Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1171
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Branchi I - - 2001
Ultrasonic vocalisations (USVs) emitted by altricial rodent pups are whistle-like sounds with frequencies between 30 and 90 kHz. These signals play an important communicative role in mother-offspring interaction since they elicit in the dam a prompt response concerning caregiving behaviours. Both physical and social parameters modulate the USV emission in ...
Reijneveld S A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of varying definitions of excessive crying and infantile colic on prevalence estimates and to assess to what extent these definitions comprise the same children. METHODS: Parents of 3345 infants aged 1, 3, and 6 months (response: 96.5%) were interviewed on the crying behavior of their ...
Purhonen M - - 2001
Auditory event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to an emotional (a baby's cry) and a neutral (a word) stimulus in a group of mothers 2-5 days after childbirth (n = 20) and in control women (n = 18) who were not in the state of early motherhood. For ...
Wood R M - - 2001
These studies assessed adults' latencies to signal that they would respond to infant crying as functions of (1) the degree of infant distress they perceived in the cry, and (2) contextual information relevant to caregiving. In the first study (N = 34), listeners waited longer to respond to cries that ...
Moore G A - - 2001
This study investigated (a) stability and change in infant affective responses to the still-face interaction, (b) whether maternal depression affected infant responses, and (c) whether responses to the still-face interaction predicted toddler problem behaviors. Infants (63 girls and 66 boys) of European American mothers (67 depressed and 62 nondepressed) were ...
Macke J K - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of acetaminophen for pain management during and after circumcision. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, pretest-posttest design. SETTING: Level III nursery at a Midwestern hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty full-term newborns, whose mothers had uncomplicated pregnancies and vaginal deliveries. INTERVENTIONS: Administration of 10 mg/kg acetaminophen or placebo ...
Dimitriou G - - 2001
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maturation on diaphragmatic function. In addition, we investigated whether noninvasive assessment yielded similar results to invasive measurement. Twenty-eight infants, median gestational age (GA) 35.5 wk (range, 25 to 42 wk) and postconceptional age (PCA), 37.6 wk (range, 32 to ...
Nathani S - - 2001
Infant vocal behaviors are extremely complex. Consequently, coding these behaviors is difficult and is typically associated with low reliability across observers. Various difficulties that arise when dealing with prelinguistic vocalizations, especially in the first 6 months of life, are outlined here. A proposed database of digitized infant vocalizations that illustrates ...
Wurmser H - - 2001
Excessive crying/fussing in infancy may account for serious problems in mother-infant interactions but is believed to be self-limiting around the age of 3 months. A random digit dialling telephone survey weighted by sex, age, and population density and yielding 662 children aged 9 to <36 months was used to estimate ...
Bellieni C V - - 2001
Pain is traumatic for preterm infants and can damage their CNS. We wanted to assess whether multisensorial stimulation can be analgesic and whether this effect is only due to oral glucose or sucking. We performed a randomized prospective study, using a validated acute pain rating scale to assess pain during ...
Masters-Harte L D - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of intraoral sucrose and other sweet-tasting solutions for the management of pain associated with minor procedures in newborns. DATA SOURCES: A search of MEDLINE articles from 1966 to August 1999 and an extensive review of journals was conducted. MeSH headings included analgesia, sucrose, and neonate. ...
van Dijk M - - 2001
To estimate the association between behavioral and physiological pain measures and to identify determinants predicting the level of association, the COMFORT 'behavior' scale, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and the variability of HR and MAP (HRV and MAPV) were assessed every 3 hours after major abdominal or thoracic ...
Steward D K - - 2001
Failure to thrive (FTT) is a syndrome of growth failure that results in an infant who is behaviorally difficult. The current thinking is that FTT results from a problematic infant-mother interaction, with the infant making a significant contribution to the interactional process. It is possible that the behavioral characteristics of ...
Brown L - - 2001
We present a case of a 31-day-old female who presented with an acute, unexplained, episode of excessive crying. The patient had no history of fever and no fever on presentation. There was no evidence of skin erythema or swelling on presentation. Chest radiograph and computed tomography of the head were ...
Spangler G - - 2001
Attachment theory emphasizes the role of negative emotional expression in infancy for establishing proximity to and care of the caregiver. According to Lang's biphasic model of emotions protective reflexes (e.g. startle response) are primed if a defensive motivational set is activated. The aim of the study was to examine whether ...
Wells J P - - 2001
This study quantifies changes in postural and locomotor behavior as well as habitat use across the life span of free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the Cayo Santiago colony in Puerto Rico. It focuses on developmentally related changes from birth to adulthood, and complements an earlier study by Turnquist and ...
Fuller B F - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical usefulness and generalizability of an infant pain assessment instrument. Earlier work showed that this instrument--an algorithm derived from a model of infant pain assessment-possessed excellent content validity, criterion-like validity, and 3-month stability (test-retest reliability). In this study, generalizability was determined ...
Stein M T - - 2001
Some of the most interesting cases in pediatric practice evolve through time. What may begin as a clear, well defined problem with a predictable natural history and an accepted intervention strategy may develop into a more complex, multi-faceted set of problems. It is these children who potentially provide clinicians with ...
Schino G - - 2001
This study investigated the relationships between early maternal style and subsequent juvenile and adult behavior of offspring in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Early maternal style had no effect on baseline behavior of offspring when adult. In contrast, early maternal style was correlated with the response of adult offspring to stressful ...
De Luca A - - 2001
We have examined the relationship between the common dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) exon III repeat polymorphism and infants' behavior measured with the Italian version of the Early and Revised Infancy Temperament Questionnaires (EITQ/RITQ) in 122 Italian neonates at 1 and 5 months of life, when the genetic contribution to the ...
Matthiesen A S - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Newborns placed skin-to-skin with their mothers show an inborn sequence of behavior similar to that seen in other mammals. The purpose of this study was to make a detailed exploration of hand movements and sucking behavior in healthy term newborns who were placed skin-to-skin on their mothers' chests, and ...
Jones K L - - 2001
Opiate withdrawal behaviors in the infant differ from those of the adult. The neural circuitry underlying opioid withdrawal in the adult rat is well defined and includes the locus coeruleus (LC) and periaqueductal gray (PAG), with a minor role of the amygdala. Because the different behaviors that constitute the infant ...
Gibbins S - - 2001
The administration of sucrose with and without non-nutritive sucking (NNS) has been examined for relieving procedural pain in newborn infants. The calming and pain-relieving effects of sucrose are thought to be mediated by endogenous opioid pathways activated by sweet taste. The orogustatory effects of sucrose have been demonstrated in animal ...
Monk C S - - 2001
During prenatal development, the central nervous system is transformed from a thin layer of unspecified tissue into a complex system that can process information and organize actions. There are 8 general mechanisms that permit this transformation: neural induction, neurulation, proliferation, migration, axonal outgrowth, synaptogenesis, differentiation, and apoptosis. These processes as ...
Grunau R E - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Management of pain in very low birth weight infants is limited by a lack of empiric knowledge about the multiple determinants of biobehavioral reactivity in infants receiving neonatal intensive care. OBJECTIVE: To examine relationship of early neonatal factors and previous medication exposure to subsequent biobehavioral reactivity to acute pain ...
Gormally S - - 2001
To understand how the 'caregiving context' could affect responses to procedural pain, the authors sought to determine whether (1) the combined effects of sweet taste and holding (caregiving contact) were greater than the effects of either alone, (2) any combined effects were additive or interactive, and (3) the interventions had ...
Sajaniemi N - - 2001
This study focuses on the early temperamental (TTQ = toddler temperament questionnaire), behavioral (IBR = infant behavior record), and cognitive precursors of impaired language functioning in preschool-age pre-terms infants. The study group consisted of 63 pre-term infants with a mean birth weight of 1246 +/- 437 g born in 1989-1991 ...
Watson J S - - 2001
A theoretical analysis is presented in which the four major attachment patterns (A, B, C, and D) are viewed as adaptations to particular forms of early contingency experience. The author proposes that human infants analyze contingency experience on the basis of two computations of conditional probability, one prospective and one ...
Koós O - - 2001
The authors present a new approach to the etiology of disorganized attachment based on contingency detection theory. According to this view, the relevant common factor in parental maltreatment and unresolved loss that leads to disorganized attachment has to do with the type of "deviant contingency environment" that both of these ...
Stevens B - - 2001
Management of pain for neonates is less than optimal. The administration of sucrose with and without non-nutritive sucking (pacifiers) has been the most frequently studied non-pharmacological intervention for relief of procedural pain in neonates. To determine the efficacy, effect of dose, and safety of sucrose for relieving procedural pain as ...
Philbin M K - - 2000
This article, addressed to clinicians caring for and interacting with newborns, summarizes information from the research literature about newborn infants' hearing and behavioral responses to sound. While the emphasis is on current knowledge, older studies show how the investigators' assumptions have influenced the questions they have asked. Although these studies ...
Lundqvist C - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) can detect behavioral differences in newborn infants of optimal health and, if such differences appear, also detect gender differences among those neonates. METHODS: Participants were a group of healthy Swedish neonates, 20 boys and 18 girls. The infants were ...
van IJzendoorn M H - - 2000
In this longitudinal investigation, Bell and Ainsworth's (1972) Baltimore study on maternal responsiveness, infant crying and infant attachment security was replicated and extended. Each of the 50 families was observed at home during more than 20 hours, and infant crying behavior as well as maternal responses were recorded. Mothers and ...
Philbin M K - - 2000
This review of the research literature is addressed to clinicians who care for, interact with, and advise parents of preterm newborns. In summary, research on the effects of sound on preterm infant behavior and development provide only a little reliable clinical guidance as many of the studies are flawed, some ...
Harrison L L - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a gentle human touch (GHT) intervention provided to 42 preterm infants (27-33 weeks gestational age), for 10 min, three times daily for 10 days. There was no significant difference in mean HR levels or in percent of abnormal heart ...
Harrison L L - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to vagal tone (VNA) among preterm infants receiving a 10-minute gentle human touch (GHT) intervention three times daily for 10 days. VNA was measured continuously for 10 minutes before, during, and after each 10-minute GHT intervention. Findings indicated that there ...
Lakatos K - - 2000
About 15% of one-year-old infants in non-clinical, low-risk and up to 80% in high-risk (eg maltreated) populations show extensive disorganized attachment behavior(1,2) in the Strange Situation Test.(3) It has also been reported that disorganization of early attachment is a major risk factor for the development of childhood behavior problems.(4) The ...
Jain A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Topical amethocaine provides effective pain relief during venepuncture in children, and has been shown to have a local anaesthetic action in the newborn. AIM: To investigate the effect of topical amethocaine on the pain of venepuncture in the newborn. DESIGN: Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. SUBJECTS: Forty newborn ...
Ono H - - 2000
The oviposition response of the Rutaceae-feeding swallowtail butterfly, Papilio bianor, was induced by a methanolic extract from leaves of its major host, Orixa japonica. Several components were responsible for this oviposition response. One of the stimulants was isolated and identified as (-)-2-C-methyl-D-erythrono-1,4-lactone. The compound was inactive alone, but elicited oviposition ...
Fuller B F - - 2000
This study compares behaviors that differed across levels of established (e.g., nonprocedural) infant pain with those that differed between periods of greater and lesser distress within any level of infant pain. Sixty-four videotaped infants of two ages (0 to 3 months and 7 to 12 months) and four levels of ...
Rosmus C - - 2000
This study was designed to compare the behavioural pain responses of 2-month-old Canadian-born Chinese babies receiving a routine immunization to those of non-Chinese infants in similar situations. Two groups of 26 infants were obtained from a pediatric clinic held by a Chinese pediatrician and a suburban pediatric practice of a ...
Woodward S A - - 2000
Previously, we proposed a theoretical framework that classified infants into qualitative categories of reactivity, rather than on a continuous dimension. The present research used an objective statistical procedure (maximum covariance analysis, or MAXCOV) to determine if a qualitative latent structure, consistent with our theoretical conjectures, would be found to underlie ...
Clarke-Stewart K A - - 2000
In this study, the authors introduce a new measure of infant temperament, the Pictorial Assessment of Temperament (PAT), and provide information about its psychometric qualities based on findings from a study of 132 mothers and infants. The PAT is a 10-item measure of "difficult" temperament that is quick and easy ...
Lindh V - - 2000
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of EMLA on the pain response when venipuncture was performed in 60 3-day-old healthy newborns. EMLA/placebo was applied to the back of the baby's hand, following a randomized, double-blind procedure. ECG and crying were recorded during the test. The incidence ...
Huhtala V - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of infant massage compared with that of a crib vibrator in the treatment of infantile colic. METHODS: Infants <7 weeks of age and perceived as colicky by their parents were randomly assigned to an infant massage group (n = 28) or a crib vibrator group ...
Taddio A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Pain of circumcision is only partially relieved by single modalities, such as penile nerve block, lidocaine-prilocaine cream, and sucrose pacifiers. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a combination of interventions on the pain response of infants undergoing circumcision. METHODS: Cohort study. Group 1 included infants circumcised using the Mogen ...
Radi A E - - 2000
Cyclic voltammetry was used to explore the adsorption behavior of secnidazole on a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). The effects of various operational parameters on the accumulation behavior of the adsorbed species were tested. Thus, a sensitive stripping voltammetry procedure for the determination of secnidazole with an adsorptive accumulation on ...
Lee K - - 2000
This study investigates whether the crying pattern of infants reared in institutions is different from those reared at home in the same cultural backgrounds. Ninety-five institutional infants and 143 home infants, aged 2-18 weeks were studied through diaries, recorded by children's care-givers or mothers. Results showed that the crying duration ...
Kobayashi T - - 2000
Siberian chipmunks are known to gnaw snake-related objects such as skin, urine, feces and anal sac excretion, and apply the gnawed bits to their body fur repeatedly (SSA behavior). After SSA, chipmunks often rub their bodies on nearby wood stumps and branches. The SSA behavior is surmised to have function ...
Butt M L - - 2000
The physiological and behavioural effects of music during recovery from heel lance were examined in 14 preterm infants at 29 to 36 weeks post-conceptual age (PCA). Infants were tested on 2 occasions: during a music condition and during a no-music control condition. Each condition was videotaped during 3 periods: baseline, ...
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