Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1169
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Gilbert Gregg H - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to: 1) test hypotheses that behavioral factors, baseline clinical status, and incident tooth loss are significantly associated with attachment loss incidence (ALI) and 2) quantify the effect of incident tooth loss on conclusions made about ALI. METHODS: The Florida Dental Care Study was ...
Batt Richard - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Weather-related general aviation accidents remain one of the most significant causes for concern in aviation safety. Previous studies have typically compared accident and non-accident cases. In contrast, the current study does not concentrate on occurrence outcome. Instead, the emphasis is on the different behaviors that pilots exhibit in the ...
Ogawa S - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The analgesic effect of oral sucrose in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures is generally accepted. For blood sampling, some studies have shown that venepuncture (VP) is less painful than heel lance (HL). OBJECTIVE: To determine the least painful and most effective method among blood sampling by VP or HL ...
Zelenko Marina - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To explore heart rate (HR) correlates of attachment behavior in young mothers and their infants to generate specific hypotheses and to provide pilot data on which studies to test those hypotheses might be based. METHOD: Using the strange situation procedure, patterns of attachment were assessed in 41 low-income adolescent ...
Savino Francesco - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the effectiveness and side effects of a phytotherapeutic agent with Matricariae recutita, Foeniculum vulgare and Melissa officinalis in the treatment of infantile colic. METHODS: 93 breastfed colicky infants were enrolled, the diagnosis was made according to Wessel's criteria. ...
St James-Roberts Ian - - 2005
Bouts of unexplained crying in 1- to 3-month-old infants are a common problem for parents and health services. One proposed explanation has linked the crying to preceding adversities, such as maternal stress and cigarette smoking during pregnancy and complications during childbirth. In the first part of this review, we argue ...
Aslin Richard N - - 2005
Studies of cognitive development in human infants have relied almost entirely on descriptive data at the behavioral level - the age at which a particular ability emerges. The underlying mechanisms of cognitive development remain largely unknown, despite attempts to correlate behavioral states with brain states. We argue that research on ...
Liaw Jen-Jiuan - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to examine whether relationships exist among various preterm infant behaviors. The study used an exploratory method design. Twenty infants were bathed and a total of 120 baths were video recorded and observed to measure preterm infant behaviors based on the frequency that behaviors occurred. ...
Oberlander Tim F - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: In this prospective study, we examined biobehavioral responses to acute procedural pain at 2 months of age in infants with prenatal and postnatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication exposure. Based on previous findings showing reduced pain responses in newborns after prenatal exposure, we hypothesized that altered pain reactivity ...
Grunau Ruth E - - 2005
Data from animal models indicate that neonatal stress or pain can permanently alter subsequent behavioral and/or physiological reactivity to stressors. However, cumulative effects of pain related to acute procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on later stress and/or pain reactivity has received limited attention. The objective of this ...
LaGasse Linda L - - 2005
Infant crying signals distress to potential caretakers who can alleviate the aversive conditions that gave rise to the cry. The cry signal results from coordination among several brain regions that control respiration and vocal cord vibration from which the cry sounds are produced. Previous work has shown a relationship between ...
Douglas Pamela S - - 2005
Excessive crying is the most common problem presenting to the doctor in the first months of life in western industrialised societies, affecting up to 30% of infants. There has been an exponential increase in the diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) in babies who cry excessively over the past few ...
Gartstein Maria A - - 2005
Conducted Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R; Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003) with samples of U.S. and Russian infants, examining cross-cultural differences in the structure of temperament. A generally consistent pattern of factor loadings across the two cultures was obtained following model modification.
Goberman Alexander M - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to add to the extant data base of acoustic cry studies by profiling the condition of laryngomalacia. We hypothesized that the acoustic characteristics of crying produced by an infant with laryngomalacia would differ compared to previously reported cry data for normal infants. An entire ...
David Daryn H - - 2005
Taylor and colleagues (2000) proposed that males tend to display fight or flight responses to threat while females are more likely to display affiliative "tend or befriend" responses. In light of this hypothesis, gender differences in infant attachment behaviors were examined in a sample of 65 low-income mother-infant dyads, half ...
Grabska Joanna - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Infants undergoing eye exams to screen for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) demonstrate physiologic and behavioral manifestations of pain and distress. Oral sucrose has analgesic properties that might reduce these effects. AIM: To determine the efficacy of oral sucrose in reducing the pain/distress of eye exams for ROP. METHODS: A ...
Fallang Bjørg - - 2005
The present paper presents clinical and neurophysiological data of postural behavior in preterm children without CP. Clinical follow-up studies of preterm infants until toddler and school age have reported that low-risk preterm infants may have atypical postural behavior in terms of reduced amount of rotation during crawling, delayed dynamic balance, ...
Weise Karen L - - 2005
Based on the content of the article, you will be able to: Identify the two drugs in EMLA and the youngest pediatric age for its approved use. List the procedures for which EMLA has been used to control pain in infants. Describe the efficacy of EMLA vs. other agents in ...
Als Heidelise H Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and Neurobehavioral Infant and Child Studies, Enders Pediatric Research Laboratories, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. - - 2005
The Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB) is a newborn neurobehavioral assessment appropriate for preterm, at risk, and full-term newborns, from birth to 1 month after expected due date. The APIB is based in ethological-evolutionary thought and focuses on the assessment of mutually interacting behavioral subsystems in simultaneous interaction with ...
Lyons-Ruth Karlen K Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School at Cambridge Hospital, 1493 Cambridge Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. - - 2005
In a recent meta-analysis, only 53% of disorganized infants were predicted by parental Unresolved states of mind on the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). The goal of this study was to identify additional predictors of infant disorganization on the AAI by developing and validating an interview-wide coding system for Hostile/Helpless (H/H) ...
Maestripieri Dario - - 2005
Previous studies have reported hyperactivation of catecholaminergic systems and elevated concentrations of corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of child maltreatment victims or combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study investigated the CSF concentrations of CRH and monoamine metabolites in rhesus macaque mothers that physically abused their ...
Ramirez Stephanie M - - 2004
In past research on human and nonhuman primates, maternal responsiveness and behavior has been thought of as an experiential, cognitive mechanism; however, recent findings have shown that maternal motivation and behavior may not be entirely divorced from the endocrine system. To investigate the relationship between interest in infants and the ...
Breau Lynn M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: To determine whether healthcare professionals perceive the pain of infants differently due to their understanding of that infant's level of risk for neurological impairment. METHOD: Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU's) at two tertiary pediatric centers. Ninety-five healthcare professionals who practice in the NICU (50 nurses, 19 physicians, 17 respiratory ...
Crockenberg Susan C - - 2004
Three issues were investigated: (a) the regulatory effects of presumed infant and maternal regulation behaviors on infant distress to novelty at 6 months, (b) stability of infant regulatory effects across contexts that vary in maternal involvement, and (c) associations and temporal dynamics between infant and maternal regulation behaviors. Participants were ...
Holsti Liisa - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Acute pain is a significant stressor for preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU); however, little is known about the effects of acute pain on subsequent motor responses during clusters of tactile handling. AIMS: (1) To compare facial, body and heart rate reactivity in preterm infants at 32 ...
Martin Martins J - - 2004
Behavioral and neuroendocrine differences may be postulated in hirsute subjects since central effects of gonadal steroids are well established. We conducted a controlled clinical study with 25 consecutive young hirsute participants compared with 20 consecutive controls. Neuropsychological evaluation included the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Edinburgh Inventory of ...
Davis Elysia Poggi - - 2004
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of prenatal exposure to betamethasone, a corticosteroid, on postnatal stress regulation, particularly activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Effects were assessed by measuring salivary cortisol production at baseline and in response to two potentially stressful events, a heel-stick blood draw ...
Lévy F - - 2004
In mammals, olfactory cues are extensively used in many aspects of maternal care to ensure the coordination of mother-infant interactions and consequently the normal development of the offspring. Outside the period of parturition and lactation, when the young are not a behavioral priority, olfactory cues play an inhibitory role on ...
Bakermans-Kranenburg M J - - 2004
In this first behavior genetic study on infant-father attachment, we estimated genetic and environmental influences on infant-father attachment behaviors and on temperamental dependency, both assessed with the Attachment Q-Sort (AQS; B. E. Vaughn & E. Waters, 1990; E. Waters, 1995). Mothers of mono- and dizygotic twins (N = 56 pairs) ...
Soltis Joseph - - 2004
In this article I evaluate recent attempts to illuminate the human infant cry from an evolutionary perspective. Infants are born into an uncertain parenting environment, which can range from indulgent care of offspring to infanticide. Infant cries are in large part adaptations that maintain proximity to and elicit care from ...
Kearney Joan A - - 2004
PROBLEM: In an effort to examine early negative emotional response patterns, infant responses to frustration were studied with specific regard to anger. METHODS: Forty infants, 7-9 months (n = 20) and 12-14 months (n = 20) old, were observed in laboratory play situations. Infant affective response as well as maternal ...
Kivijärvi Marja - - 2004
Maternal sensitivity behavior, mother's experienced difficulties, experienced social support, and the amount of infant's crying, fussing and contented behavior were studied when the infants were 3 and 12 months of age. Fifty-seven Finnish low-risk mothers' sensitivity behavior was assessed by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment method. Infant's crying behavior was ...
Jahromi Laudan B - - 2004
Previous research has investigated the effect of maternal soothing behaviors on reducing infant reactivity but not the differential effects of specific maternal behaviors on infant stress responses. The present study investigated maternal regulation of 2- and 6-month-olds' responses to an inoculation and found a significant decline with age in both ...
Mercer K - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To explore how infants with developmental delays express pain, we analysed facial expressions of infants receiving their routine immunization at around 4-6 months developmental age. The sample included eight infants with developmental disabilities (mean developmental age 4.8 months) and 30 typically developing infants (mean age 4 months). The Maximally ...
Holsti Liisa - - 2004
The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) is widely used in neonatal intensive care units and comprises 85 discrete infant behaviors, some of which may communicate infant distress. The objective of this study was to identify developmentally relevant movements indicative of pain in preterm infants. Forty-four preterm infants ...
Alberts Jeffrey R - - 2004
Infant rats (Rattus norvegicus) placed on a shallow incline (2 degrees, 4 degrees, or 8 degrees) oriented and moved downhill within 1 min; that is, they displayed positive geotaxis. Their downhill translocation increased with angle of inclination. A variety of possible behavioral elements (e.g., initial orientation, rotational movements, ambulatory velocities) ...
Ruscio Michael G - - 2004
Certain species can be induced to foster infant or neonatal animals through the process of sensitization. We induced brooding behavior in adult Japanese quail through repeated exposure to foster chicks across five 20-min trials. Brooding behavior was characterized by a bird allowing chicks to approach and remain underneath its wings ...
Darnaudéry Muriel - - 2004
Life events occurring during the perinatal period have strong long-term effects. In rats, prenatal stress, postnatal maternal separations, or adoptions at different periods are known to affect behavior and reactivity to stress in offspring. To determine the role of maternal factors on differential outcome adoptions, the authors investigated interactions between ...
Ward-Larson Charlotte - - 2004
PURPOSE: This study compared the efficacy of a behavioral pain reducing intervention (facilitated tucking) with standard neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) care for decreasing procedural pain (endotracheal suctioning) in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective randomized crossover design with infants as their own controls were ...
Alvarez Marissa - - 2004
Maternal caregiving and fussing/crying in Danish infants at 3, 6, and 12 weeks were examined using self-report scales and 24-hour behavior diaries. Mothers reported practices commonly associated with responsive caregiving: frequent feeding, prompt response to infant cries, and considerable time holding the infant. Fuss/cry durations peaked in the first 2 ...
Lavi-Avnon Yael - - 2004
Mediation of mother-infant interactions by the brain-gut peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) was examined by observing behavior of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, which lack functional CCKA receptors because of a genetic abnormality. OLETF (n = 10) and control (Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO] n = 10) dams interacted with 1 pup ...
Rifkin Anne - - 2004
Spotted hyena biology suggests mothers and infants will exhibit one of two alternative responses to separation: (a) Due to prolonged dependency, infants will act similarly to Old World monkeys, displaying distress and proximity seeking behaviors; or (b) because mother-infant separations are frequent in the wild, infants will exhibit little distress ...
Morelius E - - 2004
Newborn infants are subject to repetitive painful and stressful events during neonatal intensive care. When the baby attempts to cope with a stressful situation the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis is activated, releasing cortisol. The free cortisol response is optimally measured in saliva and saliva samples can be taken easily and without pain. ...
Bardi Massimo - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Human mothers display a wide range of parenting skills, and although we have gathered a large body of evidence on a variety of factors affecting maternal behavior, we still know relatively little about the physiologic correlates of variation in parental behavior in primates. METHODS: Excreted gonadal and adrenal steroids ...
Hamaguchi-Hamada Kayoko - - 2004
Fyn-deficient pups born of Fyn-deficient parents die because they fail to suckle within 1-2 days after birth. Here we demonstrate that the neonatal death phenotype was influenced by the genetic background and an environmental odor. The odor of hexanal (C6-aldehyde) partially impaired mouse maternal behavior and induced the neonatal death ...
Huang Chin-Mei - - 2004
The objective of this study was to compare the effects of containment and swaddling on premature infants ' heart rates (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO(2), and the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) scores after heelstick. The study used a cross-over experimental design, 32 premature infants with gestational age < 37 weeks, ...
Harrison Lynda Law - - 2004
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The purpose of this exploratory descriptive analysis was to explore relationships among physiological stress, behavioral stress, and motor activity cues in preterm infants when they were not being handled or disturbed, and to determine whether there were differences between younger and older preterm infants in these variables ...
Byers Jacqueline Fowler - - 2004
Unfortunately the history of pain management in infant care has included decades of inadequate analgesia for a wide range of medical procedures, including major surgery. This was justified in part on fear of drug and analgesic risks to the infant, as well as the commonly held belief that infants do ...
Ohgi S - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Infants with neonatal cerebral insults are susceptible to excessive crying as a result of difficulties with self-regulation. AIMS: To compare the effectiveness of swaddling versus massage therapy in the management of excessive crying of infants with cerebral insults. METHODS: Randomised three-week parallel comparison of the efficacy of two intervention ...
Grunau Ruth Eckstein - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of prone and supine position in preterm infants during acute pain of blood collection. Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Thirty-eight preterm infants (birthweight 1339 [590-2525] g, GA 29 [25- 32] wks) were in 2 groups depending on their ...
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