Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for preterm birth include a personal or familial history of preterm delivery, ethnicity and low socioeconomic status yet the ability to predict preterm delivery before the onset of preterm labour evades clinical practice. Evidence suggests that genetics ...
Lizza John P - - 2009
This commentary challenges the conclusions reached by Franklin Miller and Robert Truog in their criticism of the President's Council's White Paper, "Controversies in the Determination of Death." I agree with much of Miller and Truog's criticism of the rationale offered by the President's Council for accepting neurological criteria for determining ...
Vess Matthew - - 2009
Do reminders of mortality increase or decrease perceptions of life's meaning? The authors propose that death-relevant thought has divergent effects on meaning perceptions depending on individuals' personal need for structure (PNS) or dispositional desire for structured knowledge. In prior research, high-PNS individuals primed with mortality-related stimuli were found to employ ...
Davies Mary-Ann - - 2009
Knowledge of the experience and outcomes of current paediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes in sub-Saharan Africa can inform new programmes in the region as well as enhance existing ones. This is urgently needed to facilitate the scale-up of treatment, which is needed to address the burden of paediatric HIV cases ...
Manoukian Anthony A - - 2009
We report a perinatal death due to medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, which was referred to the Coroner's Physician as sudden unexplained infant death. Detailed death investigation including the autopsy findings, and newborn biochemical and molecular studies revealed the cause and natural manner of death. This disorder affects fatty acid oxidation ...
Elder Dawn E - - 2009
This study examined risk factors for timing and cause of death for extremely preterm infants > or = 23 weeks and < 28 weeks. There were 479 liveborn infants and 98 deaths reviewed over a ten-year period. Thirty-two deaths (33%) occurred on the first day of life and 72 (75%) ...
Watanabe Shinya - - 2009
To obtain the data concerning death losses due to stillbirth, neonatal death and diseases in cloned cattle derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and their progeny produced by Japanese institutions, a nationwide survey was carried out in July-August, 2006. As a result, lifetime data concerning 482 SCNT cattle (97.5% ...
Kinnaert P - - 2009
This paper demonstrates that discussions about the diagnosis of death and the meaning of states of suspended animation existed long before the publication of the Harvard criteria in 1968. The surgeons who started retrieving kidneys from heart beating cadavers have been accused to redefine death in order to obtain high ...
Dunkel Curtis S - - 2009
Three studies were conducted examining the relationship between thoughts of defecation and thoughts of death. In Study 1 and Study 3 it was found that making thoughts of feces salient reduced the accessibility of death thoughts. In Study 2 it was found that making thoughts of death salient decreased the ...
Abel Ernest L - - 2009
The authors assessed the relationship of mortality salience, as represented by birthdays, on the day of death. Preliminary studies considered the role of possible artifacts such as seasonality of birth and death, and time units for evaluation. On the basis of terror management theory's concept of "mortality salience," the authors ...
Hall Gillian C - - 2009
Data from a cohort study were used to investigate death and cause of death (COD) recording on the THIN UK primary care database. Subjects from 118 practices had a body mass index recorded, 2002-2003 (index date), no recent pregnancy or emotional event, or cancer. Coded and free text entries were ...
Wypijewski JoAnn - - 2009
Forty years ago, when lots of Americans made things, more of them died in a year on the job than died in a year fighting in Vietnam. This never registered much in the national consciousness. Death in war seems so preventable; death on the job is "an accident." Now, the ...
Manninen Bertha Alvarez - - 2009
For many years now, bioethicists, physicians, and others in the medical field have disagreed concerning how to best define human death. Different theories range from the Harvard Criteria of Brain Death, which defines death as the cessation of all brain activity, to the Cognitive Criteria, which is based on the ...
Egonsson Dan - - 2009
The concept of irreversibility plays a central role in most discussions of how to understand and determine human death. This seems to relativize death, since the possibilities of reversal will always depend on circumstance. I discuss the conceptual problems created by this fact, arguing that their seriousness depends on whether ...
Machado Calixto - - 2009
The acceptance of brain death (BD) as death of the human being has been progressively accepted beginning in the early 1960s. The issue of irreversibility is directly related to the diagnosis of human death, and it is closely associated with the concept of potentiality, i.e., that some patients still have ...
Wu Anise M S - - 2009
Chinese people are consistently reported to be less likely to commit to posthumous organ donation than the Westerners. This study aims at investigating how death anxiety may hinder them from expressing their willingness to donate organs. Among 290 Hong Kong Chinese adults (age plus or minus 25 years), a higher ...
Kim Su Hyun - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to identify the course and the mechanisms of the experience of anger over a 4-year period after spousal death among older adults. METHOD: The study used a longitudinal prospective design with three-wave panel data (6, 18 and 48 months after spousal death), utilizing ...
Rooney Alejandro P - - 2008
The birth-and-death model of multigene family evolution describes patterns of gene origination, diversification and loss within multigene families. Since it was first developed in the 1990s, the model has been found to characterize a large number of eukaryotic multigene families. In this paper, we report for the first time a ...
Fritsche Immo - - 2008
Terror management research has shown that mortality salience (MS) leads to increased support and defense of cultural ingroups and their norms (i.e., worldview defense, WD). The authors investigated whether these effects can be understood as efforts to restore a generalized sense of control by strengthening one's social ingroup. In Studies ...
Davis George E - - 2008
In this study, we report that the gender ratio (GR) at death [where GR=(N(males)/N(males)+N(females))] of those born (and likely conceived) in solar cycle peaks (about a 3-year period occurring on average every approximately 11 years), is inversely related to mean male age at death; e.g., the higher the GR(at death) ...
Hartmann Henrik - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Natural and anthropogenic disturbances can act as stresses on tree vigour. According to Manion's conceptual model of tree disease, the initial vigour of trees decreases as a result of predisposing factors that render these trees more vulnerable to severe inciting stresses, stresses that can then cause final ...
Ragan Patricia - - 2008
During 2004 and 2005, Florida was struck by 8 hurricanes, resulting in 213 deaths. The Department of Health and Florida medical examiners monitor hurricane mortality surveillance. This study analyzed hurricane-related deaths reported by the Florida Medical Examiners Commission for 2004 to 2005. The objectives of this study were to (1) ...
Cassill Deby L - - 2008
Feigning death is a method of self-defense employed among a wide range of prey species when threatened by predator species. This paper reports on death-feigning behavior by the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, during intraspecific aggression among neighboring fire ant workers. Days-old workers responded to aggression by death feigning, weeks-old workers ...
Southall Pamela - - 2008
Previous published research suggests there are a diverse, yet relatively consistent, set of factors present in sudden, unexpected, and initially inexplicable deaths in police custody. This retrospective analysis examines police custodial deaths in Maryland, USA. Police custody death is operationalized to include deaths which occurred suddenly and unexpectedly during police/citizen ...
Kellehear Allan - - 2008
The research literature about 'brain death' is largely characterized by biomedical, bioethical and legal writing. This has led to overlooking wider but no less pertinent social, historical and cultural understandings about death. By ignoring the work of other social and clinical colleagues in the study of dying, the literature on ...
White, Thomas Charles Raymond
(c) 2007 Opulus Press
Hossain Mohammad Samir - - 2008
Death is the end of life. But Muslims believe death is an event between two lives, not an absolute cessation of life. Thus religiosity may influence Muslims differently about death. To explore the impact of religious perception, thus religiosity, a cross-sectional, descriptive, analytic and correlational study was conducted on 150 ...
Shinzeki Makoto - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), it is clinically important at the time of admission to predict the likelihood of early death. This investigation aimed to clarify the factors predicting early death in SAP. METHODS: Early death was defined as death within 10 days after disease onset. Prediction factors for ...
Fulginiti Laura C - - 2008
In the past 5 years, the mortality rate among undocumented workers in Arizona has increased steadily. In 1998-1999, the number of deaths among border crossers was 28. That number increased dramatically in 1999-2000 to 106 and has exceeded 200 in each of the past 2 years. In the past, many ...
Power Trinda L - - 2008
This research was undertaken to explore gender, religiosity, perceived time-left-to-live and the interactions between these variables as predictors of fear of death in 144 Atlantic Canadian students using the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS). Predictions about cause, age, marital status, and place of death were also derived from the ...
Bassett Jonathan F - - 2008
The present article examined differences in personifications of personal and typical death as a function of attitudes about death. Ninety-eight students enrolled in psychology classes were randomly assigned to personify death as a character in a movie depicting either their own deathbed scene or the deathbed scene of the typical ...
Beshai James A - - 2008
Cross-cultural comparisons of norms derived from research on Death Anxiety are valid as long as they provide existential validity. Existential validity is not empirically derived like construct validity. It is an understanding of being human unto death. It is the realization that death is imminent. It is the inner sense ...
Jackson Allison - - 2008
To assess the risk of using portable cribs and playpens as sleep surfaces for infants, data from playpen/portable crib deaths occurring between January 1, 1999, and February 4, 2004, that were reported to the Consumer Product Safety Commission were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-one playpen/portable crib deaths were identified. Two-thirds of the ...
Barthel Diana - - 2008
Antibacterial agents are used in malaria therapy due to their effect on two prokaryote organelles, the mitochondrion and the apicoplast. We demonstrate here that the ribosome-blocking antibiotics telithromycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin, but not linezolid, inhibit the growth of Plasmodium falciparum. Both drugs induce delayed death in the parasite, suggesting that their ...
Shah Syed Ghulam Sarwar - - 2007
The objectives of this study were to examine the pattern and magnitude of deaths in road traffic crashes (RTCs) in Sindh province of Pakistan. This cross-sectional study used data obtained from government documents and content analysis of daily newspapers' reports on incidents of deaths in RTCs. Results showed that the ...
Lester David - - 2007
In a sample of 87 undergraduates (61 women and 26 men; M(age)= 21.2 yr., SD= 3.4), scores on the death anxiety scales by Templer and by Abdel-Khalek were more strongly associated with these college students' fear of death for one's own death than for the death of others.
Istre Gregory R - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To explore the epidemiology of pedestrian deaths in Dallas County, Texas, and to compare factors associated with pedestrian deaths on expressways versus those that occurred on other roadways. METHODS: We studied all pedestrian deaths among persons 15 years of age or older in Dallas County, Texas, from 1997 to ...
Kidwell Susan M - - 2007
Mismatches between the composition of a time-averaged death assemblage (dead remains sieved from the upper mixed-zone of the sedimentary column) and the local living community are typically attributed to natural postmortem processes. However, statistical analysis of 73 molluscan data sets from estuaries and lagoons reveals significantly poorer average "live-dead agreement" ...
Appelbaum Paul S - - 2007
This column examines a recent U.S. Supreme Court decision in Panetti v. Quarterman, which embraced a broader view of what makes death row prisoners incompetent to be executed. Although the defendant understood that he was to be executed and the state's purported reason for seeking his death--two criteria suggested by ...
Chalif David J - - 2007
Pablo Picasso created the posthumous memorial painting, The Death of Casagemas, in 1901 in Paris. The Catalan artist, Carles Casagemas, was a constant companion of Picasso during his formative years in bohemian and "modernista" Barcelona and accompanied Picasso on his seminal first trip to Paris at the turn-of-the-century. Casagemas' suicide, ...
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