Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1187
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Obeid Rima - - 2005
Studies linking hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCY) and B-vitamin deficiency to some health aspects in children have been accumulating. Low B-vitamin status inearly life, even as early as the time of conception, may endanger the potential for new life and may negatively influence the health of the offspring. Early abortion, pregnancy complications and ...
Hollis Bruce W - - 2004
Scientific data pertaining to vitamin D supplementation during lactation are scarce. The daily recommended intake for vitamin D during lactation has been arbitrarily set at 400 IU/d (10 microg/d). This recommendation is irrelevant with respect to maintaining the nutritional vitamin D status of mothers and nursing infants, especially among darkly ...
Pettifor John M - - 2004
Nutritional rickets remains a public health problem in many countries, despite dramatic declines in the prevalence of the condition in many developed countries since the discoveries of vitamin D and the role of ultraviolet light in prevention. The disease continues to be problematic among infants in many communities, especially among ...
Najada Abdelhamid S - - 2004
This case control study was conducted to determine the frequency of nutritional rickets among hospitalized infants and to assess their relation to respiratory diseases. All infants between the age of 3 months and 2 years admitted to the pediatric ward of Queen Alia Military Hospital during the period February-October 2001 ...
Pawley Nicola - - 2004
Vitamin D is essential for the health of pregnant women and their infants. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency during pregnancy are reflected in lower maternal weight gain and biochemical evidence of disturbed skeletal homeostasis in the infant, with, in extreme situations, reduced bone mineralization, radiologically evident rickets, and fractures. Populations ...
Turgut M - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Newborns, particularly preterm infants, have limited antioxidant protective capacity. The organism's defence system against reactive oxygen species including vitamins A, E and C, trace element selenium (Se) and enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) are essential components of the antioxidant system against the ...
Lucas Anne D - - 2004
After letters containing Bacillus anthracis spores entered the U.S. mail in 2001, a problem emerged regarding how to decontaminate the letters, packages, and personal items in offices that received these letters. The effects of three sterilization methods (i.e. ethylene oxide gas [EO], electron beam [e-beam] radiation, and gamma radiation) were ...
Schell Lawrence M - - 2004
Data from a study of mother-infant pairs of low socioeconomic status living in Albany County, NY, were analyzed to determine the influence of diet and nutrition on the blood lead level of infants during the first year of life. Children's diets were assessed at 3-month intervals using a 24-h diet ...
Danielsson N - - 2004
BACKGROUND: In many developing countries vitamin K prophylaxis is not routinely administered at birth. There are insufficient data to assess the cost effectiveness of its implementation in such countries. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the burden of intracranial haemorrhage caused by late onset vitamin K deficiency bleeding in Hanoi, Vietnam. METHODS: Cases ...
Thomson Katherine - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the postnatal vitamin D status and bone health of women identified as vitamin D-deficient in pregnancy, and of their infants. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective audit conducted between 27 August and 5 November 2003. The study included women delivering between August and October 2002 at the Royal Women's ...
Solanki S K - - 2004
Direct observations of sunspot numbers are available for the past four centuries, but longer time series are required, for example, for the identification of a possible solar influence on climate and for testing models of the solar dynamo. Here we report a reconstruction of the sunspot number covering the past ...
Konrad Carsten - - 2004
Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is a probable risk factor for atherosclerotic diseases and stroke. Recently, associations of elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations in the acute phase and of MTHFR 677 TT genotype with spontaneous cervical artery dissections (sCAD) have been reported. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in the ...
Demirören Kaan - - 2004
This study presents clinical and laboratory findings and outcome of infants with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) due to vitamin K deficiency after the newborn period, and evaluates vitamin K prophylaxis. The hospital records of 19 infants with a diagnosis of ICH due to vitamin K deficiency after the newborn period, seen ...
Lee B E - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: It has been known that maternal oxidative stress during pregnancy plays an important role in fetal growth. However, the association between antioxidant vitamin levels and birth outcomes is not conclusive. We investigated the relationship between maternal serum levels of vitamins C and E during the second trimester and birth ...
Baan Robert A - - 2004
Man-made vitreous (glass-like) fibres are non-crystalline, fibrous inorganic substances (silicates) made primarily from rock, slag, glass or other processed minerals. These materials, also called man-made mineral fibres, include glass fibres (used in glass wool and continuous glass filament), rock or stone wool, slag wool and refractory ceramic fibres. They are ...
Ettyang Grace - - 2004
Vitamin A deficiency remains a significant health risk in developing countries, affecting infants and children in particular. To counter child malnutrition, mothers are encouraged to breastfeed to ensure that their children receive adequate macro- and micronutrients, including vitamin A. However, this assumes that the mother has sufficient vitamin A intake ...
Thorsdottir Inga - - 2004
This 1998 study investigated the association between intake of fish and fish oil during pregnancy and full-term infants' size at birth in an Icelandic fishing community. Healthy women aged 20-40 years of normal weight before pregnancy (body mass index: 19.5-25.5 kg/m(2)) and at 38-43 weeks of gestation were selected randomly. ...
Bezares-Cruz Juan - - 2004
Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) is a widely used flame retardant, yet information regarding its environmental transformation rates and pathways are largely unknown. Because photochemical transformation is often suggested as a potentially important fate process for BDE209, the reaction rate and products of the solar degradation under favorable solvent conditions were determined ...
Nako Yasushi - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Most premature infant formulas marketed in Japan have high vitamin D content. Potential for vitamin D intoxication was assessed in premature infants with prolonged feeding of such a premature formula vitamin D content, 2700 IU/L. METHODS: Serum vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus, and urinary calcium, were measured in 12 ...
Bartholome Anne L - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Supplementation of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with a mixture of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) enhances intestinal adaptation in the adult rodent model. However, the ability and timing of SCFA to augment adaptation in the neonatal intestine is unknown. Furthermore, the specific SCFA inducing the intestinotrophic effects and underlying regulatory ...
Mentro Anne M - - 2004
Vitamin A is a crucial antioxidant for preterm infants because it protects the lungs from oxidative damage induced by the administration of supplemental oxygen. Although all preterm infants are born with smaller vitamin A stores than full-term infants, the store of vitamin A in preterm infants at risk for bronchopulmonary ...
Zittermann Armin - - 2004
The cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays a pivotal regulatory role in tolerizing exogenous antigens. Experimental data indicate that low cellular availability of the vitamin D hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] results in a down-regulation of IL-10 concentrations. The tissue production of an adequate amount of 1,25(OH)2D depends on a high circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin ...
Collier Sharon - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in the field of pediatric nutrition continue to help the pediatric office practitioner provide excellent clinical care to their patients. In 2003, several important papers were published in the field of clinical nutrition that are reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: New recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics ...
Coles C L - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of and evaluate risk factors for subclinical vitamin A deficiency in Arab-Bedouin children at age 18 months, followed from birth. DESIGN: Community-based, prospective, cohort study conducted in Rahat, a large Arab-Bedouin township, located near the city of Beer Sheva in the ...
Aly Hany - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Osteopenia of prematurity is a known source for morbidity in preterm infants. Premature infants have shown favorable outcomes in response to massage and physical activity. Whether such intervention can stimulate bone formation or decrease bone resorption is yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that massage combined ...
Riva Silvia - - 2004
A male newborn infant was recognized having Fanconi-Bickel syndrome (FBS) in the neonatal period. The presenting clinical findings were hyperglycemia and polyuria detected during an episode of acute enteritis. Physical examination was normal, biochemical analyses were suggestive of FBS: glycosuria, proteinuria, phosphaturia, generalized aminoaciduria, and increased levels of urinary beta ...
Swartz Angela M - - 2004
Rates of conversion of 1,3-quinone methides into the corresponding 1,2-quinone methide tautomers, formed upon laser-flash excitation of vitamins K(1) and K(2) in CH(3)CN solutions, were determined in the presence of hydroxylic solvents (ROH; R = H, alkyl). In all cases, the tautomerization process is accelerated in the presence of ROH, ...
Porcelli Peter J - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; birth weight, <1,500 g) infants receive preterm infant formulas and parenteral multivitamin preparations that provide more riboflavin (vitamin B2) than does human milk and more than that recommended by the American Society of Clinical Nutrition. VLBW infants who are not breast-fed may have plasma riboflavin concentrations up ...
Choulika Sophie - - 2004
The objective of this cohort study of a consecutive sample of infants exposed during pregnancy to anticonvulsant drugs was to determine if the mother received late pregnancy prophylaxis with vitamin K, and if any infants had signs of hemorrhagic disease. The medical records of 204 neonates exposed to anticonvulsant drugs ...
Weiss Rachel - - 2004
The authors present a case of severe megaloblastic anemia and neurologic damage due to vitamin B12 deficiency in a 6-month-old infant. The cause of the vitamin deficiency was a maternal dietary deficiency because of a strict vegetarian diet and prolonged breast-feeding. The importance of early recognition of significant maternal vitamin ...
Greer F R - - 2004
The breastfed infant has limited sources of vitamin K, as it is transmitted poorly across the placenta and is present in very low concentrations in human milk. The author of this paper reports a concentration of vitamin K in human milk (0.517 +/- 1.521 microg/dl) that is about twice the ...
McMillan Douglas D - - 2004
To determine the incidence of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDNB) in Canada and its relationship to the administration of vitamin K(1) (hereafter referred to as vitamin K) following birth. The Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program sent monthly surveys to over 2100 Canadian paediatricians requesting identification of infants with defined criteria ...
Solas Caroline - - 2004
To evaluate the interindividual variability in the plasma concentrations of lopinavir in the context of routine monitoring with or without treatment with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and to assess the interaction between the coformulation of lopinavir/ritonavir and efavirenz or nevirapine. Plasma trough and peak concentrations (C(trough), C(max)) of lopinavir ...
Cox Daniel J - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at high risk for driving accidents. One dose of methylphenidate (MPH) improves simulator driving performances of ADHD-diagnosed adolescents at 1.5 hours post-dose. However, little is known about the effects of different MPH delivery profiles on driving performance throughout the day. METHOD: This randomized, ...
Ancheta P B - - 2004
The negative effects of nematodes in small ruminants can be reduced by use of dewormers but their effectiveness is increasingly limited by the emergence of anthelmintic resistance. The efficacy of benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics in the Philippines was estimated by an in vitro larval development assay using worm eggs recovered from ...
El May Michèle V - - 2004
Indoor air radon concentrations are still unknown in Tunisia. For the first time, they have been determined in several regions of the country using open alpha track dosimeters containing LR-115 film. Measurements were taken in 69 dwellings located around greater Tunis during 1 y, changing dosimeters every 2 mo. In ...
Schmidt Marjanka K - - 2004
Maternal nutrition is important for fetal development, but its impact on the functional outcome of infants is still unclear. The present study investigated the effects of vitamin A and Fe supplementation during gestation on infant mental and psychomotor development. Mothers of infants from five villages in Indonesia were randomly assigned ...
Ezgu Fatih Suheyl - - 2004
Bisphosphonates are used for the treatment of childhood hypercalcaemia, especially that due to malignancies. Here we report the use of intravenous pamidronate for the treatment of hypercalcaemia due to vitamin D intoxication in a 3-month-old infant. Serum calcium levels were normalised without complications. pamidronate may be used in hypercalcaemia due ...
Tipparaju Srinivas M - - 2004
We investigated differences in L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) between infant (INF, 1-12 mo old), young adult (YAD, 14-18 yr old), and older adult (AD) myocytes from biopsies of right atrial appendages. Basal ICa was smaller in INF myocytes (1.2 +/- 0.1 pA/pF, n = 29, 6 +/- 1 mo old, ...
Frank Adrian - - 2004
A wasting, debilitating disease with uncertain aetiology affecting moose (Alces alces americana) in Eastern North America has been reported repeatedly ever since the 1910s. Despite the intensive studies during 1930-1960s the cause of the sickness could not be established. In the 1960s a parasitic nematode (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) was reported as ...
Mentro, Anne M
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease of prematurity affecting infants born at low gestational ages. The exact pathophysiology of BPD is unknown, but inflammation and oxidative stress immediately after birth are thought to be contributing factors. Vitamin A (retinol) is a potent antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties. Although previous ...
Tazawa Kohei - - 2004
In order to prove osteocytic osteolysis in vivo, human parathyroid hormone (hPTH (1-34), 749 ng/h), or only solvent of the same volume, was continuously administered to 8-month-old rats by an infusion pump for 4 weeks, and then structural changes in osteocytes in the cortical bones of the tibiae were analyzed ...
Pfeiffer Susan - - 2004
The skeletal remains of an infant from a southwest South African rock shelter at Byneskranskop show pervasive abnormalities that are consistent with the effects of hypertrophic (hyperplastic) rickets. Diagnostic features include beading of the costochondral junctions of the ribs, flaring and tilting of the metaphyses, and cupping of the distal ...
Spence Jean T - - 2004
Reports of vitamin D-deficiency rickets and its associated morbidity continue among inadequately supplemented, dark-skinned breastfed infants. Despite the new vitamin D dietary guidelines, there remain significant numbers of unsupplemented breastfed infants. Here we report a case of subclinical vitamin D-deficiency rickets. This patient had biochemical and radiographic but not clinical ...
Sillén Ulla - - 2004
The purpose with the present review was to describe what could be considered as normal urodynamic findings in neonates and infants. During the first months of life, urodynamics were characterised by small bladder capacity and high voiding pressure levels, the latter especially marked in male infants. Also dyscoordination at voiding ...
Clemetson C A B - - 2004
The findings of subdural hematoma and retinal hemorrhages in infants, without any documented history of major trauma, do not always indicate child abuse. A combination of ascorbate depletion and the injection of foreign proteins can cause a very high blood histamine level, leading to capillary fragility and venular bleeding. This ...
Lin Kae-Long - - 2003
This study investigates the effects of the slag composition on the hydraulic activity in slag blended cement pastes that incorporate synthetic slag prepared by melting CaO-modified municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash. Two types of composition-modified slag were prepared for this study. First, fly ash was mixed with the modifier ...
Sur Dipika - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of zinc supplementation on diarrheal morbidity and growth pattern of low birth weight (LBW) infants. METHODOLOGY: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, community-based study conducted in the Tiljala slum of eastern Kolkata, India, between 1999 and 2001, a birth cohort of 100 LBW infants was randomly ...
Christian Parul - - 2003
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that maternal micronutrient supplementation in rural Nepal decreased low birth weight by approximately 15%. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of daily maternal micronutrient supplementation on fetal loss and infant mortality. DESIGN: The study was a double-blind, cluster-randomized, controlled trial among 4926 pregnant women and their 4130 ...
Augustowska K - - 2003
Explants of human placental tissue harvested immediately after expulsion were used to determine differences between accumulation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD)-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (PCDF) environmental mixture, and their influence on placental steroidogenesis. Explants were cultured in vitro for 5 days in media supplemented each day with either TCDD or ...
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