Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1168
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Dihigo S K - - 1998
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to validate the effectiveness of behavior modification in treating colicky infants. Colic was defined as a self-limiting condition in infants less than 4 months of age with a complex of physical behaviors and inconsolable crying (> 2 hours a day for 3 days). ...
St James-Roberts I - - 1998
A community sample was screened to select three groups of infants and their mothers according to how much the babies cried at 6 weeks of age, the peak age for infant crying. The three groups--of moderate (n = 55), evening (n = 38) and persistent criers (n = 67) and ...
Papousek M - - 1998
Infants between 1 and 6 months of age (mean age 3.6 months) who were referred to the Munich Interdisciplinary Research and Intervention Programme because of persistent crying and their mothers were examined and compared with an age-matched community-based control sample with no current cry problem. Three groups, referred extreme criers, ...
Keefe M R - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To identify newborn infant behaviors that may predict infant irritability, commonly referred to as colic. DESIGN: A prospective, correlational design, with data collection occurring the first 4 days of life and again at 1 month of age. SETTING: This study was conducted in a private hospital in a large ...
Carlson E A - - 1998
The research explores the antecedents and consequences of attachment disorganization from a prospective longitudinal perspective. The relations of attachment disorganization/disorientation to endogenous (e.g., maternal medical history, infant temperament) and environmental (e.g., maternal caregiving quality, infant history of abuse) antecedents and to behavioral consequences from 24 months to 19 years are ...
Sweet S D - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relative importance of mothers' versus medical staffs' behavior in the prediction of infant pain during routine immunization. METHODS: We video-recorded 60 infants' 6- or 18-month immunizations. Recordings were used to code infant pain behavior using the Neonatal Facial Action Coding System (NFCS, R. V. E. Grunau ...
Brewster A L - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The primary purpose of this experiment was to examine gender differences in physiological reactivity to infant cries and smiles in military families. METHOD: Twenty males and 29 females viewed and listened to videotapes of a crying infant and a smiling infant while heart rate, skin resistance, and respiration rate ...
Camras L A - - 1998
European American, Japanese, and Chinese 11-month-olds participated in emotion-inducing laboratory procedures. Facial responses were scored with BabyFACS, an anatomically based coding system. Overall, Chinese infants were less expressive than European American and Japanese infants. On measures of smiling and crying, Chinese infants scored lower than European American infants, whereas Japanese ...
Hewlett B S - - 1998
Everyday infant experiences among the Aka hunter-gatherers and the neighboring Ngandu farmers were observed and compared. Twenty Aka and 21 Ngandu 3- to 4-month-olds and 20 Aka and 20 Ngandu 9- to 10-month-olds were observed for 3 hr on each of 4 days so that all 12 daylight hr were ...
Olson T L - - 1998
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB) and eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA) for attenuation of neonatal pain during circumcision. METHOD: A total of 20 infants born at a United States upper Midwestern hospital were involved in the study. Measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, ...
Hardwick-Smith S - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a difference in the behavioral and physiologic response to circumcision can be demonstrated between neonates undergoing the procedure with ring block and those receiving no anesthesia. METHODS: Forty healthy male newborns were assigned randomly to receive either ring block or no anesthesia. Indices of perceived pain ...
Grunau R E - - 1998
Assessment of infant pain is a pressing concern, especially within the context of neonatal intensive care where infants may be exposed to prolonged and repeated pain during lengthy hospitalization. In the present study the feasibility of carrying out the complete Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS) in real time at bedside, ...
Lenti Boero D - - 1998
The aim of this study was to investigate whether human infants' cries show individually and contextually discriminable acoustic parameters. 20 full-term normal human newborns (aged 1 to 4 days) had their cries recorded during routine blood withdrawal (pain context) 30 min. before a scheduled feeding (hunger context) and when subjected ...
Lewindon P J - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of sucrose solution given by mouth on infant crying times and measures of distress in the immunisation clinic. DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of sucrose solution 75% wt/vol v sterile water as a control. SETTING: The immunisation clinic of the Women's and Children's ...
Varendi H - - 1998
Newborn young of several mammalian species are attracted to the odor of amniotic fluid (AF); these chemical cues also appear to calm neonates and help them adapt to their novel postnatal environment. AF odor likewise elicits positive (head orientation) responses by human infants. The present study systematically examined whether the ...
Buss K A - - 1998
Emotion regulation has been conceptualized as the extrinsic and intrinsic processes responsible for monitoring, facilitating, and inhibiting heightened levels of positive and negative affect. Regulation of distress is related to the use of certain behavioral strategies. Our study examined whether putative regulatory behaviors widely assumed to be conceptually associated with ...
Kochanska G - - 1998
In this multimethod investigation of early emotionality, we observed 112 8- to 10-month-olds' responses to standard procedures consisting of multiple brief episodes that elicited joy, fear, anger, and discomfort to aversive stimulation. We obtained parental reports about the infants' temperament and observed their emotional tone during naturalistic interactions with their ...
Peters K L - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Routine procedures are a large component of the caretaking day for preterm infants. Such procedures can have profound adverse effects on an infant's condition, to the point of disrupting normal growth and development. Despite this evidence, routine procedures are perpetuated in the neonatal ICU. OBJECTIVE: To determine the physiological ...
Schmidt L A - - 1998
Previous research has indicated that 4-month-old human infants who exhibit high degrees of motor activity and negative affect in response to the presentation of unfamiliar auditory and visual stimuli are likely to display behavioral inhibition as toddlers, while 4-month-old infants who display high degrees of motor activity and positive affect ...
Acharya A B - - 1998
AIM: To assess the safety and efficacy of EMLA cream (eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics) used to induce surface anaesthesia for venepuncture in healthy preterm infants. METHODS: Nineteen infants, median gestational age 31 weeks (range 26-33 weeks) were assessed in a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over trial. Changes in ...
Voepel-Lewis T D - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine whether abdominal discomfort is a cause for distress symptoms in infants following administration of inhalational anesthesia, and to evaluate the effectiveness of simethicone in treating this discomfort. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blinded study. SETTING: Large tertiary care, university-based medical center. PATIENTS: 175 ASA physical status I and II ...
Smith C U - - 1998
The year 1996 marked the quattrocentenary of Descartes' birth. This paper reviews his pineal neuropsychology. It demonstrates that Descartes understood the true anatomical position of the pineal. His intraventricular pineal (or glande H) was a theoretical construct which allowed him to describe the operations of his man-like "earthen machine." In ...
Taddio A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Neonates routinely undergo painful cutaneous procedures as part of their medical treatment. Lidocaine-prilocaine 5% cream (EMLA) is a topical anesthetic that may be useful for diminishing the pain from these procedures. EMLA is routinely used in children and adults. There is substantial apprehension about its use in neonates because ...
Golub M S - - 1998
To assess the effect of perinatal epidural bupivacaine analgesia on infant behavioral development, bupivacaine (1.2 mg/kg) was administered to term-pregnant rhesus monkeys (treated, n = 11, procedural controls, n = 8) and infant behavior was evaluated for 1 year using a test battery including infant neurobehavioral tests, observation of spontaneous ...
Thomas J M - - 1998
This summary describes the psychiatric assessment of infants and toddlers (0-36 months) and supports the growth of infant and toddler psychiatry, a rapidly developing field. Infants and toddlers are brought to clinical attention because of concerns about emotional, behavioral, relational, or developmental difficulties. It is axiomatic that the infant or ...
Byrne G - - 1998
Data on activity states were collected from 29 group-housed capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) infants for 3 h each week from birth to 11 weeks of age. The amounts of time spent in sleeping/drowsy, alert-quiet, and alert-active states were measured in these subjects. Videotaped observations of these infants were recorded 3 ...
White-Traut R - - 1998
Oxytocin's (OT) role in the onset and maintenance of labor and in the letdown reflex is well known. OT also has been recognized as a neurotransmitter having functions in the central nervous system, including an influence on behavior (e.g., initiation of maternal behavior). This research was conducted to (1) evaluate ...
Protopapas A - - 1997
Previous studies of infant cry acoustics and their perceptual significance have remained inconclusive as to the graded nature of cry production and perception and to the exact role and importance of particular acoustic features. In this study, a set of infant cries were digitally analyzed and resynthesized to form natural-sounding ...
Hadjistavropoulos H D - - 1997
Caretakers intuitively use various sources of evidence when judging infant pain, but the relative importance of salient cues has received little attention. This investigation examined the predictive significance for judgements of painful discomfort in preterm and full-term neonates of behavioural (facial activity and body movement), contextual (invasiveness of the procedure), ...
Thayer J S - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about correlates of infant behavior after tocolytic intervention. This study investigated three related questions: (a) Are there any behavioral differences in infants exposed in utero to terbutaline and infants not exposed? (b) Is the mother's perception of her infant influenced by group status? (c) Is maternal ...
Goldsmith H H - - 1997
Using samples of twins and singletons totaling 715 individuals, the authors document heritable influences on various temperamental dimensions during the toddler and preschooler age ranges, which have been somewhat understudied relative to infants and older adolescents. In contrast to instruments on which prior literature is based, the Toddler Behavior Assessment ...
Thomas J M - - 1997
These practice parameters describe the psychiatric assessment of infants and toddlers (0-36 months) and support the growth of infant and toddler psychiatry, a rapidly developing field. Infants and toddlers are brought to clinical attention because of concerns about emotional, behavioral, relational, or developmental difficulties. It is axiomatic that the infant ...
Shah V S - - 1997
Neonatal pain response and adverse effects and maternal anxiety were assessed in 27 infants who were randomly allocated to venepuncture or heel stick. Pain was assessed by nurses using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) and a three point scale for the mothers. NIPS scores were higher in the heel ...
Eilam D - - 1997
This is a brief report on the postnatal development of locomotor behavior in the jerboa, a bipedal kangaroo-like rodent. Observations on one litter revealed three intriguing aspects of the postnatal development of the jerboa compared to other rodent species: (a) The weaning period is extended, (b) the developmental stage in ...
Graillon A - - 1997
Intraoral sucrose induces rapid and sustained calm in crying newborns and transiently increases mouthing and hand-mouth contact. To determine whether these effects are specific to sucrose and to explore which properties of orogustatory stimuli might contribute to this effect, 60 crying newborns were randomized to receive 250 ul of 24% ...
Fearon I - - 1997
We examined responses of preterm infants to swaddling after a heel lance. Fifteen preterm infants from two postconceptional age (PCA) groups (Group 1: n = 7, PCA < 31 wk; Group 2: n = 8, PCA > or = 31 wk) were observed for 30 minutes during blood sampling followed ...
Johnston C C - - 1997
Feeding and carrying have been interventions used by caregivers throughout history in relieving distress in infants. Recent studies on the food substance sucrose have elucidated the comforting effect of the taste component of feeding while studies of rocking have examined the comforting effect of the vestibular component of carrying. The ...
Worobey J - - 1997
This study assesses the degree of convergence between two temperament questionnaires promoted for use with relatively young infants. The mothers of 90 normal, healthy infants were asked to complete the infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ) and the Early Infancy Temperament Questionnaire (EITQ) when their babies were approximately 3 months of age; ...
Lyons-Ruth K - - 1997
The predictive relations between assessments in infancy and parent- and teacher-reported behavior problems at age 7 were investigated within a low-income sample. Infancy assessments indexed family adversity, parent-infant interaction at home, infant attachment, infant anger-distress at home, gender, and cognitive functioning. Among children at age 7 identified by teachers as ...
Chuah M I - - 1997
It has been shown in previous studies that the marsupial central nervous system is born at a relatively immature state. Although olfaction is thought to play a role in guiding the locomotion of the newborn, the cellular substrates on which this notion is based have not been systemically investigated. This ...
Lijowska A S - - 1997
Infants are prone to accidental asphyxiation. Therefore, we studied airway-defensive behaviors and their relationship to spontaneous arousal behavior in 41 healthy sleeping infants (2-26 wk old), using two protocols: 1) infant was rebreathing expired air, face covered by bedding material; and 2) infant was exposed to hypercarbia, face uncovered. Multiple ...
Zeskind P S - - 1997
Although infantile colic has long been defined by a perceived excessive amount of crying, acoustic attributes of the cry sound may also contribute to perceptions that this early social behavior is excessive or problematic. From an original sample of 76 infants (38 infants referred to physicians for problematic crying, or ...
Dieter J N - - 1997
Examined the human infant literature on supplemental stimulation to delineate a course of intervention based on the ontogeny of the nervous system and the impact that systematic stimulation may have on behavioral organization in the premature infant. Effects of vestibular, tactile/kinesthetic, auditory, and oral stimulation are discussed with respect to ...
Neu M - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of blanket swaddling during weighing on the physiologic and behavioral responses of preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: A repeated-measures crossover design was used in a children's hospital intensive care nursery setting. Fourteen preterm infants with a mean gestational age of ...
James-Roberts I S - - 1997
Infant crying, and parental concern about unexplained crying, peak when infants are around 6 weeks of age. Diary measures of amounts of time infants spent crying, sleeping, waking-settled and feeding at 6 weeks were obtained in three samples: a group of moderate criers (N = 45), a group with an ...
Taddio A - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Neonatal circumcision is a painful surgical procedure often performed without analgesia. We assessed the efficacy and safety of 5 percent lidocaine-prilocaine cream (Emla) in neonates undergoing circumcision. METHODS: We carried out a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial in 68 full-term male neonates: 38 were assigned to receive lidocaine-prilocaine cream, and ...
Evans J C - - 1997
Painful procedures may lead to both long- and short-term complications in low birth weight (LBW) infants. This study investigated neonatal pain responses (grimace, slight cry expression, increased cry expression, and knee/leg flexion) during six painful and three nonpainful procedures. The 30 LBW infants studied were less than 48 hours of ...
Taddio A - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies suggested that pain experienced by infants in the neonatal period may have long-lasting effects on future infant behaviour. The objectives of this study were to find out whether neonatal circumcision altered pain response at 4-month or 6-month vaccination compared with the response in uncircumcised infants, and whether ...
Boccia M L - - 1997
Individual differences in the response to maternal separation in nonhuman primate infants have been attributed to (among other variables) presence or absence of processes that may model social support in humans. Alternative attachments to other members of the social group buffer the infant against a depressive response to maternal separation. ...
Kagan J - - 1997
The behavioral reactions to unfamiliar events are basic phenomena in all vertebrates. Four-month-old infants who show a low threshold to become distressed and motorically aroused to unfamiliar stimuli are more likely than others to become fearful and subdued during early childhood, whereas infants who show a high arousal threshold are ...
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