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Hofer M A - - 1994
In recent years, animal research has revealed a network of simple behavioral and biological processes that underlie the psychological constructs we use to define early social relationships. Hidden within the observable interactions of parent and offspring are sensorimotor, thermal and nutrient-based events which have unexpected and widespread regulatory effects on ...
Alberts J R - - 1994
The present report advocates an adaptive, ecological approach to the study of learning in infants. Concepts of developmental niche and ontogenetic adaptation are applied to early mammalian development. Within this conceptual framework, it is asserted that learning cannot be fully understood separately from a behaving body; that learning is a ...
Pinyerd B J - - 1994
It is generally agreed that the infant communicates physiological and psychological distress to caregivers by crying. Crying that is atypical in amount, intensity, duration, or quality could signal a physiological problem before the problem becomes obvious in other ways. Thus, cry analysis could soon become an important tool in early ...
Treloar D M - - 1994
Crying in healthy, recently born infants has been associated with decreased oxygenation, which may prolong adjustment to extrauterine life. This research investigated the use of nonnutritive sucking (NNS) as an intervention to reduce crying and prevent any decreases in oxygenation that may occur in crying healthy term infants between 9 ...
McIntosh N - - 1994
The hypothesis that the variability of physiological parameters may indicate pain or stress in the neonate was examined. Four parameters (heart rate, respiratory rate, transcutaneous oxygen tension, and carbon dioxide tension) were examined over a 2 minute epoch in response to a heel prick in an attempt to measure stress/pain ...
Rushforth J A - - 1994
A bedside technique for evaluating the behavioural response of healthy neonates to pain was assessed. Thirty six term infants (median gestational age 40 weeks; median postnatal age 4 days) and 31 preterm infants (median gestational age 34 weeks; median postnatal age 4 days) were assessed at the cotside for their ...
Taddio A - - 1994
PURPOSE: To determine whether use of lidocaine-prilocaine 5% cream (EMLA) decreases pain associated with diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccination in infants. METHODS: Randomize, double-blind, controlled trial in outpatient pediatric practice, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Before vaccination, parents applied 2.5 gm of EMLA or placebo to the infant's leg and covered it with an ...
Wilson C - - 1994
Presentation of maternal stimuli to an isolated rat pup results in what has been called "comfort" responses, as indicated by both behavioral and physiological quieting. This experiment investigated the role of passive maternal stimuli on tonic immobility and dorsal immobility in 9- and 16-day-old rat pups. Although these stimuli appeared ...
Koynova R - - 1994
LIPIDAT is a computerized database providing access to the wealth of information scattered throughout the literature concerning synthetic and biologically derived polar lipid polymorphic and mesomorphic phase behavior. The database is considered comprehensive for glycerophospholipids, glycoglycerolipids, sphingolipids and natural membrane extracts. Here, a review of the LIPIDAT data subset referring ...
Flanagan P J - - 1994
PURPOSE: To study the relationship between mother-infant interaction and an infant's preverbal communication skills among a group of teenage mothers and their infants, 13 teenage mother-infant pairs were videotaped in a free-play setting. The infants were then videotaped in a structured setting, with an examiner, designed to elicit preverbal communication ...
Donzelli G P - - 1994
A new method of computerized cry analysis has been utilized to evaluate the cries of infants affected by severe protein energy malnutrition. We studied 17 Kenian babies affected by severe malnutrition for more than four months (9 cases of marasmus and 8 of kwashiorkor) and a control group of 17 ...
Barlow C F - - 1994
This report consists of 13 patients who on retrospective analysis had had periodic symptomatology in the first 2 years of life, and who on later evaluation were determined to have juvenile migraine. The commonest early expression consisted of vomiting, accompanied by behavioral change. Seven of 13 showed some indication of ...
Smotherman W P - - 1994
Study of behavior during development presents psychobiologists and neurobiologists with a unique set of problems that should be addressed in the design and analysis of experiments. Some of these caveats have become apparent only with the recent growth in research with subjects around the time of birth. For example, physiological ...
Gustafson G E - - 1994
This study investigated the possibility that one function of the human infant's cry is to convey individual identity across distance. Six-hundred adults, having been exposed to 30 s of an infant's crying, were asked to identify this infant on the basis of other, experimentally altered, cries. The cries were altered ...
Calkins S D - - 1994
Recent discussions of emotion regulation in infants and young children have focused on the individual differences that exist in this domain of development. Such differences may be seen at the outcome level, in terms of variations in the development of particular strategies as a result of infant or caregiver effects. ...
Blass E M - - 1994
Three studies of normal human newborns and of newborns of methadone-maintained mothers evaluated how orotactile (pacifier) and orogustatory (sucrose) stimulation, alone and in combination, affected crying behavior, heart rate, gross motor activity, eye opening, and hand-mouth coordination. For each measure of infant state, pacifier and sucrose stimulation each caused significant ...
Thompson A M - - 1993
As part of an investigation of the development of laterality, 150 neonates were tested for bilateral asymmetries in behavior. Palmar and plantar grasping, and head-turning preference were measured, and observations were made of the way mothers held their babies and laid them in their cribs. Overall, right head-turning predominated. However, ...
Lewis M - - 1993
The behavioral and cortisol responses of Japanese infants and Caucasian American infants, 4 months of age, were observed during and following routine inoculation. The Caucasian American group showed a more intense initial affective response and a longer latency to quiet than the Japanese group; the Japanese group showed a greater ...
White-Traut R C - - 1993
PURPOSE: To determine the safety of a developmental intervention for use with preterm infants and feasibility of a time sampling procedure. METHODOLOGY: An experimental design was used to test an intervention with clinically stable 33-34-week postconceptional age infants over a 4-day period. Repeated outcome measures included pulse rate, oxygen saturation ...
Stevens B J - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To describe the physiologic and behavioral responses of premature neonates to a painful stimulus. DESIGN: Descriptive. SETTING: Secondary-level neonatal unit in a large metropolitan university teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Forty neonates between 32 and 34 weeks' postconceptual age and less than 5 days' postnatal age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physiologic (heart ...
Miller A R - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prepartum and postpartum emotional distress in first-time mothers is associated with crying and fussing behavior and activity level in 6-week-old infants, after eliminating potential biases. DESIGN: Observational study examining predictive and concurrent associations between maternal emotions and infant behaviors. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Expectant primiparas attending ...
Rushforth J A - - 1993
It has been suggested that sucrose acts as an analgesic in the neonatal period. To evaluate this further, 52 infants received either 2 ml of 7.5% sucrose or 2 ml of sterile water before heel stab blood sampling. The duration of crying in response to sampling did not differ in ...
Zeskind P S - - 1993
The purpose of the present study was to examine the temporal morphology and rhythmic structure underlying the repeated bursts of expiratory sounds in a sustained bout of crying of twenty-three 1-month-old infants. Durations of expiratory sounds and bursts were determined from a 90-s bout of naturally occurring cries recorded in ...
Oehler J M - - 1993
Mothers of 47 very low birth weight ( < 1,500 gram) infants were interviewed concerning their feelings and views about interactions with them. Interviews were conducted within the first ten days and again three to five weeks after birth. Over the first month of the baby's hospitalization, mothers significantly increased ...
Carroll D A - - 1993
Previous studies in human infants, rabbits, and rats have shown that states of sleep and wakefulness can be reliably identified from motility signals produced by respiration and body movement. Thoman has described a computer-scoring algorithm for automated scoring of behavioral states from motility signals in human infants. In the present ...
Pearce S - - 1993
As part of a larger study designed to test the predictive power of recordings of infant cry for neurological development at a year of age, we have developed a summary measure of a cry which shows a very high consistency within an individual. This measure may be useful in making ...
Barr R G - - 1993
To summarize, it has been argued that: 1. The assessment of complaints about crying and colic present particular diagnostic problems. 2. The crying brought as a complaint seldom indicates disease. 3. Once clinical disease has been ruled out, the clinical meanings of normality and abnormality no longer apply. 4. At ...
Parkin P C - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three methods in the management of infantile colic. METHODS: Healthy infants with persistent crying were randomly assigned to one of three groups for a 2-week period. All groups received an assessment and reassurance from a pediatrician and support ...
Hayes M J - - 1993
The spontaneous motor activity of clinically stable premature infants, 26-36 weeks gestational age, was investigated. Movements were recorded using a pressure-sensitive transducer positioned below the infant's head and torso. Behavior samples were digitized every 0.5 s during 2 and 3-hr continuous recording sessions. Time-series analyses revealed prominent motility cycles of ...
Becker P T - - 1993
The purpose of this study was to determine whether modifying care to reduce stressors in the neonatal intensive care unit and support infant development affected physiological, motor, and behavioral state organization. Twenty-one infants weighing less than 1501 g were studied prior to a nursing staff-training program (control) and 24 infants ...
Werner L A - - 1993
The nature of age-related improvements in auditory sensitivity was explored by comparing behavioral and auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds in 3- and 6-month-old infants and in adults. Thresholds were estimated for tone pips at 1, 4, and 8 kHz, presented at a rate of 13.3/s. The time course of development ...
Adrien J L - - 1993
Ratings of family home movies of 12 infants (0 to 2 years old) who were later diagnosed as autistic and 12 normal infants were performed by two diagnosis-blind psychiatrists with Infant Behavior Summarized Evaluation scale. The objective was to identify early symptoms of autism and their intensity and frequency before ...
Landry S H - - 1993
Medically high-risk (HR), low birth weight (LBW) preterm infants (n = 11) with significant degrees of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) were seen at 12 and 24 months of age. This HR group was compared with a low-risk (LR) LBW preterm group (n = 16) with respiratory distress syndrome or mild grades ...
Elander G - - 1993
To examine pain management in infants after surgery, 12 infants were observed and audiovisually recorded for 24 hours postoperatively following major surgery. Analgesic administration, sleep-awake states, facial expression-vocalization, and care routines were monitored. A clinical pain scoring system (Attia, Amiel-Tison, Mayer, Shnider, & Barrier, 1987) was used to analyze the ...
Lyons-Ruth K - - 1993
This study of 62 low-income families examined the relation between maternal and infant measures assessed at 18 months infant age and child behavior problems at age 5 as rated by preschool teachers. The infancy assessments included measures of mother-infant interaction, maternal psychosocial problems, infant cognitive development, and infant attachment security, ...
Mayberry L J - - 1993
Although limited in number, reported research studies indicate a relationship between maternal perceptions of infant temperament and postpartum depression. Excessive crying in particular and the extent of adaptability and predictability have been implicated as infant behavioral indices. In this article, we present the results of a review of the literature ...
Weissbluth L - - 1993
Infant crying during the first 3 months of life exhibits a circadian rhythm with peak crying in the evening hours. Intracellular calcium ion within the pineal gland may be influenced by alternating light and dark, melatonin concentrations, and serotonin concentrations which both exhibit circadian rhythmicity. Differences in light by latitude ...
Widen J E - - 1993
This article deals with the limitations of infant behavioral audiometry, which have led us to seek objective methods of audiometry for determining hearing sensitivity in infants. It describes efforts to add objectivity to (or reduce the subjectivity of) behavioral methods of infant audiometry. Several aspects of visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA), ...
Levine S - - 1993
The behavioral and hormonal responses of mother and infant squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were examined to assess temporal and environmental factors that influence the response to separation. In two experiments evaluating the effects of 1-, 3-, 6-, and 24-hr separations, it was found that signs of infant behavioral agitation decreased ...
Beebe S A - - 1993
Infant crying is a well-recognized source of parental concern and anxiety, but little is known about other possible effects of excessive crying on parents or caretakers. The objective of this descriptive study was to investigate the relationship between reported infant crying and parenting stress. Mothers, who were consecutively enrolled at ...
Morse J M - - 1993
Analysis of 40 h of videotaped caregiving to four male infants was conducted using ethology. All infants were full term and had major chest surgery 12 h previously. All incidents of caregiver-infant interaction were examined, and the verbal and tactile comforting behavior of the caregiver was coded for duration, context, ...
St James-Roberts I - - 1993
Parents commonly seek clinicians' help for infant crying that they judge to be excessive. To date there is no independent evidence whether such babies actually cry more than average. To assess this, maternal diary and 24 hour audiotape recordings of the crying periods of 16 infants referred for excessive crying ...
Derrickson J G - - 1993
We report the effects of using a visual and auditory stimulus signaling impending painful medical procedures versus "safe" periods on the affective behavior of a hospitalized infant. The results of a reversal design suggested that the signaling procedures increased positive behaviors and decreased negative behaviors during both noninvasive and invasive ...
Westergaard G C - - 1992
Infant baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis) in a captive peer group used objects as containers, drinking utensils, and sponges in the context of play. The baboons later used paper, browse, and other materials as tools to extract sweet liquids from apparatus designed to accommodate sponging and probing behavior. The results of ...
Calkins S D - - 1992
The purpose of this study was to examine the relations among infant temperament, attachment, and behavioral inhibition. 52 infants were seen at 2 days, 5, 14, and 24 months of age. Assessments were made of temperament at 2 days and 5 months of age, and attachment and behavioral inhibition were ...
Tronick E Z - - 1992
The neurobehavioral organization of 16 Efe Mbuti (pygmy) infants was examined over the first weeks of life using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Mbuti infants are the smallest well-grown, full-term infants in the world, i.e., length and weight below the 10th percentile but ponderal index above the 50th percentile. ...
Robinson S R - - 1992
Techniques that permit direct observation of fetuses in vivo recently have expanded our understanding of prenatal behavioral development in mammals. Although fetal motor activity seems to lack the dynamic, goal-directed character of postnatal behavior, the dimensions that define behavioral organization after birth are applicable to the movements expressed by fetuses. ...
Auerbach J G - - 1992
A sample of 29 psychiatrically ill women and a non-ill comparison group were recruited during pregnancy. Twelve of the ill mothers were receiving antipsychotic and anti-anxiety medication during the final trimester of pregnancy. The behavior of their infants was assessed at 3 and 14 days of age using the Brazelton ...
Schneider M L - - 1992
This prospective study investigated whether mild maternal stress during pregnancy could alter the behavioral and affective responses in rhesus monkey infants in a complex, novel environment. Twenty-four rhesus monkey infants were tested on three occasions at 6 months of age in a novel environment. Twelve infants were derived from mothers ...
Koniak-Griffin D - - 1992
The effects of videotape instruction and feedback (videotherapy) on mothering behaviors were evaluated in this longitudinal study. In this study, 31 adolescents and their healthy infants were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. All subjects were videotaped during structured mother-infant teaching episodes in their homes at 1 and 2 ...
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