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Results 401 - 450 of 1183
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Courtright Paul - - 2002
We investigated the relationship between abnormal vitamin A cytology and mortality in infants less than 9 months of age with measles. In a 12-month period, 116 children of this age with measles consecutively admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) in Blantyre, Malawi were enrolled in the study. All guardians ...
Innes A Micheil - - 2002
The cases of four newborn infants with congenital rickets are reported. All infants were native Canadian: three were Cree and one was Inuit. One had a narrow chest and pulmonary hypoplasia, two had clinical and radiological signs of rickets with craniotabes, thickened wrists, and prominent costochondral junctions, and one had ...
Batourina Ekatherina - - 2002
Almost 1% of human infants are born with urogenital abnormalities, many of which are linked to irregular connections between the distal ureters and the bladder. During development, ureters migrate by an unknown mechanism from their initial integration site in the Wolffian ducts up to the base of the bladder in ...
Wissing S - - 2002
The aim of this study was the in vitro evaluation of the efficacy of two different carrier systems for the molecular sunscreen benzophenone-3. One carrier system was a conventional o/w emulsion, the other consisted of highly crystalline lipid nanoparticles (CLN). It was observed that CLN act as physical sunscreens themselves ...
Kumwenda Newton - - 2002
Vitamin A is essential for immunity and growth. A controlled clinical that involved 697 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women was conducted to determine whether vitamin A prevents anemia, low birth weight, growth failure, HIV transmission, and mortality. Women received daily doses of iron and folate, either alone or combined ...
McNulty Helene - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; EC 1.7.99.5) supplies the folate needed for the metabolism of homocysteine. A reduction in MTHFR activity, as occurs in the homozygous state for the 677C-->T (so-called thermolabile) enzyme variant (TT genotype), is associated with an increase in plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). OBJECTIVE: In vitro studies suggest ...
Huerta Sergio - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) has been advocated for the treatment of morbid obesity. This procedure has the theoretical advantage that patients retain normal eating capacity and lose weight irrespective of their eating habits. However, vitamin deficiencies may develop because BPD causes malabsorption. OBJECTIVE: This report describes a 40-y-old mother and ...
Adkins Yuriko - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: The mechanisms of vitamin B(12) absorption in infants are unknown. We investigated whether haptocorrin (HC), a vitamin B(12) -binding protein in human milk, facilitates vitamin B(12) absorption during the neonatal period or if it occurs by a process similar to that in adults involving another vitamin B(12) -binding protein, ...
E Xueping - - 2002
Cellular retinol-binding protein II (CRBP II) is a member of the cellular retinol-binding protein family, which is expressed primarily in the small intestine. To investigate the physiological role of CRBP II, the gene encoding CRBP II was inactivated. The saturable component of intestinal retinol uptake is impaired in CRBP II(-/-) ...
Kimbrough C - - 2002
PYCNOGENOL is an antioxidant phytochemical shown to have antiinflammatory activity in both the in vitro and in vivo models. This study compared the effects of chewing gums with and without PYCNOGENOL on gingival bleeding and plaque formation in 40 human subjects. In this double-blind study, subjects were assigned randomly to ...
Pfeiffer Jens - - 2002
We show here that Mg(2+) acquisition by CorA is essential for Helicobacter pylori in vitro, as corA mutants did not grow in media without Mg(2+) supplementation. Complementation analysis performed with an Escherichia coli corA mutant revealed that H. pylori CorA transports nickel and cobalt in addition to Mg(2+). However, Mg(2+) ...
Nolan Karen - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To assess the energy and nutrient intakes of healthy infants from low-income families and to compare intakes with current recommendations. DESIGN: We interviewed mother-infant pairs longitudinally when the infants were 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months old. Food intake data were obtained by 24-hour dietary recalls. Selected ...
Maiyegun Sitratallah Olawunmi - - 2002
We report a full-term baby boy who presented soon after birth with severe congenital rickets. Maternal and neonatal vitamin D levels were very low and the infant responded well to oral vitamin D. Transient secondary hyperparathyroidism normalised on treatment. The mother's vitamin D deficiency was attributed to the region's cultural ...
Ball P - - 2002
OBJECTIVE:: To ascertain (1) whether the taste characteristics of a conventionally-salted (150 mM NaCl) soup can be reproduced in soups of substantially lower NaCl level with the help of added glutamate, and (2) whether calcium diglutamate (CDG) is equivalent to monosodium glutamate (MSG) in its effect on the taste of ...
Baydas Giyasettin - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Lipid peroxidation plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of many neonatal complications. Preterm babies are especially predisposed to lung diseases and retinopathy, probably due to a deficiency in their antioxidant systems. Vitamins E, A, and C are part of the natural antioxidant defense systems. We aimed to determine ...
Schmidt M K - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether supplementation with vitamin A together with iron of Indonesian pregnant women decreases morbidity and improves growth of their infants during the first year of life. DESIGN: Women from a rural area in West Java, Indonesia, were randomly assigned on an individual basis to double-blind supplementation once ...
Abrams Steven A - - 2002
Nutritional rickets, an ancient disease that was thought to have been cured in the early part of the 20th century, has made an unexpected comeback in recent years throughout the world. Although the frequency of its occurrence is poorly documented, increasing case reports of rickets are apparently related to low ...
Bolisetty Srinivas - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are at increased risk of oxidative stress and free-radical mediated diseases partly related to deficient antioxidant state. The purpose of this study was to investigate if maternal supplementation of antioxidant vitamins prior to delivery would reduce the oxidative stress in the mothers and their infants. STUDY DESIGN: ...
Bahl R - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin A supplementation to mothers in the postpartum period and to their infants at routine immunization contacts is being considered to reduce vitamin A deficiency in infancy. This study was conducted to determine the impact of maternal and infant vitamin A supplementation on antibody response to oral polio vaccine ...
Crockett R J - - 2002
Aqua Reslin and Biomist 30:30 technical permethrin and piperonyl butoxide were applied via ground ultra-low volume at a rate of 237 ml/min and 0.00196 kg active ingredient/ha against wild-caught adult Anopheles quadrimaculatus. The 2 formulations did not differ significantly at 31 m from the spray path (P < or = ...
Odendaal H J HJ Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg Hospital, Medical Research Council Perinatal Mortality Research Unit, Tygerberg, W - - 2002
To assess the efficacy of treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) using metronidazole to reduce preterm labour in primigravidae and multigravidae with previous midtrimester abortion or preterm labour. Randomised controlled trial. Tertiary academic hospital. Two different groups of patients were screened for BV at the first antenatal visit, namely primigravidae and ...
Shaw Gary M - - 2002
Women who consume folic acid in early pregnancy reduced their risks for delivering offspring with neural tube defects (NTDs). The underlying process by which folic acid facilitated this risk reduction is unknown. Investigating genetic variation that influences cellular absorption, transport, and metabolism of folate will help fill this data gap. ...
Hoff David S - - 2002
Oxytocin has been used for several decades in close proximity to newborns, yet no published information is available regarding complications associated with its accidental administration to a newborn. We describe a case where oxytocin instead of vitamin K was accidentally administered intramuscularly to a premature infant shortly after birth. The ...
Chang Sue-Joan - - 2002
The vitamin B6 nutritue of breast-fed infants was evaluated by vitamin B6 intake, plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) concentration, and growth patterns during the infants' first 6 mo of age. Vitamin B6 intakes of 47 healthy, term infants were significantly correlated with four levels of maternal vitamin B6 supplements: 2.5, 4.0, ...
Picaud J C - - 2002
AIM: In adults, whole-body mineralization assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry can be affected by the densitometer and/or the software used. As there are no published data on neonates, the aim of this study was to evaluate the magnitude of such effects in growing preterm infants. METHODS: We analysed the absorptiometry ...
Stoltzfus Rebecca J - - 2002
From the evidence at hand, interventions to reduce vitamin A deficiency in the breastfeeding mother and baby are likely to confer several health benefits. These include reduced puerperal morbidity, night blindness, and mortality in the mother, and reduced morbidity and mortality in the baby beginning around 6 months of age. ...
Sun Wu - - 2002
In this paper, the relationship among land productivity, population pressure and the fluctuation mechanism of ecotone is analyzed, taking counties and banners of southeast Inner Mongolia plateau as an example, which is the most fragile part in the farming and husbandry interleaving belt of north China due to its severe ...
Darlow B A - - 2002
Vitamin A is necessary for normal lung growth and the ongoing integrity of respiratory tract epithelial cells. Preterm infants have low vitamin A status at birth and this has been associated with increased risk of developing chronic lung disease. Several studies have been undertaken to assess whether vitamin A supplementation ...
Wu S C - - 2001
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted with the following aims: (1) to construct a methodology by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to measure vitamin E levels in our neonatal units; (2) to establish a reference range of serum vitamin E levels in fullterm neonates and their mothers; and (3) to compare these ...
Kumar D - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Newborn infants are vitamin K deficient. Vitamin K status in full-term infants after intramuscular vitamin K supplementation at birth has been described. Similar information in growing premature infants has not been reported. The objective of this study was to assess vitamin K status in premature infants by measuring plasma ...
Schmidt M K - - 2001
Many Indonesian infants have an inadequate nutritional status, which may be due in part to inadequate maternal nutrition during pregnancy. This study was designed to investigate whether infant nutritional status could be improved by maternal vitamin A and Fe supplementation during gestation. Mothers of these infants from five villages had ...
Wu M - - 2001
AIM: To investigate the role of leukocyte phospholipase D (PLD) in systemic inflammatory response induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and the effects of methylprednisolone and aprotinin on leukocyte PLD activity. METHODS: Forty-two patients who received CPB open heart surgery were divided into 3 groups: methylprednisolone group, aprotinin group, and control ...
Semba R D - - 2001
Vitamin A deficiency is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from diarrheal disease, measles, and malaria. It has been proposed that vitamin A supplementation could be linked with childhood immunization programs to improve child health. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the impact of linking vitamin ...
Papaconstantinou A D - - 2001
Bisphenol A (BPA) exhibits many estrogen-like effects in the rodent uterus, but not all of these can be attenuated by antiestrogens. This suggests the involvement of alternate pathways of BPA action that do not involve the estrogen receptor (ER). An examination of the in vivo effects of BPA on uterine ...
Weber M A - - 2001
Two juvenile male Speke's gazelles (Gazella spekei) at the St. Louis Zoo showed poor body condition, slowed growth, hunched stance, rough hair coat, and profound hypophosphatemia. The first gazelle was treated with parenteral phosphorous supplements but continued to deteriorate clinically and was euthanatized. The second gazelle had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ...
Bjørke Monsen A L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Cobalamin deficiency accompanied by bone marrow dysfunction and impaired central nervous system development has been reported in infants who were born to mothers with low cobalamin intake. We investigated the relation between cobalamin status in newborns and in their healthy mothers who consumed an omnivorous diet. METHODS: Serum cobalamin ...
Hu Z - - 2001
Levels of three endogenous free polyamines (PAs), Put, Spd and Spm, were detected during organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis (SE) of Lycium barabrum (L.) calli. The predominant forms of PAs in organogenesis and SE were found to be Put and Spd, respectively. In both developmental pathways, the changes of Put content ...
Kafwembe E M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia in breastfeeding mothers. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SUBJECTS: Breastfeeding mothers bringing their children to under five clinic. SETTING: A shanty compound in the outskirts of Ndola city, Zambia, Central Africa. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Concentrations of vitamin ...
Sussmane J B - - 2001
The plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) plays a major role in transcapillary fluid balance. There is no information on plasma COP of healthy infants beyond the first post-natal week. The normal COP in healthy adult subjects (25 mmHg) is currently also applied as a reference value for healthy infants. This ...
Wiadrowski T P - - 2001
A female infant was delivered at term with complications of severe meconium aspiration and birth asphyxia. Surface cooling was performed in the first 24 hours as part of the management of her birth asphyxia. Woody erythema was noted at 24 hours, followed by the formation of red-purple nodules on the ...
Greer F R - - 2001
Fat-soluble vitamin requirements for the enterally fed premature infant are an important concern, both before and after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. Because preterm infants fed unsupplemented human milk receive deficient quantities of these vitamins (A, D, E, and K), supplements are very important for this population. Vitamin ...
Ozer E A - - 2001
Involuntary movements may be a symptom in most infants who present with neurologic syndrome of infantile cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency. In this report, two infants with cobalamin deficiency are presented. These patients also developed a striking movement disorder that appeared a few days after treatment with intramuscular cobalamin. The movement ...
Melikian G - - 2001
Although growth failure is common during pediatric infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and associated with increased mortality, the relation of specific nutrition factors with growth and mortality has not been well characterized. A longitudinal study was conducted with 194 HIV-infected infants in Kampala, Uganda. Plasma vitamin A, carotenoids (alpha-carotene, ...
Pattaragarn A - - 2001
A 3-month-old premature infant presented with a "soft skull." Clinical and radiologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of rickets. Biochemistry revealed normal serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and undetectable urine phosphate. These findings combined with a history of 5-6 weeks' treatment with high-dose aluminum-rich antacid established the diagnosis of antacid-induced rickets. Discontinuation ...
Mukamel M N - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The modest clothing that Orthodox Jewish women wear exposes very little of their skin to sunlight. Under these conditions they may develop vitamin D deficiency, even in sunny Israel. OBJECTIVES: To determine and compare the vitamin D nutritional status in Jewish orthodox mothers to that of non-orthodox mothers who ...
Hasan H A - - 2001
The research is conducted on the effect of pencycuron and pencycuron-c on cotton seed mycoflora, aflatoxin production and viability. At 8% seed moisture content (mc), pencycuron and pencycuron-c promoted Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, and Penicillium corylophilum growth count at 1 g/kg, but exerted inhibitory effect at 3 and 5 g/kg. ...
Filteau S M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Vitamin A is important for protection against diarrhea, and supplements may benefit gut function of infants of HIV-infected mothers. METHODS: We studied 238 infants of HIV-infected South African women participating in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A during pregnancy (1.5 mg retinyl palmitate and 30 mg beta-carotene ...
Greer F R - - 2001
Table 2 shows that human milk will not meet the DRI for all vitamins in breastfeeding infants. The most glaring discrepancy between intake and the RDA is for vitamin D, although, as discussed, infants may synthesize this from sunlight exposure. Vitamin K must be given in the newborn period. Deficiencies ...
Kraus D M - - 2001
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness and infant acceptance of drug delivery of the Rx medibottle with the standard oral syringe. DESIGN: Prospective open-label, randomized, crossover clinical study. SETTING: General pediatric outpatient clinic at an urban university. SUBJECTS: Thirty healthy, bottle-fed infants, aged 2-14 months, receiving routine vaccinations. INTERVENTION: Each ...
Tran C - - 2001
UVB irradiation depletes all-trans-retinol (ROL) and all-trans-retinyl esters (RE) from the hairless mouse epidermis. Prevention of this may be of relevance in counter-acting the long-term side effects of UVB exposure. We studied the effects of a topical treatment with natural retinoids before and after UVB exposure on three parameters involved ...
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