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Results 551 - 600 of 1183
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Atiq M - - 1998
This study was conducted to evaluate the vitamin D status of healthy breastfed Pakistani infants and their nursing mothers. Sixty-two breastfed healthy infants and their nursing mothers belonging to the upper and lower socioeconomic classes were examined. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D], serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were measured. ...
Ismail E A - - 1998
An infant presented at the age of 80 days with a hypocalcemic fit. The mother was found to have asymptomatic parathyroid adenoma. The infant's intact parathyroid hormone was high in the absence of hypomagnesemia, renal failure or overt rickets, which are known causes of secondary end-organ refractoriness. The patient was ...
Tolba A M - - 1998
Vitamin A status was assessed in a randomly selected group of neonates at delivery. A total of 105 neonates were included in the study. Cord vitamin A concentration was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Of 105 neonates, 53 (50.5 per cent) were males and 49 49.5 per cent) ...
Bogye G - - 1998
AIM: To study the bioavailability of selenium enriched yeast in preterm infants living in a low selenium area (Hungary). METHODS: Thirty six preterm infants were randomly assigned to two groups at birth with respect to selenium supplementation. In the supplemented group (n = 18) infants received 4.8 mg of selenium ...
Taji S S - - 1998
Ten individuals were each supplied with a new toothbrush of the same type and brand, together with identical tubes of fluoridated toothpaste. After a three-week period, during which subjects were asked to follow their usual oral hygiene practices, the toothbrushes were collected and assayed for microbial contamination using a range ...
- - 1998
Newborn babies are at risk of bleeding as a result of vitamin K deficiency. Vitamin K supplements given at birth reduce this risk but it is not clear which preparation should be used. Until the early 1990s, it was standard practice to give vitamin K as a single intramuscular injection ...
Bhaskaram P - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of maternal supplementation of vitamin A on the immune response to oral polio vaccine in breastfed infants. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Hospital based. METHODS: One hundred mothers having uncomplicated deliveries randomly received either 200,000 IU vitamin A orally (Experimental) or placebo (Control). All the ...
Vargas M - - 1998
High-altitude (HA) natives have blunted ventilatory sensitivities to hypoxia, and it is uncertain whether this blunting is reversible on migration to sea level (SL). To study this, the ventilatory sensitivities to hypoxia of HA natives residing near SL were compared with those of SL natives. Two studies were performed. In ...
Swann I L - - 1998
An 8-week-old boy presented with failure to thrive from birth. He had been fed with breast and formula milk. He had an anaemia of 6.6 g/dl with polychromasia, nucleated red blood cells and immature myeloid cells in the peripheral blood. He showed evidence of haemolysis with a reticulocyte count of ...
Dargaville P A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To document the short- and long-term effects of accidental administration of ergometrine in adult dosage to the newborn infant. METHODS: The case records of all infants admitted to the Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) since 1970 with a diagnosis of acute ergometrine overdose were reviewed, and details of the acute ...
Bogye G - - 1998
There are no data in the literature on effects of supplementing infants with yeast-selenium. We therefore studied the impact of selenium-enriched yeast on the serum selenium concentration of preterm infants living in a selenium-low area (Hungary). Twenty-eight preterm infants with a mean +/- SD birthweight of 962 +/- 129 g ...
Aydinli N - - 1998
A retrospective study is presented of the clinical features and outcome of late onset haemorrhagic disease due to vitamin K deficiency in 11 babies who were admitted to the emergency or child neurology unit during a 4-year period (January 1994-December 1997). The disease occurred in infants between 30 and 119 ...
Halterman J S - - 1998
The differential diagnosis of stridor in the pediatric population is broad and should include hypocalcemia with resultant laryngospasm. We present the case of a breast-fed infant who presented to the pediatric emergency department with profound stridor during the winter months because of hypocalcemia of undiagnosed rickets. The patient responded to ...
van Zoeren-Grobben D - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Vitamin E is an essential component of the antioxidant defenses, but supplementation can have side effects in the preterm infant. Careful monitoring of vitamin E status is thus essential, however no consensus has been reached on the best clinical method. METHODS: In 47 healthy preterm infants, several methods for ...
Fonty G - - 1997
Four naturally born lambs were placed in sterile isolators 24 h after birth before the natural establishment of cellulolytic microorganisms and archaea methanogens. At the age of 6 weeks they were inoculated with pure cultures of the strains FD1 and 007 of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and at the age of 4 ...
Ray R - - 1997
The uridylic acid rich nuclear RNAs (U1-U6 snRNAs) are involved mainly in the processing of pre-mRNA and pre-rRNA. So, any control of cell growth through pre-mRNA/pre-rRNA processing may have some regulation through altered UsnRNAs metabolism. With this idea, attempts have been made to see how the metabolism of the six ...
Raju T N - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a meta-analysis of the published randomized clinical trials of vitamin E prophylaxis designed to reduce retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) to determine whether increased serum concentrations of vitamin E reduced the incidence of severe, threshold (Stage 3+) ROP in the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant subset. STUDY ...
Thurnham D I - - 1997
Recent evidence suggests that plasma lutein is better correlated than either beta-carotene or lycopene with its respective carotenoid intake and therefore may be a better marker of vegetable intake than either beta-carotene or lycopene. In the study reported in this paper, measurements of plasma carotenes and retinol were made in ...
Evans B L - - 1997
PURPOSE: Mice homozygous for the vitiligo mutation of the microphthalmia (Mitf) gene have a retinal degeneration characterized by slow loss of photoreceptor cells and compromised retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) structure and function. The levels of retinyl esters, which are essential for generation of 11-cis-retinaldehyde for the formation of rhodopsin, were ...
Casterline J E - - 1997
Vitamin B-12 status was evaluated in 113 Guatemalan women and their infants at 3 mo of lactation. Plasma vitamin B-12 was deficient or low in 46.7% of the mothers, and holotranscobalamin II (holo TC II) concentrations were low in 32.3%, which may indicate vitamin B-12 malabsorption. Only 9% had deficient ...
Schwarz K B - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Increased lipid peroxidation caused by oxygen free radicals is thought to be one of the common pathogenetic mechanisms for the so-called oxygen radical diseases of prematurity. Since in vitro studies have shown that various forms of vitamin A can exert antioxidant effects that are more potent than those of ...
Darvas B - - 1997
A significant amount of progesterone-like immunoreactive material (150 ng/g) was measured by EIA in the procuticle phase of adult of both sexes of Periplaneta americana. This peak markedly decreased to 1-10 ng/g during sclerotization and was unlikely to be of dietary origin. In the case of 0-hr-old P. americana adults ...
Ocampo M B - - 1997
When comparing nutrition and health among mothers in both Japan and Philippines, it can be concluded that, in regard to nutrition, the results of the total dietary scores for mothers in divided into pregnant and after-delivery stages showed that pregnant Filipino mothers' average are lower than those of pregnant Japanese ...
Jadcherla S R - - 1997
In adults, migrating motor complexes (MMCs) appear to be partially under hormonal modulation by motilin and pancreatic polypeptide. Preterm infants do not exhibit MMCs until 32 wk of gestation. Although plasma concentrations of motilin are similar in infants and adults, it is not known if actual hormonal modulation of MMCs ...
Kennedy K A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Inconsistent effects of vitamin A supplementation on prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia have been reported. Meta-analysis of these reports resulted in a relative risk of 0.69-1.02 for death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia associated with vitamin A supplementation. Effective dosage regimens or serum retinol concentrations have not been determined in previous reports. ...
Bai J - - 1997
An assay was developed to study the spontaneous transfer and transbilayer movement (flip-flop) of lipid analogs labeled with the fluorescent fatty acid, 5-(5,7-dimethyl BODIPY)-1-pentanoic acid (C5-DMB-) in large unilamellar lipid vesicles comprised of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC). The assay is based on the concentration-dependent changes in fluorescence intensity that occur when ...
Solves P - - 1997
We report a case of a 4-week-old female who presented with late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN). The newborn was previously healthy, and she received 1 mg of intramuscular vitamin K at birth. She was exclusively breast-fed. At 4 weeks she began bleeding at the umbilicus and 4 days ...
Semba R D - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Childhood immunization programs have been suggested as an infrastructure to deliver vitamin A supplements to children in developing countries. The effects of giving vitamin A, a potent immune enhancer, with measles immunization to nine-month-old infants is unknown. METHODS: A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial of vitamin A, 100,000 IU ...
Linthicum F H FH - - 1997
Examinations of 41 human fetal, 8 infant, and 8 juvenile temporal bones prepared for light microscopic evaluation revealed direct connections between the hematopoietic bone marrow and the unresolved mesenchyme in the middle ear. The connections first appeared at 15 weeks of gestation and became bridged by fibrous tissue, in most ...
Tsai J R - - 1997
Rickets of prematurity is not uncommon in neonatal intensive care units. Nutritional rickets in childhood is usually caused by vitamin D deficiency, but the rickets of prematurity is mainly attributable to calcium and phosphorus deficiencies. We present a premature infant with sequelae of necrotizing enterocolitis who needed prolonged administration of ...
Hughes A P - - 1997
The preterm infant is deficient in vitamin A (retinol) and this has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic lung disease of prematurity. Conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) has been used in adults to assess retinol status. We aimed to assess the feasibility of performing CIC in the preterm infant and ...
Roy S K - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of vitamin A supplementation 24 h after delivery on breastmilk retinol concentration. METHODS: Fifty low income women were randomly assigned to a single oral dose of 209 micromol of Vitamin A or none at delivery. Maternal serum and breastmilk retinol levels and infant morbidity and ...
Sharpless K E - - 1997
In 1996, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) released Standard Reference Material 1846 (Infant Formula), which can be used as a control material for assigning values to in-house control materials and for validating analytical methods for measurement of proximates, vitamins, and minerals in infant formula and similar matrixes. ...
Prasad M P - - 1997
Controlled release monolithic formulation of fenthion, an organophosphorus mosquito larvicide, prepared by the physical entrapment of the active agent into biodegradable polymer matrices was evaluated against Mansonia mosquito larvae breeding in hydrophytes infested coconut husk retting ponds. Field evaluation was carried out at two application rates viz, 2.5 and 1.0 ...
Greenberg B L - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether vitamin A deficiency is associated with maternal-infant HIV transmission among HIV-infected pregnant women in two United States cities. METHODS: Third trimester serum vitamin A levels were evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography in 133 HIV-infected women who delivered livebirths during May 1986 to May 1994 and whose ...
Zeghoud F - - 1997
To determine the biological criteria for neonatal vitamin D deficiency, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcidiol), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphates, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured during the winter-spring period in 80 healthy neonates and their mothers 3-6 d after delivery. A longitudinal 3-mo survey of the serum biology of ...
Reddy S - - 1997
A study was conducted using dermatoglyphics to predict and compare Class I, Class II, div. 1, div.2 and Class III malocclusions. A total of 96 subjects were divided into 3 malocclusion groups, i.e. Class I (control group), Class II, div.1, div.2 and Class III (experimental group) in the ages of ...
Andrew M - - 1997
The hemostatic system is a dynamic evolving process that is age-dependent. Components of the hemostatic system are synthesized in early fetal life and do not cross the placenta from mother to fetus. However, plasma concentrations of proteins involved in hemostasis significantly differ from adults. Physiological reference ranges are available for ...
Bone R A - - 1997
The distribution of macular pigment stereoisomers in the human retina has been mapped and a pathway to account for the presence of the non-dietary carotenoid, meso-zeaxanthin, is proposed. Adult neural retinas were cut into three concentric areas centered on the fovea, and the extracted carotenoids were analysed and purified by ...
Daaboul J - - 1997
We describe the cases of five consecutive infants with symptomatic vitamin D deficiency and their mothers. Four of the infants were light skinned, all had poor sunlight exposure, and all were breast-fed or had diets low in vitamin D. All mothers had vitamin D deficiency. Regardless of race, infants with ...
Greer F R - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To increase the phylloquinone (vitamin K1) concentration of human milk with maternal oral phylloquinone supplements such that both the phylloquinone intake of breastfed infants and their serum concentrations of phylloquinone would approach those of formula-fed infants who are known to be at much less risk for hemorrhagic disease of ...
Grattan-Smith P J - - 1997
Developmental regression is the presenting symptom of most infants with cobalamin (Vitamin B12) deficiency. We present a report of three infants with cobalamin deficiency in which the infants also developed a movement disorder. In each case the mother was a vegetarian and the infant was exclusively breast-fed. In two of ...
Powers H J - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To provide the informed health professional with an up to date evaluation of the current thinking regarding requirements for vitamins in infant feeds. ESTABLISHING CRITERIA FOR ADEQUACY: Vitamin adequacy in the neonate is currently defined in terms of circulating levels of a vitamin or of the activity of a ...
Rahman M M - - 1997
One hundred twenty infants were randomly assigned to receive either 15 mg vitamin A or placebo with each of three DPT/OPV (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus/oral polio vaccine) immunizations at monthly intervals. Sixty-two received vitamin A and 58 received placebo. One month after the third supplementation dose, the response to the delayed ...
Doyle J - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that vitamin C supplementation of premature neonates is associated with hemolysis. STUDY DESIGN: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of vitamin C supplementation (50 mg/day) was undertaken in premature neonates (birth weight, 1000 to 1500 gm). Infants were randomly assigned to receive vitamin C (Ce-Vi-Sol) (n ...
Jonville-Bera A P - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Because of the risk of haemorrhagic disease of the newborn as a result of a deficit in vitamin K, it is generally agreed that newborns should receive vitamin K. However, there is no consensus concerning the route of administration, dose, number of doses, or dose frequency. METHODS: We studied ...
Chen S M - - 1997
This paper extends the work of H. Lee-Kwang and L.M. Lee (1995) to present the concept of the interval-valued fuzzy hypergraph. In the interval-valued fuzzy hypergraph, the concepts of the dual interval-valued fuzzy hypergraph, the crisp-valued alpha-cut hypergraph, and the interval-valued [alpha(1),alpha(2 )]-cut at beta level hypergraph are developed, where ...
Wellik D M - - 1997
Previous work has demonstrated that vitamin A-deficient, retinoic acid-supplemented pregnant rats cannot complete gestation without the administration of retinol. As little as 2 micrograms administered on day 10 of gestation is sufficient to prevent the characteristic fetal resorption that begins at day 15 of gestation. This single dose of retinol ...
Maffei G - - 1997
The Italian Academy of Pediatrics and the Italian Academy of Neonatology have carried out an investigation regarding assistance routines for the healthy full-term newborn. The results confirm a need for modifications in the majority of the centers, especially with regard to Vitamin K prophylaxis which is implemented with extremely variable ...
Iughetti L - - 1997
Lipid peroxidation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several neonatal complications. To improve the knowledge on the antioxidant lipid-soluble defenses in neonatal age, we investigated a group of healthy full-term infants and their mothers measuring by high-pressure liquid chromatography the levels of vitamin E and carotenoids. Our data ...
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