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Results 601 - 650 of 1187
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Chen S M - - 1997
This paper extends the work of H. Lee-Kwang and L.M. Lee (1995) to present the concept of the interval-valued fuzzy hypergraph. In the interval-valued fuzzy hypergraph, the concepts of the dual interval-valued fuzzy hypergraph, the crisp-valued alpha-cut hypergraph, and the interval-valued [alpha(1),alpha(2 )]-cut at beta level hypergraph are developed, where ...
Wellik D M - - 1997
Previous work has demonstrated that vitamin A-deficient, retinoic acid-supplemented pregnant rats cannot complete gestation without the administration of retinol. As little as 2 micrograms administered on day 10 of gestation is sufficient to prevent the characteristic fetal resorption that begins at day 15 of gestation. This single dose of retinol ...
Maffei G - - 1997
The Italian Academy of Pediatrics and the Italian Academy of Neonatology have carried out an investigation regarding assistance routines for the healthy full-term newborn. The results confirm a need for modifications in the majority of the centers, especially with regard to Vitamin K prophylaxis which is implemented with extremely variable ...
Iughetti L - - 1997
Lipid peroxidation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several neonatal complications. To improve the knowledge on the antioxidant lipid-soluble defenses in neonatal age, we investigated a group of healthy full-term infants and their mothers measuring by high-pressure liquid chromatography the levels of vitamin E and carotenoids. Our data ...
Nishiguchi T - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To compare three methods of vitamin K prophylaxis for neonatal vitamin K deficient intracranial haemorrhage. DESIGN: We designed three strategies for vitamin K prophylaxis: 1. therapeutic administration of vitamin K in a mass screening system using the hepaplastin test; 2. routine oral administration of vitamin K to newborn infants; ...
Northrop-Clewes C A - - 1996
We report an apparently protective effect of vitamin A in infants who received iron supplements (15 mg/d) for 3 mo. Those receiving iron showed increases in hemoglobin (8 g/L), ferritin (3.7 micrograms/L), and the acute-phase protein alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (ACT; 0.06 g/L). In both the placebo and iron-supplemented groups there were ...
Sankaran K - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the added nutritional value of the two commercially available human breast milk fortifiers: Similac Natural Care (NC) and Enfamil Powder (EP). DESIGN: A randomized controlled evaluation in healthy preterm neonates. SETTING: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Royal University Hospital, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Jewish General ...
Rahmanifar A - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pattern of respiratory tract infections (RTI) and diarrhea among brest-fed infants and the impact of birth weight, maternal diet during lactation, and household socioenvironmental conditions on these illnesses. DESIGN: A longitudinal household-based study of infant morbidity from birth to 6 months of age. SETTING: Kalama village, ...
Verma R P - - 1996
Preterm infants often have abnormally low serum vitamin A concentrations. Persistence of vitamin A deficiency for a prolonged postnatal period may contribute to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. We retrospectively analyzed data from 22 infants with birthweight < or = 1250 g who had hyaline membrane disease requiring mechanical ventilation ...
Koo W W - - 1996
There are numerous laboratory investigations available for the assessment of an infant with suspected metabolic bone disease (MBD); thus, comprehensive laboratory investigations on every aspect of MBD would impose unnecessary stress to the infant and the costs involved would be prohibitive. An overview of the assessment of an infant with ...
Pettifor J M JM Department of Paediatrics, University of the Witwatersrand, - - 1996
To assess the effect of season and latitude on the in vitro formation of previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) by sunlight in two cities in South Africa, Cape Town and Johannesburg. An in vitro study utilising vials containing 7-DHC, which were exposed to sunlight for a period ...
Lester D R DR - - 1996
The coexistence of osteopetrosis and rickets (osteopetrorickets) in humans has been described frequently. The osteosclerotic mouse is a unique, lethal osteopetrotic mutation that also has rickets. Attempts to cure this mutation by bone marrow transplantation have been largely unsuccessful, and its resistance to cure presumably is attributable to hypomineralized skeletal ...
Graczyk T K - - 1996
Six Cryptosporidium-free Peking ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were each orally inoculated with 2.0 x 10(6) Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts infectious to neonatal BALB/c mice. Histological examination of the stomachs jejunums, ilea, ceca, cloacae, larynges, tracheae, and lungs of the ducks euthanized on day 7 postinoculation (p.i.) revealed no life-cycle stages of C. ...
Backström M C - - 1996
Metabolic bone disease is recognized with increasing frequency in very-low-birth-weight infants. Radiological changes characteristic of rickets have been found in 55% of infants with a birth weight of less than 1000 g and in 23% of infants weighing less than 1500 g at birth. Twenty-four per cent of infants with ...
Eugster E A - - 1996
Vitamin D deficiency rickets, once considered the most common disease of early childhood, was reported to have disappeared by the 1960s. However, during a recent 18-month period, seven cases of nutritional rickets were diagnosed in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. All of the patients were born at term and were ...
- - 1996
Vitamin A is widely used in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) to prevent and reduce lung injury in premature infants who require mechanical ventilation. As part of a project to assess the management in NICU, this study was designed to establish whether vitamin A supplementation in neonates at risk for ...
Heiskanen K - - 1996
Our aim was to ascertain the adequacy of human milk as the sole source of vitamin B6 and the associations between maternal and infant status during extended exclusive breast-feeding. Vitamin B6 status was followed in lactating mothers and their exclusively breast-fed infants by determinations of erythrocyte pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentration and ...
Ulu┼čahin N - - 1996
Protein induced by vitamin K absence (PIVKA-II) has been used for the evaluation of vitamin K deficiency in the newborn. Differing PIVKA-II detection rates in various studies on hemorrhagic disease of the newborn have not been explained satisfactorily. In this study we investigated the PIVKA-II values of 44 healthy breastfed ...
Chytil F - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To review longstanding experience in the safe use of vitamin A as therapeutic agent in prematurely born human neonates and more recently with young children infected with the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). DESIGN: The studies reviewed were designed to intervene with vitamin A in the form of retinyl palmitate ...
Grossman E - - 1996
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of two oscillating/rotating toothbrushes, (Braun Oral-B Plaque Remover-D7 and Braun Oral-B Ultra Plaque Remover-D9) and a manual toothbrush with respect to removing extrinsic dental stain. This randomized, three-way cross-over study investigated 24 subjects entering the trial, which was divided into three, 5-day periods. Over ...
Loughnan P M - - 1996
The clinical details are reported of two premature infants who developed late onset haemorrhagic disease after receiving their initial doses of vitamin K1 prophylaxis intravenously. Both reported infants had received two doses of intravenous vitamin K1, 0.1 mg, in the 1st week of life, and a further oral dose, 1.0 ...
Walcott G P - - 1996
BACKGROUND: In this study, we examined the effect of changing capacitor values between phases of a biphasic waveform with the goal of lowering leading edge voltage (LEV), total delivered energy (TDE), and total stored energy (TSE). METHODS: Defibrillation thresholds were determined in 18 open-chest swine using epicardial patch electrodes. In ...
Minamitani K - - 1996
The onset of physical signs in infants with hypophosphatemic vitamin D resistant rickets (HDRR) has generally been considered to be at the age of 12 months, but the time of appearance of hypophosphatemia and rachitic signs on radiographs remains unclear. We report a prospective study in three neonates whose mothers ...
van der Wolf J M - - 1996
Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) procedures for the selective separation of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica from potato peel extract were optimized for the recovery of target and removal of non-target bacteria. A streptomycin-resistant strain of Erw. carotovora subsp. atroseptica was used in combination with a crystal violet pectate (CVP) medium supplemented with ...
Ciccotosto G D - - 1996
The different roles of gastrin and cholecystokinin in the fetus compared to the adult may be reflected in different distribution patterns. Re-expression of these fetal patterns is often seen in tumours of the adult. Using region-specific antisera and chromatography, we have determined the ontogeny of amidated gastrin (G-amide), glycine extended ...
Venkatarao T - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of Vitamin A supplementation to the mother soon after delivery and to the infant at six months on morbidity in infancy. DESIGN: Randomized double blind placebo controlled field trial. SETTING: 51 villages in two contiguous Primary Health Centers in Villupuram Health Unit District of Tamil ...
Scholl T O - - 1996
We examined the influence of folate intake from diet and supplements b y 28 wk of gestation and third trimester circulating concentrations of serum folate on the outcome of pregnancy in women from Camden, NJ. Mean daily folate intake by week 28 included both dietary and supplemental folate obtained prospectively ...
Friel J K - - 1996
The purpose of the present study was to monitor the vitamin status of 14 low-birth-weight (LBW) infants (< 1,750 g birth weight) at 2 weeks and an additional four infants at 3 weeks who were receiving an enteral formula providing 247 micrograms/100 kcal thiamine, 617 micrograms/100 kcal riboflavin, 37 micrograms/100 ...
Hollis B W - - 1996
This study was undertaken to investigate the utility of vitamin D3-palmitate as a nutritional supplement and thus define the intestinal absorption profile of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 liberated after its cleavage from vitamin D3-palmitate in the human infant at various postnatal ages. The subjects for study consisted of 48 ...
Humphrey J H - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether vitamin A supplementation at birth could reduce infant morbidity and mortality. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a placebo-controlled trial among 2067 Indonesian neonates who received either 52 micromol (50,000 IU) orally administered vitamin A or placebo on the first day of life. Infants were followed up at ...
Nowak-Göttl U - - 1996
Resistance to activated protein C (APCR) has emerged as the most important hereditary cause of venous thromboembolism. Using an aPTT-based method together with DNA technique we investigated 120 healthy neonates and infants < 12 months of age and 24 infants with septicaemia for the presence of this mutation. In addition, ...
Rahman M M - - 1996
At immunization contact, 165 infants 2.5 mo old were randomly assigned to receive either 15 mg vitamin A (retinyl palmitate) or placebo. Three doses were given at monthly intervals with each diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and oral polio (DPT/OPV) immunization dose. The diarrhea and acute respiratory infection (ARI) morbidity was similar ...
Caple J I - - 1996
Subcutaneous fat necrosis is normally a self-limiting condition. A complication of subcutaneous fat necrosis is hypercalcemia. If the infant is discharged from the hospital before the lesions are healed, the family should be instructed to monitor the infant for the signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia. The parents need to understand ...
Godel J C - - 1996
Vitamin A (retinol) status was determined in two groups living in the northern part of Canada: native (Indian and Inuit) and non-native (Caucasian). The dietary intake of vitamin A and its plasma concentration were measured prenatally, at delivery and postnatally in mothers. Plasma concentrations were also measured at birth and ...
Ramos J L - - 1996
In order to search for any difference in riboflavin and pyridoxine nutrition between term appropriate for gestational age (TAGA), term small for gestational age (TSGA) and preterm appropriate for gestational age (PTAGA) newborns, cord blood from 23, 19 and 20 infants, respectively, were studied, and red cell glutathione reductase (riboflavin-dependent) ...
Payne N R - - 1996
The purpose of this study was to determine whether decreased Fc gamma RIII expression on the PMN of extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW) is due to decreased receptor synthesis or increased receptor shedding from the PMN surface. 42 ELBW, 12 larger infants and 14 adults were enrolled. Plasma and ...
Manning W J - - 1996
Ambient ozone (O(3)) was measured in two Class I wilderness areas, one within the White Mountain National Forest in north central New Hampshire (NH) and one within the Green Mountain National Forest in southwestern Vermont (VT), for six weeks between 5 July and 16 August 1994, using Ogawa passive nitrite-coated ...
Koo W W - - 1995
Formula-fed infants with birth weights < or = 1500 g (n = 61) were stratified by 250-g birth-weight ranges and randomly assigned to receive one of three preterm infant formulas (vitamin A contents of 820 IU, 1640 IU, or 2900 IU/MJ; 1 RE = 3.3 IU vitamin A activity) when ...
Heiskanen K - - 1995
To evaluate the effect of vitamin B6 status on infant growth, we studied longitudinally anthropometry and the erythrocyte parameters that reflect long-term vitamin B6 status [erythrocyte pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentration (EPLP), erythrocyte aspartate transaminase basal activity (EAST0), and its activation co-efficient (alpha EAST)] in 44 infants. The infants were exclusively breast-fed ...
Kang-Yoon S A - - 1995
Concerns about vitamin B-6 adequacy in neonatal nutrition relate to critical functions of the vitamin in development. Vitamin B-6 status was assessed in six groups of neonates: two groups each of breast-fed term and preterm infants whose mothers were supplemented with 2 or 27 mg pyridoxine-hydrochloride (PN-HCl); a subgroup of ...
Venkataraman P S - - 1995
Several factors have been suggested to contribute to inadequate bone mineralization in infants. Calcium and phosphorus intakes in preterm infants are below the intrauterine accretion rates. Calcium retention is influenced by the types of calcium salts used and by alterations in dietary phosphorus, fat and carbohydrates. Dietary intakes of vitamin ...
Semba R D - - 1995
The maternal factors that contribute to high mortality rates among infants born to women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are unclear. We followed 474 HIV-infected mothers and their infants in Malawi from pregnancy through the infants' 12th month of life. Of the 474 HIV-infected pregnant women, 300 (63.3%) were deficient ...
Zempleni J - - 1995
Intrauterine uptake of vitamin B2 in preterm and full-term infants was examined. Factors of influence on vitamin supply were considered. Forty-four women and their infants were included in the study. Fetal vitamin uptake was calculated as arteriovenous concentration gradient in cord plasma times umbilical plasma flow. Concentration of vitamin B2 ...
Greer F R - - 1995
Hemorrhage in the infant from vitamin K deficiency is still a concern in pediatrics. Vitamin K given intramuscularly will largely prevent hemorrhagic disease in the newborn, even in infants who are exclusively breast-fed and are thus at the greatest risk for bleeding. The vitamin K content of human milk is ...
Doran O - - 1995
AIMS: A three dose oral regimen for vitamin K prophylaxis was introduced as an alternative to a single intramuscular injection in August 1992. An assessment of the acceptance of this regimen was needed to determine if the risk of developing haemorrhagic disease of the newborn had altered. METHODS: A survey ...
Coutsoudis A - - 1995
Vitamin A has been shown to be important in immunity and in differentiation of epithelial tissues. Serum concentrations of vitamin A (retinol) were measured at birth, in 54 preterm and 24 full term infants. Vitamin A concentrations were significantly lower in the preterm compared to the full term infants (9.81 ...
Sharma R K - - 1995
Intramuscular administration of vitamin K for prophylaxis against hemorrhagic disease of the newborn has the disadvantage of increased cost, pain, anxiety to parents and risk of transmission of infection. Oral route is a better alternative. Oral absorption of vitamin K has been shown to be equally good using special oral ...
Pizer B - - 1995
The glycophorin A (GPA) mutation assay was used to examine the risk of in vivo somatic mutation in infants following neonatal administration of vitamin K. The assay assesses damage to erythroid stem cells by measuring the frequency of NO and NN variant red cells of MN blood group heterozygotes using ...
Ahmed I - - 1995
At the Aga Khan Hospital (AKUH), 65 infants presented with hypocalcaemic seizures, subsequently found to have rickets. Forty-six infants less than 6 months were totally or predominantly breast fed. In a subgroup of 15 mothers and their infants, we found very low plasma levels of 25(OH) vitamin D of < ...
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