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Results 351 - 400 of 706
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Yoshimura T - - 2001
Sex ratios in the offspring of those affected by dioxins or dioxin-like compounds have been reported from Seveso, Italy and Yucheng, Taiwan. The sex ratio of live births in Yusho, Japan after a similar accidental massive exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in 1968 are reviewed. Data ...
Sandland G J - - 2001
Annual, seasonal, and interlake variation in prevalence and intensity of Ornithodiplostomum ptychocheilus (Faust) metacercariae was assessed in populations of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) collected from 4 lakes in north-central Alberta. Mean metacercariae intensity in young-of-the-year minnows varied extensively (5-123 metacercariae/host) among year, month, and lakes. In 2 of the lakes, ...
Haukka J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether there is regional variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and if so. whether it is caused by urban-rural differences, larger spatial clustering, or both. To control for the effect of migration, we examined regional variation in the incidence according to place of birth. METHODS: Finnish birth ...
Xu X - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To describe the seasonal growth patterns in Shanghai infants, to explore seasonal time lag between weight gain and length gain, and to investigate the long-term effect of birth season on early postnatal growth. DESIGN: Community-based longitudinal study. SETTING: Shanghai, People's Republic of China. METHOD: Children were followed up monthly ...
Bobak M - - 2001
The number of births varies markedly by season, but the causes of this variation are not well understood. The proposed explanations include temperature or photoperiod (affecting hormonal concentrations, sperm quality or sexual activity), seasonal variation in pregnancy loss, or cultural factors. In this paper we examined whether birth seasonality is ...
Blackwell S C - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the incidence of pregnancies complicated by meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) or meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) differs with seasonal changes. METHODS: An established perinatal database was used to identify all term (> or = 37 weeks) singleton gestations resulting in a live birth from January 1, 1997 ...
Adamczewsk A M - - 2001
With the arrival of the monsoonal rains and after months of inactivity during the dry season, the terrestrial crab Gecarcoidea natalis embarks on its annual breeding migration to the coast. The physiological demands of the migration were assessed by determining respiratory gases in the hemolymph, key metabolites, and energy stores ...
Ragusa-Netto J - - 2001
I studied the existence of sentinels in Saltator atricollis in a 'campo-cerrado' (Brazilian savanna) during the breeding seasons of 1994-95 and 1995-96. Groups of this species consisted of two to seven birds (N = 25). Sentinels were present (mean +/- sd) 62% +/- 9% of the time, and most sentinel ...
Smits L J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported associations between season of birth and reproductive characteristics such as menarcheal age, fecundability, and twinning, but the results are inconsistent with respect to the location of high- and low-risk seasons. To assess whether this disagreement could be due to the use of populations from different ...
Zachos J C - - 2001
Spectral analyses of an uninterrupted 5.5-million-year (My)-long chronology of late Oligocene-early Miocene climate and ocean carbon chemistry from two deep-sea cores recovered in the western equatorial Atlantic reveal variance concentrated at all Milankovitch frequencies. Exceptional spectral power in climate is recorded at the 406-thousand-year (ky) period eccentricity band over a ...
Noireau F - - 2001
Nutritional status relating to flight activity was investigated in natural populations of Triatoma sordida and T. guasayana during the dry season in the Bolivian Chaco. The peak flight activity of both species was unimodal and covered the period 61-180 min after sunset. The weight of insects was used as the ...
de Messias E L - - 2001
Winter birth has been shown to increase the risk of schizophrenia in adult life. It has been hypothesized that this effect is due to seasonal variation in infectious diseases, including influenza, as exposure to influenza during mid gestation also increases the risk of schizophrenia. However, in many areas there is ...
McDonald C - - 2001
One of the most consistent epidemiological findings in schizophrenia research is the small excess of late winter/early spring births. There is also evidence that schizophrenia is associated with urban birth and with later birth order. One interpretation of these three findings is that respiratory viral infections brought into the household ...
Fellman J - - 2001
A knowledge of the seasonal variation in births and deaths during normal years is important for analyses of the effects of wars, famines, epidemics or similar privations on these two variables. In studies of seasonality, multiple trigonometric regression models are more flexible than the simple sine curve. The seasonal variation ...
Doblhammer G - - 2001
Month of birth influences adult life expectancy at ages 50+. Why? In two countries of the Northern Hemisphere-Austria and Denmark-people born in autumn (October-December) live longer than those born in spring (April-June). Data for Australia show that, in the Southern Hemisphere, the pattern is shifted by half a year. The ...
Meehl P E - - 2001
Having shown taxometrically that there exists a hypohedonic schizotypal taxon in a college population, J. J. Blanchard, S. W. Gangestad, S. A. Brown, and W. P. Horan (2000) suggested that P. E. Meehl erred in revising his 1962 theory by postulating a normal-range individual differences variable of hedonic capacity that ...
Wahlbeck K - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Nutritional factors in early life may contribute to the neurodevelopmental deficit in schizophrenia. This study explores the influence of maternal body size, size at birth, and childhood growth on future risk for schizophrenia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This population-based cohort study comprised births at Helsinki University Central Hospital in Helsinki, ...
Nakagawa N - - 2000
The patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Kala Maloue, Cameroon, have their birth season in the mid-dry season, whereas closely related, sympatric tantalus monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops tantalus) have their birth season in the wet season. To evaluate the optimality of a species-specific birth season, I estimated the daily intake of available ...
Garrels L - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The higher incidence of man-to-woman transsexuals compared to woman-to-man transsexuals varies markedly from country to country. This is the first survey of the sex ratio to be made in Germany. METHOD: It covers 1785 patients who between 1964 and 1998 were diagnosed as transsexual at the four largest German ...
Verhulst J - - 2000
The ecliptic elongation of the moon with respect to the sun does not show uniform distribution on the birth dates of the 704 soccer players selected for the 1998 World Cup. However, a uniform distribution is expected on astronomical grounds. The World Cup players show a very pronounced tendency (p ...
Marleau J D - - 2000
A reported association of social status of parents with infants' sex ratio at birth and of psychological stress (score on Beck Depression Inventory) with sex ratio were not supported by our analysis, but the possibility of an association between scores on the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale and sex ratio at birth ...
Näyhä S - - 2000
The seasonal variation of deaths in Finland during the period 1961-1995, and its possible diminution over time was examined on a daily and monthly basis. The daily pattern of deaths over the year was asymmetric, with a very steep rise in December (peak on December 26), a slow rise in ...
Schwartz E - - 2000
A study was conducted to evaluate the incidence and seasonal pattern of dengue fever occurring among Israeli travelers to Southeast Asia. The illness was diagnosed by Israeli physicians stationed abroad and by serological methods carried out in Israel. Between 1994 and 1998 dengue fever was confirmed in 103 travelers, 80 ...
Pascual J - - 2000
Tierra del Fuego is situated at the southern tip of the American continent, which conditions its environmental and climatic characteristics. The colonizing population arrived, at the end of the 19th century, from other Chilean regions (particularly from Chiloé) and diverse European countries, especially Britain and Croatia, but also Germany, Spain ...
Jaffar S - - 2000
There is evidence that season of birth may predict adult mortality from infectious diseases in rural Gambia. Using data collected over a five-year period from the rural, eastern region of the Gambia, we examined whether the season of birth influences mortality in childhood. 26 894 births and 3776 deaths among ...
Beer J M - - 2000
There is an extensive literature on the relationship between birth order and psychological traits, but no previous study has investigated the influence of ordinal position on personality development within adoptive siblings. Such a design is important because it effectively separates the effects of biological birth order and rearing order. Here ...
Johnson J A - - 2000
Parasitoids of dried-fruit insects were surveyed at a culled fig warehouse in Fresno, CA. Three parasitoids of pyralid larvae were found: Habrobracon hebetor (Say), Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst), and at least one species in the genus Goniozus Förster. Two parasitoids of pyralid pupae also were noted: Mesostenus gracilis (Cresson) and a ...
Purcell D W - - 2000
The birth order of a contemporary North American sample of 97 gay men was quantified using Slater's Index. For the 84 probands with at least one sibling, the results showed a late mean birth order compared with the expected value of .50. Additional birth order indices derived from Slater's Index ...
García-Moro C - - 2000
The pattern of birth seasonality in California's early Spanish-Mexican colonists between 1769 and 1898 was reconstructed using genealogical data for progeny of 657 marriages. The monthly distribution of the 3,824 births in this sample shows a strong seasonal pattern, with spring and fall peaks (corresponding to peaks in conceptions during ...
Zhang S - - 2000
This study, based on three years of mating behavior observations and 10 years of birth records, reveals that Sichuan golden monkeys in captivity displayed a marked seasonality of mating behavior and births. The peak of matings occurred around October, and births occurred in March-June. The birth peak followed the mating ...
Narita K - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Five Japanese studies, to the authors' knowledge, without exception, have consistently shown an increased frequency of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR1 in patients with schizophrenia. This suggests an association between HLA-DR1 and schizophrenia in the Japanese population. The mechanism of the association is unknown; however, prenatal infections may be involved. ...
Maestripieri D - - 2000
This study of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) investigated whether individual differences in emotionality, as measured by scratching frequencies, are stable over time and across seasons. Five adult females living in captive social groups were observed during two consecutive birth seasons and five females during the birth and the mating season. ...
Koram K A - - 2000
Malaria and anemia accounted for 41% and 18% respectively of hospital deaths in the Kassena-Nankana district of northern Ghana during 1996. We measured hemoglobin (Hb), malaria prevalence, and anthropometric indices of 6--24-month-old infants and young children randomly selected from this community at the end of the high (May-October, n = ...
Bain M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Unlike schizophrenia, little interest has been taken in the incidence of obstetric complications in affective psychoses. AIMS: To find out whether obstetric complications are more common in affective psychoses than matched controls. METHOD: Two hundred and seventeen probands with an in-patient diagnosis of affective psychosis who had been born ...
Morgan J F - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies suggest season of birth variation in eating disorders akin to those of psychoses. We studied season of birth variation in bulimia nervosa. METHOD: Season of birth variation in 935 patients was examined after adjustment for population trends. Variation was also examined for subgroups by age and previous ...
Ichiki M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Many studies have suggested a possible aetiological role for obstetric complications in the development of schizophrenia. We focused on prenatal physical growth in schizophrenia, a contentious issue in the literature. METHODS: We compared gestational age at birth, birth weight (BW) and birth head circumference (BHC) between 312 schizophrenics and ...
Sasaki T - - 2000
Nutrition may be critical for neurodevelopment and can affect the later development of schizophrenia. Recently, a marked reduction in breast-feeding was reported in infants that developed schizophrenia in later life (McCreadie, R.G., 1997. The Nithsdale Schizophrenia Surveys. 16. Breast-feeding and schizophrenia: preliminary results and hypothesis. Br. J. Psychiatr. 170, 334-337). ...
Lassen C - - 2000
The study reconstructs the sex ratio of 121 stillborn and neonate individuals from the early modern burial site Aegerten, Switzerland. The immature individuals, who were not baptised before death, were buried along the walls of the church. To perform a molecular sex identification, bone samples from the infants were collected ...
Gloria-Bottini F. - - 2000
Three hundred fifty newborns from Rome and 351 from Penne were studied in continental Italy. Medium high altitude above sea level and cold winters characterize the area of Penne, while low altitude and very mild winters characterize the area of Rome. An effect of environmental conditions on the association between ...
Sumelahti M L - - 2000
Previous surveys in Finland from the 1960s have documented an uneven geographic distribution of multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present study, the incidence of MS was studied during 1979-1993 in the western Vaasa and Seinäjoki regions and in southern Uusimaa. The overall difference between the western and southern regions persisted; ...
Li X - - 2000
The density and distribution of Ixodes pacificus was assessed at 2 parks in north coastal California. The density of I. pacificus adults and nymphs varied significantly between years, trails, and sides of trails. Adult ticks occurred on vegetation along sun-exposed trails in January through March, their density (0-1.93 per 20 ...
Suvisaari J M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have a winter-spring excess of births compared with the general population, the cause of which is unresolved. Fluctuations in the magnitude of the seasonal variation may provide clues to its aetiology. METHODS: All Finnish patients with schizophrenia born between 1950 and 1969 (N = 15892) were ...
Cannon T D - - 2000
In this study, we examined whether fetal hypoxia and other obstetric complications (OCs) are related to risk for adult schizophrenia; whether such effects are specific to cases with an early age at onset; and whether the obstetric influences depend on, covary with, or are independent of familial risk. Subjects were ...
Portnoy J - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The Burkard sampler is a widely used volumetric pollen and spore collector, in part, because it is wind-oriented, it has consistent flow characteristics, and it permits time-discrimination of collected particles. Its main disadvantages are that it is heavy, expensive, and visual counting is very time-consuming. A less-expensive volumetric collector ...
Kirkpatrick B - - 2000
Previous studies have found two risk factors associated with the deficit syndrome of schizophrenia: an increase in summer births, compared to others with schizophrenia; and a higher risk of schizophrenia in relatives. In data from the Camberwell Register Psychosis Series, a population-based sample that approximated a treated-incidence sample, the deficit/nondeficit ...
Vounatsou P - - 2000
The incidence of fever among infants in the village of Idete in the Morogoro region of Tanzania was analyzed in relation to densities of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in the peripheral blood. Parasite densities in both fever cases and in asymptomatic infants, were compared and a Bayesian non-parametric mixture decomposition algorithm ...
Doblhammer G - - 2000
We present an analysis of birth seasonality in nine geographical regions within Austria for two time periods, 1881-1912 and 1947-1959. In the early period, geography, climate, and agricultural patterns were related to birth seasonality. By the latter time period, these factors were no longer related to birth seasonality. We propose ...
Gloria-Bottini F F Chair of Preventive and Social Pediatrics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, School of Medicine, Rome, - - 2000
Based on the hypothesis that maternal-fetal genetic differences in membrane transport and signal transduction may influence intrauterine development, the recent acquisition on transport function of Rh protein prompted us to study the relationship between joint maternal-fetal Rh phenotype and birth weight. Considering that metabolic effect of maternal-fetal competition could be ...
McGrath J - - 1999
The central nervous system is increasingly being recognised as a target organ for vitamin D via its wide-ranging steroid hormonal effects and via the induction of various proteins such as nerve growth factor. This paper proposes that low maternal vitamin D may impact adversely on the developing foetal brain, leaving ...
Moore S E - - 1999
Research over the past decade has suggested that prenatal and early postnatal nutrition influence the risk of developing chronic degenerative diseases up to 60 years later. We now present evidence that risk of death from infectious diseases in young adulthood is similarly programmed by early life events. In three rural ...
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