Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1170
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Slonims Vicky - - 2006
Delays in development of early social behaviors in babies with Down syndrome are likely to affect patterns of interaction with their caregivers. We videotaped 23 babies in face-to-face interaction with their mothers at 8 and 20 weeks of age and compared them to 23 typically developing infants and their mothers. ...
Boatella-Costa E - - 2007
The aim of the present study was to analyze gender differences in neonatal behavior. A sample of 188 healthy full-term newborns (88 boys and 100 girls) was assessed. The behavioral evaluations were performed using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), when the infants were between 48 and 80 hours ...
Cohen Lindsey L - - 2006
Distraction has been shown to be an effective technique for managing pain in children; however, few investigations have examined the utility of this technique with infants. The goal of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of movie distraction in reducing infants' immunization distress. Participants were 136 infants (range=1-21 ...
Nishio H - - 2006
We evaluated the effects of sound noise or forced swim stress applied to pregnant mice or to neonatal mice on the anxiety-related behavior using the elevated plus-maze test performed during the age of 5 weeks. The forced swim stress applied at the late gestation period, days 10-18 of pregnancy, caused ...
Hane Amie Ashley - - 2006
We sought to extend earlier work by examining whether there are ordinary variations in human maternal caregiving behavior (MCB) that are related to stress reactivity in infants. We observed 185 mother-infant dyads and used standard coding systems to identify variations in caregiving behavior. We then created two extreme groups and ...
Bissen-Miyajima Hiroko - - 2006
PURPOSE: To evaluate the behavior and aspiration of several ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVDs) during phacoemulsification. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Dental College Suidobashi Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. METHODS: Cohesive OVDs (sodium hyaluronate 1.0% [Healon and Provisc]), dispersive OVDs (sodium hyaluronate 3.0%-chondroitin sulfate 4.0% [Viscoat]), and new-generation OVDs such as viscoadaptive (sodium ...
Madigan Sheri - - 2006
The current meta-analysis examines the links between unresolved representations of attachment, anomalous parental behavior, and disorganized attachment relationships in 12 studies including 851 families. We found moderate effect sizes for the associations between unresolved states of mind and anomalous behavior (r = .26), unresolved states of mind and infant disorganized ...
Arnon Shmuel - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Music stimulation has been shown to provide significant benefits to preterm infants. We hypothesized that live music therapy was more beneficial than recorded music and might improve physiological and behavioral parameters of stable preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: Thirty-one stable infants randomly received live music, ...
de l'Etoile Shannon K - - 2006
Seventy, 6-9-month-old infants were videotaped during six interactions: mother sings assigned song, "stranger" sings assigned song, mother sings song of choice, mother reads book, mother plays with toy, and mother and infant listen to recorded music. Infant-directed (ID) singing conditions elicited moderately positive cognitive behavior, low levels of positive physical ...
Rautava Liisi - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Infant cry characteristics reflect the integrity of the central nervous system. Previous studies have shown that preterm infants and infants with neurological conditions have different cry characteristics such as fundamental frequency compared to healthy full-term infants. Cry characteristics of preterm infants after the first year of life have not ...
Valentino Kristin - - 2006
Mother-child play of 12-month-old infants (N=130) from maltreating (N=78) and non-maltreating (N=52) families was analyzed as a context that integrates infants' developing social and cognitive skills. Play was coded from semistructured and unstructured play paradigms. No group differences were found in infants' play maturity. Infants from abusing families demonstrated more ...
Rogers Alexander J - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether an oral sucrose solution improves pain response for infants undergoing bladder catheterization in an emergency department (ED) population. METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded study comparing the analgesic effects of a sucrose solution to placebo for infants < or = 90 days of age and requiring bladder catheterization. ...
Jaffe Benjamin D - - 2006
The examination of nonhuman primate (NHP) lateralized behaviors may provide insight into the evolution of hemispheric specialization. This study examined nipple preference in 64 infant macaques in order to consider the ontogeny of lateralized behavior. We used a focal animal sampling method to record nipple contact during 15, 30-min observation ...
Wiles Nicola J NJ Academic Unit of Psychiatry, Department of Community Based Medicine, University of Bristol, The Grange, 1 Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1AU, United Kingdom. - - 2006
Using data on 4,813 children from the ALSPAC cohort in Bristol, United Kingdom, recontacted in 1998-1999, the authors investigated whether intrauterine growth restriction (indexed by birth weight and length) was associated with behavioral problems at age 7 years. Childhood behavioral problems were measured by using a brief behavioral screening questionnaire ...
Davis E P - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine the consequences of antenatal betamethasone (AB) exposure on postnatal stress regulation. STUDY DESIGN: Fourteen AB exposed infants born at 28-30 weeks' gestation were assessed in the NICU during postnatal week 1 and at 34 weeks postconception. Nine infants born at 34 weeks gestation without AB treatment were ...
McCormick Marie C - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether improvements in cognitive and behavioral development seen in preschool educational programs persist, we compared those in a multisite randomized trial of such a program over the first 3 years of life (INT) to those with follow-up only (FUO) at 18 months of age. METHODS: This was ...
Peeters Mariska Y M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: To support safe and effective use of propofol in nonventilated children after major surgery, a model for propofol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is described. METHODS: After craniofacial surgery, 22 of the 44 evaluated infants (aged 3-17 months) in the pediatric intensive care unit received propofol (2-4 mg . kg-1 . ...
Madigan Sheri - - 2006
The links between unresolved maternal attachment status, disrupted maternal interaction in play situations, and disorganized attachment relationships were examined in a study of 82 adolescent mother-infant dyads. Maternal interactive behavior was measured using the Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification coding system. Additional rating scales were developed to ...
Brunelli Susan A - - 2006
For over 25 generations, two lines of rats (High and Low USV lines) have been selectively bred for extreme rates of infantile (45 kHz) ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in response to maternal separation at postnatal day (P)10. High and low line juveniles (P30-P40) were socially isolated and allowed to play in ...
Wurmser Harald - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine prospectively the relationship between prenatal life stress and infant crying/fussing during the first 6 months of postnatal life, taking into account an array of confounders suggested in the literature. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study of a convenient sample, with data points in pregnancy and at about 6 weeks, ...
Hayden Clive - - 2006
In this open, controlled, prospective study, 28 infants with colic were randomized to either cranial osteopathic manipulation or no treatment; all were seen once weekly for 4 weeks. Treatment was according to individual findings, and administered by the same practitioner. Parents recorded time spent crying, sleeping and being held/rocked on ...
Weiss Sandra J - - 2006
PURPOSE: This study examined the degree to which birthweight, gestational age, fetal drug exposure, hazardous postnatal medical events, and a mother's predisposition toward touch predicted the likelihood of an infant's tactile vulnerability during nursing care. SUBJECTS: The convenience sample included 99 hospitalized infants in their second week of life and ...
Boyle E M - - 2006
Screening is necessary for infants at risk of retinopathy of prematurity. Despite local anaesthetic drops, infants find eye examinations distressing, displaying behavioural and physiological changes indicating acute pain. Oral sucrose and non-nutritive sucking reduce pain responses associated with invasive procedures. To evaluate the use of oral sucrose and/or pacifier for ...
Carlson Kristian J - - 2006
We combine structural limb data and behavioral data for free-ranging chimpanzees from Taï (Ivory Coast) and Mahale National Parks (Tanzania) to begin to consider the relationship between individual variation in locomotor activity and morphology. Femoral and humeral cross sections of ten individuals were acquired via computed tomography. Locomotor profiles of ...
Bardi Massimo - - 2006
The simultaneous effects of naturally occurring individual differences in maternal care and maternal peripartum stress on infant development have been sparsely reported in nonhuman primates. In this work, we used a comparative approach to assess how changes in peripartum maternal excreted cortisol levels and the quality of mother-infant interactions correlate ...
Abrams Kelley Yost - - 2006
Following Main and Hesse's hypothesis, several investigators have affirmed that frightened/frightening (FR) as well as particular atypical maternal behaviors are associated with infant disorganized and adult unresolved attachment. Here, for the first time, FR behavior was observed in (a) middle-class father-infant (n = 25) and independent mother-infant dyads (n = ...
Jordan Brigid - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of medical antireflux treatment, and of an infant mental health consultation (IMHC), on persistent crying in infants and maternal distress. METHODS: Infants under 9 months of age with persistent crying, and their mothers, were enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. At enrollment, a questionnaire on ...
Crockenberg Susan C - - 2006
The degree to which infant regulatory behaviors, together with infant reactivity to novelty, predicted anxious behavior at 2.5 years, and the moderating effect of maternal behavior were tested. Sixty-four low-risk mothers and infants participated. Mothers rated infant negative reactivity and anxious behavior; infant and maternal behaviors were observed at 6 ...
Weiss Brigitte M - - 2006
Studies of the vocal behavior of resident killer whales or orcas, Orcinus orca, in British Columbia have shown that matrilines have unique call repertoires consisting of up to 17 different call types. These call types cannot be attributed exclusively to specific behaviors, and their function in social contexts is poorly ...
Stevens Bonnie - - 2006
BACKGROUND: A number of infant pain measures have been developed over the past 15 years incorporating behavioural and physiologic indicators; however, no reliable or valid measure exists for infants who are at risk for neurological impairments (NI). The objective of this study was to establish consensus about which behavioural, physiologic ...
Guzzetta Franco - - 2006
Cognitive and behavioral impairments in West syndrome are analyzed at the onset of the disease. Multimodal sensory impairments, namely of the visual function, that are usually associated with the acute stage of the disease, are stressed as possible mechanisms interfering with cognitive development. This notion could open a rehabilitation prospective ...
Roma Peter G - - 2006
The effects of appetitive controllability on behavioral and cortisol reactivity to novelty in 12 infant rhesus monkeys were studied. Surrogate-peer-reared infants had homecage access to food treats contingently via lever pressing ("master") or noncontingently ("yoked") for 12 weeks from postnatal month 2. Masters lever-pressed more, but did not differ in ...
Lemyre Brigitte - - 2006
Procedural pain relief is sub-optimal in infants, especially small and vulnerable ones. Tetracaine gel 4% (Ametop, Smith-Nephew) provides pain relief in children and larger infants, but its efficacy in smaller infants and for peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) remains uncertain. The objective of this trial was to assess the safety ...
Underdown A - - 2006
Infant massage is increasingly being used in the community for low-risk babies and their primary care givers. Anecdotal claims suggest benefits for sleep, respiration, elimination and the reduction of colic and wind. Infant massage is also thought to reduce infant stress and promote positive parent-infant interaction. The aim of this ...
Hernández-Lloreda María Victoria - - 2005
Change, stasis, stability, discontinuity, orderliness, and diversity are all potential characteristics of developmental systems. This study uses multilevel modeling to characterize the normative developmental pathways of the early social relationships of 23 mother-infant pairs embedded in a multilayered colony of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas). The relationships were assessed by ...
Lee Hae-Kyung - - 2005
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the premature infants' responses to infant massage (tactile and kinesthetic stimulation). These responses measured by weight, physiological (vagal tone, heart rate, oxygen saturation) and behavioral responses (behavioral states, motor activities, and behavioral distress). METHODS: This study was conducted using an equivalent ...
Catelin Céline - - 2005
The aim of this randomized crossover study was to evaluate the impact of environmental and behavioral interventions (EBI) on behavioral, physiologic, and biologic stress response during a weighing procedure in neonates. Three groups of 15 neonates included (A) gestational age (GA), < or =32 weeks; (B) GA, 32 weeks, 1 ...
Jenni Oskar G - - 2006
The development of the 24-h rest-activity pattern was investigated in human infants under naturalistic conditions as assessed by continuous actigraphy. Seven infants and their mothers were recorded for 4 (n=1), 6 (n=5) and 12 months (n=1) after birth. Periodogram analysis of rest-activity data was performed over consecutive 10-day intervals. A ...
Ahn Youngmee - - 2006
An explanatory observational study was conducted to assess the behavioral state before and during various procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to investigate the relationship between the behavioral state measured by Anderson Behavioral State Scoring System (ABSS) and the degree of pain responses as measured using CRIES ...
Hurwitz I - - 2006
CCK involvement in stress- and pain-responsiveness was examined by studying the behavior of infant (11-12-days-old) and adult OLETF rats that do not express CCK1 receptors. Infant odor- and texture-preferences were also assessed. We hypothesized that OLETF rats will show behavioral patterns similar to those previously observed after CCK1 antagonist administration. ...
Berger Sarah E - - 2005
This study examined whether 16-month-old walking infants take the material composition of a handrail into account when assessing its effectiveness as a tool to augment balance. Infants were encouraged to cross from one platform to another via bridges of various widths (10, 20, 40 cm) with either a "wobbly" (foam ...
Brunelli Susan A - - 2005
Mother-infant separation in the rat has been used as an analytical tool to reveal biosocial processes underlying infant physiology and behavior. The same strategy has guided a project in which selective breeding for an infantile behavior has provided insights into how biological systems become recruited and integrated as expressions of ...
Winberg Jan - - 2005
This article reviews 30 years of work demonstrating that interactions between mother and newborn infant in the period just after birth influence the physiology and behavior of both. Close body contact of the infant with his/her mother helps regulate the newborn's temperature, energy conservation, acid-base balance, adjustment of respiration, crying, ...
Hill David J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: There is controversy regarding whether hypersensitivity to food proteins contributes to colic among breastfed infants. METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial of a low-allergen maternal diet was conducted among exclusively breastfed infants presenting with colic. In the active arm, mothers excluded cow's milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, and ...
Braarud Hanne Cecilie - - 2006
The relation between maternal soothing and infant stress response during inoculation was examined in a sample of 37 mothers and their 3-month-old infants. The mothers' soothing and the infants' cry vocalizations and the mothers' and the infants' salivary cortisol level pre- and post-injection were analysed. There was a positive relation ...
García-de la Parra L M - - 2006
The toxicity of methamidophos on the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was evaluated using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, behavior, and feeding rate as effect criteria. The biochemical characterization of the soluble cholunesterase (ChE) present in both muscle and eye tissues of L. vannamei was performed in a first phase of the study. In ...
Medoff-Cooper Barbara - - 2005
The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to explore potential changes in the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS) from 40 to 44 weeks postconceptional age (PCA) and (2) to determine the relationship between the BNBAS scores and feeding behaviors in preterm infants at 40 and 44 weeks PCA. ...
Muller Jeff M - - 2005
Although dopamine is necessary for mammalian adult pair-bond formation and maternal behavior, its function in infant social behavior and attachment has been less thoroughly explored. The vocalization rate of an isolated rat pup is influenced by recent social contact. Interactions with the dam potentiate vocalization rate. Interactions with littermates or ...
Moscardino Ughetta - - 2006
This study examined the continuity, stability, and change of infants' responses to a frustrating event (i.e., arm restraint) between 2 and 6 months in terms of both negative reactivity and its regulation. Fifty-two healthy, full-term infants and their mothers participated in an arm restraint procedure. Infant behaviors were observed and ...
South Mary M T - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to study the effects on the physiologic pain response of the neonate during circumcision with the use of a gloved human finger. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomized controlled trial analyzing the effect of non-nutritive sucking (NNS) on pain response during circumcision. Term ...
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