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Results 551 - 600 of 1174
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Lee K - - 2000
This study investigates whether the crying pattern of infants reared in institutions is different from those reared at home in the same cultural backgrounds. Ninety-five institutional infants and 143 home infants, aged 2-18 weeks were studied through diaries, recorded by children's care-givers or mothers. Results showed that the crying duration ...
Kobayashi T - - 2000
Siberian chipmunks are known to gnaw snake-related objects such as skin, urine, feces and anal sac excretion, and apply the gnawed bits to their body fur repeatedly (SSA behavior). After SSA, chipmunks often rub their bodies on nearby wood stumps and branches. The SSA behavior is surmised to have function ...
Butt M L - - 2000
The physiological and behavioural effects of music during recovery from heel lance were examined in 14 preterm infants at 29 to 36 weeks post-conceptual age (PCA). Infants were tested on 2 occasions: during a music condition and during a no-music control condition. Each condition was videotaped during 3 periods: baseline, ...
Medoff-Cooper B - - 2000
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in nutritive sucking patterns, behavioral state, and neurobehavioral development of preterm infants from the 34 weeks postconceptional age (PCA) to term. DESIGN: Nonexperimental descriptive correlational design was used. METHODS: A convenience sample included 66 preterm infants with a gestational age between 24 and 34 weeks at ...
Grunau R E - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine whether body activity such as postural, trunk, and limb movements may be potential pain cues in preterm infants. DESIGN: Convenience sample. SETTING: Level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). PATIENTS: Extremely low birth weight (< or = 1,000 g) preterm infants ...
Maestripieri D - - 2000
This study investigated the relation between crying and infant abuse in group-living rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). The subjects were 10 abusive mothers with their infants and 10 control mother-infant pairs. Abused infants cried more frequently than controls in the first 12 weeks of life, even when cries immediately following abuse ...
Guinsburg R - - 2000
The study of neonatal gender differences in pain expression is important since neonatal pain behavior occurs prior to any learned reaction pattern. The objective of this study was to verify the presence of gender differences in pain expression in preterm and term newborn infants. Sixty-five consecutive neonates (37 female and ...
Berenbaum S A - - 2000
Systematic behavioral studies show that females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (CAH) are masculinized and defeminized in several ways; compared to their sisters, they play more with boys' toys, are more likely to use aggression when provoked, and show less interest in infants. We studied the extent ...
Pauli-Pott U - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate relationships between infant crying behavior and fussing behavior and the mother's causal attributions of the crying, her emotional responses to the crying, as well as her later perception of infant temperament. METHODS: Twenty mothers who presented their 3-9-week-old infants in pediatric practices because ...
Dimitriou G - - 2000
Respiratory muscle strength can be assessed by measurement of maximal inspiratory (PIMAX) and maximal expiratory pressure (P(EMAX)) during crying. There are, however, relatively few data on P(IMAX) and P(EMAX) in infancy, particularly from those born preterm. Our aim was to investigate which factors influenced P(IMAX) and P(EMAX) in preterm and ...
Runefors P - - 2000
The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that a newborn infant's cry can be used in conjunction with an instrument to measure pain. Crying due to pain was analysed after a heel-prick stimulus. In a prospective, descriptive study, 50 healthy newborn infants were subjected to a heel-prick ...
Oberlander T F - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To compare biobehavioral responses to acute pain at 4 months' corrected age between former extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants and term-born controls. METHODOLOGY: Measures of facial behavioral and cardiac autonomic reactivity in 21 former ELBW infants (mean birth weight = 763 g) were compared with term-born infants (n ...
Stovall K C - - 2000
This paper presents single-subject analyses of newly developing attachment relationships in 10 foster infant-caregiver dyads. Using a diary methodology, at least 2 months of daily data were provided by foster parents on infants' attachment behaviors. Foster infant attachment was also assessed using the Strange Situation. Foster mother state of mind ...
Snel A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The belief that behavioral observations assist in the clinical diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease in premature neonates has not been formally tested. The purpose of this study was to determine whether esophageal acidification was associated with a recognizable pattern of behavioral changes in these infants. METHODS: The behavior ...
Ballantyne M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) is a 7-indicator composite measure developed to assess acute pain in preterm and term neonates. It has been validated in studies using synchronized videotaping of infants undergoing procedures. The purpose of this study was to establish (a) construct validity of the PIPP and ...
McCain G C - - 1999
The effects of antenatal phenobarbital on behavioral state and heart rate (HR) were examined in a randomized sample of 49 preterm infants > 24 and < 34 weeks postconceptional age. Behavioral state and HR observations were made during a routine care giving procedure on Days 1, 2, and 3 of ...
Johnston C C - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine factors explaining lack of response by preterm newborns to heel stick for blood sampling. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design based on secondary analysis of the control session of a randomized crossover design. SETTING: Four Level III neonatal intensive-care units of university teaching hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 120 preterm newborns with ...
Michelsson K - - 1999
Sound spectrographic studies have shown that the crying of newborn infants has a fundamental frequency of about 400-600 cycles per second, and mostly a slightly rising-falling melody contour. In sick infants, and especially those with diseases affecting the central nervous system, abnormal cry characteristics occur. The fundamental frequency has been ...
O'Reilly M - - 1999
We compared the effectiveness of two extinction interventions, extinction by omission and noncontingent delivery of reinforcement, to treat aggressive behavior with a 10-year-old boy. Before the intervention, a functional analysis revealed that aggression was maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention. The extinction by omission intervention consisted of ...
Bailey M T - - 1999
The integrity of the indigenous microflora of the intestines after maternal separation was investigated in infant rhesus monkeys to determine whether psychological stress may lead to an internal environment conducive to pathogen infection. The stability of the indigenous microflora were estimated by enumeration of total and gram-negative aerobic and facultatively ...
Bailey H N - - 1999
Naturalistic assessment of maternal and infant interactive behavior using q-sorts has typically focused on rationally derived variables, such as maternal sensitivity and infant security. In the current study, behavior profiles characteristic of groups of young and adult mothers and their infants were derived empirically through q-factor analysis of the Maternal ...
Johnston C C - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to investigate if cries from preterm neonates would reflect changes in pain intensity following interventions. The cries from 25 preterm neonates from an original sample of 122 were audiorecorded while the infant was undergoing heelstick during a randomized crossover design testing the efficacy of: ...
Goberman A M - - 1999
The acoustic characteristics of crying behavior displayed in 2 groups of newborn infants are reported. The crying episodes of 10 full-term and 10 preterm infants were audio recorded and analyzed with regard to the long-time average spectrum (LTAS) characteristics. An LTAS display was created for each infant's non-partitioned crying episode, ...
Stevens B - - 1999
Hospitalized preterm infants undergo multiple painful heel lances. A two-phase, randomized, controlled trial was undertaken to determine the safety and efficacy of lidocaine-prilocaine 5% cream (EMLA, Astra Pharmaceuticals, L.P, Westborough, MA) for relieving pain from heel lance. One hundred twenty infants were randomly assigned to receive 0.5 g of EMLA ...
Porter F L - - 1999
Pain and stress have been shown to induce significant physiological and behavioral reactions in newborn infants, even in those born prematurely. Infants who are born prematurely or seriously ill are commonly exposed to multiple painful and stressful events as part of their prolonged hospitalizations and required medical procedures. There is ...
de Weerth C - - 1999
Longitudinal observational data of infant crying, fretting/fussing, and smiling and the time spent in physical contact with the mother were used in a study on behavioral variability. The infants were followed weekly for a 15-month period. Evidence was found of an important intraindividual variability in the studied behaviors, specifically between ...
Auerbach J - - 1999
We and others have previously shown that the dopamine D4 exon III repeat (D4DR) and the serotonin-transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms are not only associated with adult personality traits1-7 but also with temperament in 2-week-old neonates.8 We now report the results of a second study of these infants and their ...
Porter F L - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Previous reports have shown that pain is managed inadequately in newborn infants. Ironically, clinicians believe that infants can experience pain much like adults, that infants are exposed daily to painful procedures, and that pain protection should be provided. In adults, a close relationship has been shown in how adults ...
Groome L J - - 1999
Homeostasis is maintained primarily by the parasympathetic nervous system and is thought to provide a physiological substrate for the development of complex behaviors. This investigation was undertaken to test the hypothesis that infants with high parasympathetic tone are more efficient regulators of homeostasis than infants with low parasympathetic tone. Respiratory ...
Byrne G - - 1999
34 infant tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) were separated from their social groups for a 2-hour period and videotaped in isolation at the ages of 6 months and 1 year. Baseline and 2-hour blood samples were measured for levels of serum cortisol. Compared to homecage baseline levels, passivity, locomotion and vocalizations ...
Willatts P - - 1999
Three longitudinal studies are reported in which 6-8-month-old infants were tested on means-end problems involving pulling a cloth to retrieve a toy. Production of intentional means-end behavior increased between 6 and 7 months, but although 6-month-olds' behavior was unaffected by the presence or absence of a toy on the cloth, ...
Overgaard C - - 1999
We assessed the effect of sucrose as a pain reliever in a population of newborns when cuddled and comforted during heel prick for diagnosis of phenylketonuria. In addition, the influences of gender, gestational age, postnatal age, ponderal index and behavioural state of the infant before the heel prick were studied, ...
Fuller B F - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of knowledge of clinical background data on nursing assessments of infant pain. In a quasi-experimental design, the infant pain assessments of two groups of pediatric nurses were compared. Both groups assessed the levels of pain of the same videotaped infants. ...
Sweet S D - - 1999
This study examined the relative importance of and developmental changes in biologically-based child variables (infant vagal tone and infant difficultness) and parental contextual variables (maternal behavior during pain and maternal sensitivity) in the prediction of infant pain behavior during immunization. Sixty infant-mother dyads were assessed when infants were approximately 6 ...
Ruiz-Contreras J - - 1999
Acute episodes of unexplained crying in infants may be due to serious and even life-threatening conditions. We present six infants in whom excessive crying was the predominant initial manifestation of sepsis for a period of time that ranged from 2 to 10 hours, before other symptoms or signs became evident. ...
Morgan K N - - 1999
Prenatally stressed infant rats were separated from their dams and littermates on postnatal Day 14 and their rates of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) and myoclonic twitching in response to that separation were recorded. Compared to control pups, prenatally stressed pups vocalized significantly less often and showed significantly less myoclonic twitching in ...
Goldstein M H - - 1999
The salience of infants' vocal and visual cues was examined to evaluate the efficacy of prelinguistic vocalizations to guide adult behavior. A videotape, constructed of brief behavioral episodes from 3 infants with different-sized vocal repertoires, was played to 40 mothers of prelinguistic infants. Playback mothers' responses to the episodes were ...
Axia G - - 1999
The primary aim of this study was to verify whether early individual differences in look duration are related to general mechanisms of the infant nervous system that draw together attention and emotion. Thirty-one infants were observed at 3, 5, and 11 months of age. Facial expressions of pain and distress ...
Goodman G - - 1999
Videotaped 35 full-term, African American infants exposed in utero to methadone and 46 comparison infants at 12 months participating in a separation-reunion procedure to assess aspects of the infant's attachment relationship to the mother. Mothers in the two groups were comparable on education, age (18-35 years), socioeconomic status, parity, IQ ...
Lindh V - - 1999
The aim of the investigation was to assess pain by frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) during a routine heel lancing procedure in term new-born infants. Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) was recorded in 23 healthy new-born infants on the maternity ward during blood sampling for neonatal screening. A ...
Dondi M - - 1999
Two experiments were conducted to test whether newborns could discriminate between their own cry and the cry of another newborn infant. Facial behavior and nonnutritive sucking rate were adopted as dependent measures. In Experiment 1, 20 newborns in an awake state were presented with either their own cry or the ...
Fuller B F - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to test whether elements of an infant pain assessment model interacted as postulated by the model. The elements are the infant's response to comfort measures and the principle of consolability. Four different scenarios for each of 16 videotaped infants were prepared. Each scenario represented ...
Hofer M A - - 1999
The ultrasonic vocalization (USV) response of the isolated infant rat is a promising model for studying the neurobiology of an early anxiety state, and potentiation of the USV response after brief maternal encounters is a newly discovered behavioral regulator of this state. Using experimental variations in the contexts and patterns ...
Lorberbaum J P - - 1999
While parenting is a universal human behavior, its neuroanatomic basis is currently unknown. Animal data suggest that the cingulate may play an important function in mammalian parenting behavior. For example, in rodents cingulate lesions impair maternal behavior. Here, in an attempt to understand the brain basis of human maternal behavior, ...
Stifter C A - - 1999
The present study examined the relation between early emotion regulation and later compliance. When infants were 5, 10, and 18 months of age, they participated in a frustration task. The degree to which they reacted negatively to the stimuli and the behaviors they used to regulate that response were coded. ...
Buchholz E S - - 1999
In one of a set of studies exploring the need for time alone throughout development, infant temperamental characteristics, their relation to infant needs for time alone, and maternal perceptions of these needs are examined via videotapings of the infants' signals of disengagement and engagement. Descriptive data based on three mother-infant ...
Lewis M - - 1999
The effect of maternal soothing to infant inoculation as well as everyday distress on infant cortisol and behavioral responses to stress was examined in two longitudinal samples of 55 and 74 infants, respectively, between 2 and 6 months of age. There was no evidence that maternal soothing was effective in ...
Bahgat R S - - 1999
Premature infants display few behaviors that provide quantitative information about their maturational development, making it difficult to carry out appropriate care. This study was performed to investigate the effect of non-nutritive sucking on behavioral state and physiological changes in premature infants. They were selected from premature unit of Main University ...
Christopher S E - - 1999
This paper describes two studies that had three purposes: (a) to modify a parent-child interaction tool used previously in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); (b) to demonstrate interrater reliability, Chronbach's Alpha reliability, and construct validity of the tool with adolescent mothers, and (c) to determine the ability of nurses ...
Larson M C - - 1998
The decrease in responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system is marked over the first months of life. Seventy-eight healthy infants (44 girls), 7 to 15 weeks old, were given a laboratory mock physical examination. Salivary cortisol samples were collected pre- and postexamination and at home. Behavioral state during the examination ...
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