Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1191
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Melikian G - - 2001
Although growth failure is common during pediatric infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and associated with increased mortality, the relation of specific nutrition factors with growth and mortality has not been well characterized. A longitudinal study was conducted with 194 HIV-infected infants in Kampala, Uganda. Plasma vitamin A, carotenoids (alpha-carotene, ...
Pattaragarn A - - 2001
A 3-month-old premature infant presented with a "soft skull." Clinical and radiologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of rickets. Biochemistry revealed normal serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and undetectable urine phosphate. These findings combined with a history of 5-6 weeks' treatment with high-dose aluminum-rich antacid established the diagnosis of antacid-induced rickets. Discontinuation ...
Mukamel M N - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The modest clothing that Orthodox Jewish women wear exposes very little of their skin to sunlight. Under these conditions they may develop vitamin D deficiency, even in sunny Israel. OBJECTIVES: To determine and compare the vitamin D nutritional status in Jewish orthodox mothers to that of non-orthodox mothers who ...
Hasan H A - - 2001
The research is conducted on the effect of pencycuron and pencycuron-c on cotton seed mycoflora, aflatoxin production and viability. At 8% seed moisture content (mc), pencycuron and pencycuron-c promoted Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, and Penicillium corylophilum growth count at 1 g/kg, but exerted inhibitory effect at 3 and 5 g/kg. ...
Filteau S M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Vitamin A is important for protection against diarrhea, and supplements may benefit gut function of infants of HIV-infected mothers. METHODS: We studied 238 infants of HIV-infected South African women participating in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A during pregnancy (1.5 mg retinyl palmitate and 30 mg beta-carotene ...
Greer F R - - 2001
Table 2 shows that human milk will not meet the DRI for all vitamins in breastfeeding infants. The most glaring discrepancy between intake and the RDA is for vitamin D, although, as discussed, infants may synthesize this from sunlight exposure. Vitamin K must be given in the newborn period. Deficiencies ...
Kraus D M - - 2001
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness and infant acceptance of drug delivery of the Rx medibottle with the standard oral syringe. DESIGN: Prospective open-label, randomized, crossover clinical study. SETTING: General pediatric outpatient clinic at an urban university. SUBJECTS: Thirty healthy, bottle-fed infants, aged 2-14 months, receiving routine vaccinations. INTERVENTION: Each ...
Tran C - - 2001
UVB irradiation depletes all-trans-retinol (ROL) and all-trans-retinyl esters (RE) from the hairless mouse epidermis. Prevention of this may be of relevance in counter-acting the long-term side effects of UVB exposure. We studied the effects of a topical treatment with natural retinoids before and after UVB exposure on three parameters involved ...
Sanchez L C - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To characterize intragastric pH profiles in critically ill foals and determine whether administration of ranitidine altered pH profiles. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. ANIMALS: 23 hospitalized neonatal foals < or = 4 days of age. PROCEDURE: Intragastric pH was measured continuously for up to 24 hours by use of an ...
Kumar R - - 2001
The study was undertaken to determine the frequency of occurrence of vitamin K deficiency in infants with diarrhoeal illness. Infants were categorized into four groups as follows: A(acute diarrhoea), B(protracted diarrhoea) C(intractable diarrhoea) and D(healthy controls). Screening coagulation tests, PT and PTTK along with estimation of functional activity and total ...
Atkinson S A - - 2001
Extremely low birth weight infants who develop severe respiratory disease may have special nutrient requirements imposed by a combination of enhanced utilization of nutrients or the need for epithelial cell repair resulting from the disease process, as well as to support catch-up growth. Inositol, free fatty acids, vitamin E and ...
Narchi H - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Description of rickets as an unexpected initial manifestation in two children with abetalipoproteinemia and hypobetalipoproteinemia, and elucidation of its pathophysiology in these conditions. METHODOLOGY: Two infants aged two and six months with abetalipoproteinemia and hypobetalipoproteinemia respectively had clinical rickets at presentation, confirmed radiologically and biochemically. Vitamin D intake and ...
Coles C L - - 2001
Nasopharyngeal colonization is a risk factor for pneumococcal disease, a leading cause of complications and death in infants. We assessed the impact of vitamin A supplementation in reducing pneumococcal colonization in infants from an area with endemic vitamin A deficiency. We recruited 464 2-mo-old infants from a rural area in ...
Canfield L M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Despite vitamin A supplementation programs, vitamin A deficiency in children remains a public health concern in Honduras. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated the effectiveness of short-term dietary supplementation of mothers with red palm oil as a strategy for improving the vitamin A status of the mother-infant dyad. METHODS: ...
Autret-Leca E - - 2001
Vitamin K-dependent factors are lower in neonates than in adults, and these anomalies are more prevalent in preterm neonates and in breast-fed infants. Vitamin K deficiency can account for vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) which occurs in 3 forms--early, classic and late. Vitamin K should be administered to all neonates ...
Greer F R - - 2001
Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is a disease of breast-fed infants. We have followed 119 exclusively breast-fed infants for up to 6 months of age, who received 1 mg of vitamin K, intramuscularly at birth. As vitamin K is undetectable in cord blood, the only other source in breast-fed infants ...
Wardle S P - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Intramuscular supplementation with vitamin A in large doses may reduce the incidence of chronic lung disease. AIM: To investigate whether oral supplementation with vitamin A would reduce the incidence of chronic lung disease in a group of extremely low birthweight infants. METHODS: Infants with birth weight < 1000 g ...
Reali A P - - 2001
This paper presents the results of a study performed with a lab-scale batch DAF unit fed with previously coagulated (with FeCl3 and/or cationic polymer) effluent from a pilot-scale expanded bed anaerobic reactor treating domestic sewage. The association between ferric chloride and polymers was studied, aimed at sludge reduction. Ferric chloride ...
Viljanen J - - 2001
An osteotomy of the distal femoral diaphysis was fixed with an intramedullary self-reinforced poly-L-lactide (SR-PLLA) rod in 22 and with a metallic rod in 38 skeletally mature rabbits. Histomorphometric and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were performed to assess time-related changes in the consolidation process of the osteotomy of cortical bone ...
Nishiguchi T - - 2001
The variation of des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin (PIVKA-II, protein induced by vitamin K absence) levels in umbilical cord blood throughout gestation was examined using a highly sensitive method, electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). PIVKA-II levels in infants without any complications were low, but modestly high, exceeding the normal range of healthy adults during the preterm ...
Suzuki S - - 2001
Coagulation-related plasma proteins develop slowly during the gestational period and are still markedly lower than normal at birth. Great interest exists in the status of the vitamin K-dependent procoagulant factors (factors II, VII, IX and X) because a number of healthy newborns develop postpartum a bleeding tendency that is due ...
Reifen R - - 2001
Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient throughout life. In areas of developing countries where vitamin A deficiency is endemic, an estimated 40% of the children are likely to be sub clinically deficient of the vitamin. Yet, the traditional view that preschool age children represent the main population at risk of ...
Crowther C A - - 2001
Preterm infants are at risk of periventricular haemorrhage. This can be a sign of brain damage that might lead to neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including cerebral palsy. It has been suggested that vitamin K might improve coagulation in preterm infants. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of vitamin ...
Losinger W C - - 2000
Of 7320 equine foals reported born alive during 1997 on 1043 operations that had equids on 1 January 1997, and that participated in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Equine 1998 Study, 120 foals were reported to have died (by either euthanasia or natural causes) within the ...
Delvin E E - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Vitamins A and E are two potent antioxidant nutrients that play a significant role in immune function. In contrast to the numerous studies of vitamin A and E status in children, adolescents, and adults, information on term infants, particularly breast-fed infants, is scarce. The goals of the present investigation ...
Heller C - - 2000
The factor V (FV) G1691A mutation, the prothrombin (PT) G20210A variant, the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) T677T genotype, together with fasting homocysteine (HCY) concentration, lipoprotein (Lp)(a), anti-thrombin (AT), protein C (PC), protein S (PS) and anti-cardiolipin antibodies were investigated in 65 consecutively recruited infants (neonate to < 12 months) with renal ...
Gladen B C - - 2000
Concentrations of chrysene, benz [a] anthracene, benzo [a]-pyrene, benzo [b] fluoranthene, indeno [1,2,3-c,d] pyrene, dibenz [a,h] anthracene, and benzo [g,h,i] perylene were measured in placentas from 200 women from two cities in Ukraine, Kyiv and Dniprodzerzhinsk. The participants had no special exposures and were chosen from among subjects in an ...
Zink A - - 2000
In this study, we describe an infant mummy from ancient Egypt that showed macromorphologic signs of chronic anemia and vitamin C deficiency. From this infant, we have obtained a sterile sample from a metatarsal bone to extract ancient bacterial DNA. Following polymerase chain reaction amplification and subcloning of the amplicons, ...
Vinutha B - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To assess the Vitamin A status of pregnant women in their third trimester using maternal serum retinol levels as the indicator; and (ii) To assess the impact of postpartum Vitamin A supplementation on the Vitamin A status of exclusively breastfed infants. DESIGN: Prospective randomized single blind controlled study. SETTING: ...
Ching P - - 2000
Country-specific activity and coverage data were used to estimate the childhood mortality impact (deaths averted) and costs of integrating vitamin A supplements into immunization campaigns conducted in 1998 and 1999. More than 94 million doses of vitamin A were administered in 41 countries in 1998, helping to avert nearly 169,000 ...
Koo W W - - 2000
Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine (LS) was measured in 201 singleton infants with birth weights from 1152 to 3970 g and gestational ages from 27 to 42 wk. All infants were well and studied at a mean (+/-SD) of 2.1 (+/-1.6) days after birth. There were ...
Thurnham D I - - 2000
Gut integrity, which can be measured by the urinary lactulose:mannitol excretion test, deteriorates with the introduction of weaning foods. In The Gambia, gut integrity measured monthly over 15 months in 119 infants (aged 2-15 months) was least impaired from April to June. This coincides with the time of year of ...
Minet J C - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Total serum homocysteine (tHcy) has been used as an indicator of intracellular vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, and folate status in adults, but data for neonates and infants are lacking. Vitamin B-12 deficiency may have fatal effects on neurologic development in infants; therefore, early diagnosis is crucial. OBJECTIVE: Our aim ...
De Wulf P - - 2000
The optimization of L-sorbose synthesis by regiospecific dehydrogenation of D-sorbitol using Gluconobacter oxydans is reported. The current L-sorbose production processes that are based on G. oxydans and other bacterial strains are suboptimal as to yield and rate of L-sorbose synthesis. One reason for these problems is the toxicity that is ...
Hau K M - - 2000
Partition models based on the octanol-air parition coefficients and associated quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) have been developed to describe the triggering of odor response and nasal irritation by common volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study made use of the QSARs developed by Hau and Connell (1998, Indoor Air 8, 23-33) ...
Gault M H - - 2000
PURPOSE: We studied the relationship of stone frequency and composition to age, sex and stone weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed of all 15,624 stones submitted for analysis with infrared and wet chemical methods in Newfoundland and Labrador from 1979 to 1998. RESULTS: There were 1,067 bladder ...
Röösli M - - 2000
The spatial variability of different fractions of particulate matter (PM) was investigated in the city of Basel, Switzerland, based on measurements performed throughout 1997 with a mobile monitoring station at six sites and permanently recorded measurements from a fixed site. Additionally, PM10 measurements from the following year, which were concurrently ...
Coutsoudis A A Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Natal, - - 2000
Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants (< 2,500 g) are at increased risk of respiratory infection in the first few months of life and have low liver stores of vitamin A. As retinol is essential for respiratory epithelial cell differentiation, deficiency could result in pathological changes in the respiratory epithelium, with respiratory problems. ...
Fishman S M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: While iron deficiency is regarded as the major cause of nutritional anaemia, changes in vitamins A, B12, C and E, folic acid and riboflavin status have also been linked to its development and control. This paper provides a systematic review of vitamin supplementation trials relating to the control of ...
Yeung P K - - 2000
ATIII LLC, a joint venture between Genzyme Transgenics (GTC) and Genzyme General, is developing transgenic recombinant human antithrombin III (rhAT-III) as a potential treatment for sepsis and other disorders involving thrombosis. It is in phase III clinical trials in the US and Europe as an anticoagulant in patients undergoing elective ...
Watanabe I - - 2000
The nematocidal activity of 38 quassinoids, C19 or C20 compounds isolated from Simaroubaceae, was measured using a species of Diplogastridae (Nematoda) to develop lead parasiticides. Of the various quassinoids tested, samaderines B and E displayed the most potent nematocidal activity with a minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of 2.0 x 10(-5) ...
Mathias R S - - 2000
Calcium homeostasis is altered in patients with Williams syndrome. We report an infant in whom Williams syndrome was diagnosed at 4 weeks who presented with hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and medullary nephrocalcinosis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated a deletion of the elastin gene on chromosome 7. This infant was treated with a ...
Katz J - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The effect of vitamin A supplementation on the survival of infants aged <6 mo is unclear. Because most infant deaths occur in the first few month of life, maternal supplementation may improve infant survival. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to assess the effect of maternal vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation ...
Salle B L - - 2000
During pregnancy, maternal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the circulating form of vitamin D, correlate with dietary vitamin D intake. Maternal serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the hormonal circulating and active form of vitamin D, are elevated during pregnancy; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is synthesized mainly by the decidual cells of the ...
Salzer-Muhar U - - 2000
The perigraft reaction is an unusual complication found in patients in whom a modified Blalock Taussig shunt has been created using a polytetrafluoroethylene graft. We found that, in two infants, consistent laboratory findings during such a perigraft reaction were hypofibrinogenemia, increased levels of thrombin-antithrombin III complex, prothrombin fragment 1 and ...
Nichols B L - - 2000
BACKGROUND: It has been known for many years that small intestinal maltase activities are reduced in malnourished infants and in other patients with villous atrophy. The recent availability of human maltase-glucoamylase cDNA provides the opportunity to test the hypothesis that villous atrophy accounts for the reduced maltase enzyme activity in ...
Brama P A - - 2000
Biochemical heterogeneity of cartilage within a joint is well known in mature individuals. It has recently been reported that heterogeneity for proteoglycan content and chondrocyte metabolism in sheep develops postnatally under the influence of loading. No data exist on the collagen network in general or on the specific situation in ...
Su C T - - 2000
Vitamin K prophylaxis for all neonates has been recommended to prevent hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN), but it is still an uncommon practice in most developing countries throughout the world. In the United States and Canada, where vitamin K injections continue to be recommended in the newborn period, HDN ...
Tomsits E - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: We studied the development of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) and its effects together with those of vitamin E deficiency on the free radical formation of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with respiratory distress. METHODS: Infants were divided into three groups based on the way each was supplied ...
Greer F R - - 2000
Vitamin metabolism and requirements are reviewed for the micropremie (1000 Pounds g birthweight), for parenteral and enteral feedings. Recommendations are presented in table format. Human milk fortifiers and special formulas for the preterm infant are reviewed. For parenteral nutrition, only MVI Pediatric is currently available in the United States. Two ...
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