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Results 651 - 700 of 1166
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Champoux Maribeth - - 1997
A colony-born male rhesus monkey neonate was assigned to an ongoing protocol assessing behavioral and physiologic development in nursery-reared infants. It was sacrificed at day 20 because of poor weight gain, inability to self-feed, and generalized weakness. An asymmetric internal hydrocephalus was the only notable gross finding at necropsy. A ...
Faden V B - - 1997
This study examined the effects of substance use (alcohol, tobacco and/or drugs (cocaine and/or marijuana)) and healthy maternal behavior (prenatal care, prenatal class, vitamins, regular exercise) during gestation on pregnancy outcome. Live births from the nationally representative 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey were analyzed. Pregnancy outcomes (infant birth ...
Robb M P - - 1997
The durational characteristics of 10 normal infant's complete crying episodes are reported. The cries of each child were audiorecorded at 2 days postpartum and acoustically analyzed for overall occurrence of expiratory cry segments, inspiratory cry segments, and nonphonatory 'pause' segments. In general, remarkable similarity was found across infants with regard ...
Worlein J M - - 1997
The social development of 240 nursery-reared pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) was studied from postnatal weeks 4 to 32. The objectives of the study were to document developmental trends and evaluate social behavior in laboratory-reared M. nemestrina raised at the University of Washington Infant Primate Laboratory, and to identify husbandry factors ...
Zeskind P S - - 1996
Studied the autonomic regulation of 37 infants with a typical cry threshold and 17 infants with a high cry threshold (typical of problems in nervous system function). Infants with a high cry threshold had a longer latency to cry, a shorter first cry sound, and a shorter overall bout of ...
Lester B M - - 1996
Determined the relationship between behaviour measured with the Brazel zelton Scale and simultaneously recorded cardiorespiratory activity. The Brazelton Scale was administered and videotaped in a sample of 22 term and 22 preterm infants at term conceptional age. The videotapes were coded off line with a computer interface to time lock ...
Minami T - - 1996
Primate infants separated from their mothers and kept alone for a long period may exhibit behavioral disorders and develop stereotyped behavior according to genetic predispositions of the infants and environmental factors such as characteristics of the cage. However, it is not clear whether the locomotive and repetitive stereotyped behaviors are ...
Porges S W - - 1996
Cardiac vagal tone is a construct that describes the functional relationship between the brainstem and the heart. Cardiac vagal tone is measured by quantifying the amplitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia, a component of heart rate variability reflecting the functional output of vagal pathways on the heart. Although there is an ...
Johnston C C - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of being in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on pain responses in infants of 32 weeks' postconceptual age (PCA). DESIGN: A cross-sectional comparative design was used. SETTING: Two level III NICUs, each in metropolitan, university teaching hospitals. PATIENTS: Infants of 32 weeks' PCA born ...
Hofer M A - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To describe how an animal model system can be used to explore basic questions about the nature of loss and the effects of early loss on later vulnerability to disease. METHOD: The physiological and behavioral responses of infant rats to separation from their mothers are first described and then ...
James-Roberts I S - - 1996
According to the commonest definition, infant colic is distinguished by crying which is 'paroxysmal'-that is, intense and different in type from normal fussing and crying. To test this, maternal reports of the distress type of 67 infants whose fuss/crying usually exceeded three hours a day ('persistent criers') were scrutinised using ...
Pedersen F A - - 1996
In a sample of 60 primiparous women, cardiac response and ratings of subjective aversiveness to recordings of unfamiliar infant cries were studied at 32 weeks' gestation. Regression analyses were used to examine relations between cardiac acceleration and subjective aversiveness and 3 groups of postnatal dependent variables: perception of infant temperament, ...
Kurihara H - - 1996
Adrenocortical response to stress in neonates was assessed by estimating salivary concentrations of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S). Behavioral responses to stress were also scored clinically, according to the method of Lewis and Thomas [15]. The modulation of these measures by hearing maternal heartbeat was also evaluated. Levels of ...
Tyson P D - - 1996
Infant crying can be a source of parental stress both psychologically and physiologically and also may be an antecedent to physical child abuse or neglect. Biodesensitization is a new therapeutic technique that allows people to control the source of stress and develop self-control over their physiological responses to the stress-eliciting ...
Finan D S - - 1996
A new device for the stimulation of intraoral tissues in human neonates is described. This instrument, known as an actifier, features a wide frequency range for mechanical stimulation, integrated multichannel electomyographic electrode pairs, and the capacity for transducing law compression during non-nutritive sucking behavior. The stimulus/recording interface consists of a ...
Braungart-Rieker J M - - 1996
We examined continuity, stability, and change in behaviors reflecting infant reactivity and regulation. Healthy infants were observed in laboratory situations designed to elicit frustration when they were 5 (N = 87) and 10 months of age (N = 82). Behaviors indicative of reactivity included objective ratings of average intensity cry, ...
Tarabulsy G M - - 1996
In this report, the authors review studies addressing the issue of contingencies in social and nonsocial contexts during infancy. The review is divided into 4 groups of studies that suggest that (a) young infants detect contingencies unrelated to their behavior; (b) infants detect contingencies involving their behavior; (c) the study ...
Stern J M - - 1996
Profound deficits in maternal behavior occur following postpartum bilateral infraorbital denervation (IO-X), with substantial recovery 12-24 h later. In the present experiment, primiparous rats were subjected to IO-X or sham surgery on gestation day 22. Whereas parturition behavior was normal in controls, it was severely disrupted in all IO-X dams. ...
Abad F - - 1996
To evaluate the effectiveness of oral sucrose in the prevention of pain-induced crying in preterm infants, a sample of 28 healthy neonates (15M, 13F; gestational age at procedure less than 37 weeks) who were having routine blood drawn by arm venipuncture was studied. Infants were randomly allocated to receive by ...
Gunnar M R - - 1996
Changes in cortisol and behavioral responses were examined longitudinally in 83 infants (39 girls, 44 boys) tested at their well-baby exams with inoculations at 2, 4, 6, and 15 months (72 infants completed all testing). Another sample of 2-, 4-, and 6-month-olds (n = 18 per age) received mock exams ...
Johnston C C - - 1996
Twenty-eight preterm infants of 28 weeks gestational age were observed four times over eight weeks in order to determine changes in their pain response. Both routine and sham heelstick procedures were used. Physiological (heart rate and oxygen saturations) and behavioural parameters (three upper facial actions) were used as outcomes. The ...
Elliott M R - - 1996
How families appraise difficult situations contributes to later adaptive functioning. We have observed in both research and practice that when appraising their infants' crying, mothers often compared their own infants' crying to actual or supposed much worse infants. They typically appraised their infants to be crying less than average infants. ...
Stifter C A - - 1996
The stability of infant temperament and autonomic patterning (heart period and cardiac vagal tone) was examined longitudinally when infants were 5, 10, and 18 months of age. Behavioral measures of reactivity and regulation to frustration tasks, and maternal perceptions of infant temperament were obtained at each age along with baseline ...
Barr R G - - 1996
Healthy infants born at term cry most in the first three months of life, with a peak and increased crying in the evening during the second month. To determine whether the crying of preterm infants manifests similar features, the pattern of crying from 40 weeks gestational age through 24 weeks ...
Alvarez M - - 1996
Infant crying amounts and patterns in 590 1- to 12-month-old infants in an urban community in Denmark were studied using the Crying Patterns Questionnaire. The impact of the crying on parents and the primary health services was also assessed. The results showed that Danish mothers leave their infants to "cry ...
Rabel S R SR Pharmacy R&D, Du Pont Merck Pharmaceutical Company, Wilmington, Delaware 19880-0400, USA. - - 1996
The solubility of a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, (S)-6-chloro-4-(cyclopropylethynyl)-1,4-dihydro-4-(trifluoromethyl )- 2H-3,1-benzoxazin-2-one (DMP 266), was investigated as a function of pH. A dramatic increase in the aqueous solubility was observed at pH > or = 10, which was consistent with going from a neutral to a charged species. The ionization of ...
Stephenson G R - - 1996
A generalizable, computerized method has been designed to describe in detail interactive events that occur within phases of a process involving two or more interactants. The objectives of the method are: (A) visual discernment of patterns of events within and across phases through graphically displayed data and (B) summarization of ...
Ramenghi L A - - 1996
The potential of sucrose to reduce the pain response in a group of healthy premature infants was investigated. Fifteen infants of 32-34 weeks postmenstrual age were tested in a blind crossover manner on two separate occasions no more than two days apart. Either 1 ml of 25% sucrose solution or ...
Allen K D - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of sucrose as an analgesic agent during routine immunization injections for infants (age range, 2 weeks to 18 months). STUDY DESIGN: Double-blind, randomized control trial. SETTING: Ambulatory care clinic of a large tertiary care center. PARTICIPANTS: A consecutive sample of 285 infants were randomly assigned ...
Stevens B - - 1996
Inadequate assessment of pain in premature infants is a persistent clinical problem. The objective of this research was to develop and validate a measure for assessing pain in premature infants that could be used by both clinicians and researchers. The Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) was developed and validated using ...
Boliek C A - - 1996
Vocalization and breathing were studied in 40 healthy infants, including five boys and five girls each at ages 5 weeks, 2.5 months, 6.5 months, and 12 months. Breathing was monitored through the use of a variable inductance plethysmograph that enabled estimates of the volume changes of the rib cage, abdomen, ...
Gilbert H R - - 1996
The vocal fundamental frequency (Fo) characteristics of four infants' hunger cries are reported. The infants were audio recorded at monthly intervals during the first year of life. In general, each infant's Fo increased across the one-year period. The increase in Fo was attributed to the transition from early reflexive crying ...
Keefe M R - - 1996
Infantile colic is characterized by persistent crying, diminished soothability, and excessive activity or restlessness. The purpose of this study was to explore the processes underlying the persistent, recurrent irritability by investigating behavioral and interactional differences in irritable and nonirritable infants. In this two-group longitudinal study, 40 infants and their mothers ...
Mangelsdorf S C - - 1995
One of the major adaptations during the infancy period is the development of the ability to cope with arousing or uncertain events. The following study was designed to examine emotion regulation strategy use between 6 and 18 months. 75 infants (25 each of 6-, 12-, and 18-month-olds) were videotaped interacting ...
Lowinger S - - 1995
The relationship between maternal physical and social contact styles and infant attachment behavior under stress and nonstress conditions was studied at 2 different age points during the 1st year of life. The infants (29 girls and 15 boys) and their mothers were observed in their homes at 4 and 7 ...
Ulrich B D - - 1995
Infants with Down syndrome (DS) represent a population in which new behaviors are acquired significantly more slowly than in nondisabled infants. We propose that infants' spontaneous movements hold a key to understanding the process of development--of integrating intrinsic dynamics and function. In this investigation, we compared the spontaneous leg movements ...
Youngblut J M - - 1995
The stability of mothers' attitudes toward employment, employment status, and consistency between employment attitudes and behavior over a 15-month period was examined. Factors such as family finances, availability of child care, and child's health status that could influence either employment attitudes or employment behavior were explored. Mothers of preterm infants ...
Coplan J D - - 1995
In summary, VFD subjects appear to have sustained long-term behavioral and biologic sequelae following disruption of normative maternal-infant attachment patterns. The sequelae are primarily manifest as stable anxiety or affective traits and, from a biologic perspective, are most analogous to recent data that have emerged from studies of patients with ...
Lewis M - - 1995
Observation of cortisol and behavioral responses to routine inoculation was conducted at 18 months for infants in a longitudinal sample whose stress responses had been observed at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. At 18 months, infants showed an increase in cortisol level over base to the perturbation. The ...
Stevens B J - - 1995
Most infants born preterm are admitted to hospital neonatal intensive care units, where they undergo repeated multiple diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that result in pain and discomfort. Although there is convincing evidence to support the preterm infant's neurologic capacity for pain, management of pain often is not optimal. Accurate and ...
Collins J J - - 1995
We report the case of a 4-month-old infant with terminal malignancy who had systemic metastases and a localized metastasis to the dorsal midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). Extraordinary doses of opioids (dose equivalent of 2680 mg morphine sulfate/h, i.v.) were required to achieve adequate analgesia. The behavior of the infant, interpreted ...
Larsson B A - - 1995
EMLA cream is an effective local anaesthetic agent for venipunctures in adults and children. The aim of this double-blind, randomised, and placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the effect of EMLA when heel-lancing was performed in neonates. On their third day of life, fullterm healthy infants, who underwent testing for phenylketonuria ...
Cacace A T - - 1995
Acoustic features of expiratory cry vocalizations were studied in 125 pre-term infants prior to being discharged from a level-3 neonatal intensive care unit. The purpose was to describe various phonatory behaviors in infants in whom significant hearing loss could be ruled out. We also compared these results with normal-hearing full-term ...
Zahr L K - - 1995
The continuous high-intensity noise in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is both stressful and harmful for the premature infant. Although some researchers have found evidence that loud noise can cause hearing loss and alter physiologic and behavioral responses, no study to date has investigated the benefits of noise reduction ...
Arcus D - - 1995
High levels of circulating glucocorticoids in fetal animals are associated with inhibited development of the lateral processes of the maxilla, or upper jaw, as these bones grow toward midline union early in gestation. This inhibition can prevent fusion and lead to the formation of cleft palate. Mouse strains are differentially ...
Beck C T - - 1995
A meta-analysis of 19 studies was conducted to determine the magnitude of the effect of postpartum depression on maternal-infant interaction during the first year after delivery. Maternal-infant interaction was divided into three subcategories: maternal interactive behavior, infant interactive behavior, and dyadic interactive behavior. Substantive, methodological, and miscellaneous variables were extracted ...
Bloom K C - - 1995
The development of attachment behaviors over time in a group of pregnant adolescents, ages 12 to 19, was investigated with Rubin's theoretical framework. Seventy-nine low-income pregnant adolescents enrolled in the study in their first trimester. Follow-up data were collected in the second and third trimesters (n = 64 and 54, ...
Bucher H U - - 1995
In term infants sucrose given by mouth has been reported to reduce duration of crying after a heel prick. This study was designed primarily to investigate the effect of sucrose administered orally immediately before heel lancing on the nociceptive reaction in preterm infants as assessed by change in heart rate ...
Hertsgaard L - - 1995
Salivary cortisol levels were assessed in 19-month-old infants following the Ainsworth Strange Situation procedure. 38 infants participating in Project STEEP at the University of Minnesota served as subjects. Project STEEP is a longitudinal intervention program designed to promote healthy parent-child relationships and to prevent emotional problems among children born to ...
Taddio A - - 1995
Acute pain in infants is not assessed or managed optimally. The objectives of the study were (a) to adapt a behavioral pain assessment measure (Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale, CHEOPS) for use with infants, and (b) to establish the reliability and validity of the measure in a study ...
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