Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1166
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Fallang Bjørg - - 2003
Many preterm infants may experience so-called minor developmental disorders; however, in general, the problems in motor behavior are not detected until school age. To introduce therapies aimed at the prevention of these problems, we need to increase our knowledge of motor function and dysfunction at early age. The present study ...
Bardi Massimo - - 2003
This research assessed mother-infant relationships in rhesus and Japanese macaques living in analogous captive social groups, and monitored changes in the levels of excreted estrogen metabolites during the peripartum period. Each mother-infant pair was focally observed 3 h per week during the first 12 weeks of life of newborns. Fecal ...
Buss Kristin A - - 2003
Although several studies have examined anterior asymmetric brain electrical activity and cortisol in infants, children, and adults, the direct association between asymmetry and cortisol has not systematically been reported. In nonhuman primates, greater relative right anterior activation has been associated with higher cortisol levels. The current study examines the relation ...
Lakatos K - - 2003
Effects of DRD4 and 5-HTTLPR length polymorphisms have been reported on neonatal and infant temperament as well as adult personality traits. The 7-repeat form of the DRD4 III exon VNTR polymorphism has been associated with childhood ADHD, and recently we have reported its link with attachment disorganization in a nonclinical ...
Napolitano Fabio - - 2003
The aim of the experiment was to assess the effects of either maternal deprivation or prevented suckling on lambs. Thirty Comisana lambs were assigned to a control dam-suckled group (DS) and two test groups of 10 each. Test lambs were maintained with their mothers 24 to 30 h after parturition ...
Goldberg Susan - - 2003
The data for 197 mother-infant pairs from two longitudinal studies were analyzed to assess relations between maternal attachment representations; atypical maternal behavior, coded with a new tool. Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE), and infant attachment. Both maternal and infant attachment were systematically related to atypical maternal ...
Mervis Carolyn B - - 2003
Two studies were conducted to consider the looking behavior of infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome (WS). In Study 1,the looking behavior of a 10-month-old girl with WS during play sessions with her mother and with a stranger was compared to that of 2 groups of infants who were developing ...
Spicer John I - - 2003
There is currently tremendous interest in how the physiology of individual animals changes and develops during ontogeny. One of the key areas is the extent to which the timing and/or rate of physiological development is fixed within an individual and to what extent can it be altered. We propose that ...
Fitzsimons Gráinne M - - 2003
The mere psychological presence of relationship partners was hypothesized to trigger interpersonal goals that are then pursued nonconsciously. Qualitative data suggested that people tend to pursue different interpersonal goals within different types of relationships (e.g., mother, best friend, coworker). In several studies, priming participants' relationship representations produced goal-directed behavior (achievement, ...
Sullivan Regina M - - 2003
The present series of experiments assessed how information from the whiskers controls and modulates infant rat behavior during early learning and attachment. Passive vibrissal stimulation can elicit behavioral activity in pups throughout the first two postnatal weeks, although orienting to the source of stimulation is evident only after ontogenetic emergence ...
Bardi Massimo - - 2002
We assessed the association of maternal style and infant behavior of group-living Japanese macaques during the first year of infant development. We tested the hypothesis that different mothering styles were correlated with the behavioral repertoire of infants at three different developmental stages. We expected that infants of rejecting mothers would ...
Scheiner Elisabeth - - 2002
The nonverbal vocal utterances of seven normally hearing infants were studied within their first year of life with respect to age- and emotion-related changes. Supported by a multiparametric acoustic analysis it was possible to distinguish one inspiratory and eleven expiratory call types. Most of the call types appeared within the ...
Sahni Rakesh - - 2002
The effects of variations in carbohydrate and fat intake and body position on behavioral activity states were evaluated in 64 healthy, growing low birth weight infants (birth weight, 750-1600 g). The infants, enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study of effects of quality of dietary energy, were fed one ...
St Jonn-Seed Mary - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which maternal emotions expressed toward low birth weight infants (<2500 gm) at six months of age predicted emotional and behavioral problems at two years of age. With a sample of 83 mother-infant dyads, a Revised Five Minute Speech Sample ...
Oberlander Tim - - 2002
Measures of HR and HRV offer multiple indices of reactivity to painful events. These measures are particularly helpful in preterm and ill infants where distress signals are often nonspecific and ambiguous. HR is easy to acquire, and a variety of widely used techniques are available for processing it. In general, ...
Harrison Denise - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a method of pain assessment to be used for hospitalized infants requiring blood test by a heel lance procedure. DESIGN: Observational study evaluating pain measurement and interrater reliability of pain measurement in hospitalized infants. SETTING: A Level III neonatal unit and a cardiac surgical unit at a ...
Craig Kenneth D - - 2002
The inevitability of pain during infancy and its potential for destructive impact impose a burden on caregiving adults. An armamentarium of effective pharmacological, behavioral and environmental interventions is available if pain were recognized and accurately assessed. Infants have limited behavioral repertoires that make identification of specific needs difficult, mothers and ...
Farrell William J - - 2002
When removed from the nest and placed in a cool environment, Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) pups emit ultrasonic vocalizations that can elicit maternal search behavior. The authors examined the behavior of pregnant dams, mothers, and virgin females during exposure to a pup that was either warm and silent or cool ...
Grunau Ruth - - 2002
There are multiple lines of evidence suggesting that in vulnerable prematurely born infants, repeated and prolonged pain exposure may affect the subsequent development of pain systems, as well as potentially contribute to alterations in long-term development and behavior. Multiple factors cumulatively contribute to altered developmental trajectories in such infants. These ...
van Lingen Richard A - - 2002
Although our knowledge of pain and its management in the perinatal period has increased, little is known about the first hours and days of life when major physiologic transition events occur. Prematurity and critical illnesses further complicate analgesic use during this time. Increased morbidity and mortality have been shown in ...
Strunk, Pia Christina
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of multi-modal stimulation (differing amounts of light and vocal stimulation) on preterm infantsâ behavioral and state organization. Specifically, we looked at the effects that supplemental vocal stimulation (taped female voice) had when varied in amount of exposure (three times a ...
Michelsson Katarina - - 2002
A total of 1,836 cry signals from 172 healthy babies, 1-7 days old, were analysed with sound spectrography. The mean values for the 8-15 cries from each infant were calculated and used for the statistical analyses. The mean duration of the cry signals was 1.4 +/- 0.6 s. The mean ...
Chandra Prabha S - - 2002
Few studies have investigated maternal aggression toward infants among women with a severe mental illness that emerges in the postpartum period. In this prospective study of 50 Indian women admitted to a psychiatric hospital for severe mental illness occurring in the postpartum period, we examined the prevalence, pattern, and predictors ...
Lind Katrin - - 2002
Studies in the field of cry diagnosis have concentrated on the fundamental frequency (F(0)) and related parameters as suitable predictors for an at-risk status of the infant for a CNS dysfunction, mostly reflected in an increased F(0). The high variability of F(0) in infant cries is a limiting factor to ...
Fuller Barbara F - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to ascertain if any gender differences existed in the behaviors of infants experiencing different levels of acute established pain and different levels of arousal within each level of pain. To do this, the behaviors of 152 two-week- to 12-month-old infants were videotaped and compared. ...
Koulomzin Marina - - 2002
The study attempted to distinguish avoidant vs. secure infants at 1 year from 4-month infant behavior only, during a face-to-face play interaction with the mother. Thirty-five 4-month-old infants were coded second by second for infant gaze, head orientation, facial expression and self-touch/mouthing behavior. Mother behavior was not coded. At 1 ...
Munakata Yuko - - 2002
Seven-month-old infants appear to learn means-end skills, such as pushing a button to retrieve a distant toy (Psychological Review 104 (1997) 686). The present studies tested whether such apparent means-end behaviors are genuine, or simply the repetition of trained behaviors under conditions of greatest arousal, as suggested by a dynamic ...
Szumlas Daniel E - - 2002
Behavioral responses and mortality of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), after exposure to solutions of common household dishwashing liquid diluted in tap water without other known insecticidal active ingredients are described. Soap solutions of 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0% were tested on first and ...
Oberlander Tim F - - 2002
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and benzodiazepines are frequently used to treat maternal depression during pregnancy, however the effect of increased serotonin (5HT) and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) agonists in the fetal human brain remains unknown. 5HT and GABA are active during fetal neurologic growth and play early roles in pain ...
Janes Marianne - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine if heel warming prior to heelstick increases the volume of blood collected compared to no warming. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial involving 100 preterm and term infants requiring capillary blood sampling (CBS), randomized to receive warming (Control) (n=50) or nonwarming (Experimental) (n=50). RESULTS: This sample of infants ...
Blum Nathan J - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between infant temperament characteristics assessed at 4 weeks of age and the duration of infant crying and fussing during the second month of life. DESIGN: Families were enrolled in this prospective study during prenatal classes, and 60 infants completed the study. Temperament was assessed when ...
Hopkins Brian - - 2002
In this study, 3-D kinematic as well as 2-D videorecordings were made of the reaching behavior of infants aged about 6 months who were not yet able to sit. Detailed analyses of these recordings were directed toward specifying the effects of providing additional postural support to the lower body on ...
Ludington-Hoe Susan M - - 2002
This article describes the nature of infant crying, the physiologic events and changes associated with it, and appropriate nursing interventions for infant crying. A cry is a series of four movements that basically resembles a Valsalva maneuver. Documented immediate and long-term sequelae of crying include increased heart rate and blood ...
Pressler Jana L - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how the check sheet of the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) can be quantified and used in research. Using the quantified NIDCAP measures, the hypothesis that Caucasian male infants are less behaviorally competent while in a neonatal intensive care ...
Xia Chuanxiong - - 2002
One hundred infants were divided into the following 3 gestational age (GA) groups: (I) premature infants (n = 30) with the gestational age between 29 and 32 weeks; (II) premature infants (n = 30) with the gestational age between 33 and 36 weeks; (III) full-term infants (n = 40). The ...
Jones Mark - - 2002
Teething is a normal process by which an infant begins to cut the first teeth (primary dentition). On average, infants begin teething at six months and by the age of three years all the first teeth have erupted. A variety of symptoms can accompany teething including sensitive and painful gums, ...
Lakatos K - - 2002
In non-clinical low-risk populations 15% of infants show disorganized attachment behavior(1,2) with their caregivers in the Strange Situation,(3) a mildly stressful laboratory procedure testing infants' ability to cope with separation anxiety. Disorganization of early attachment has been primarily ascribed to inadequate parenting,(2,4,5) and has been associated with childhood behavior problems(6,7)and ...
Crown Cynthia L - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that 6-week-old infants are capable of coordinated interpersonal timing within social interactions. Coordinated interpersonal timing refers to changes in the timing of one individual's behavior as a function of the timing of another individual's behavior. Each of 45, first-bom 6-week-old ...
Ducrocq J - - 2002
In order to assess the specific sympathetic reactivity in premature infants at term, we designed a study to evaluate the peripheral vasomotor response of such infants when exposed to auditory challenges. Testing was performed in 29 premature neonates at term in both quiet and active sleep during a morning session. ...
Storm H - - 2002
To investigate the soothing effect of feeding on infants in distress, the effects of 2 mL 15% and 1 mL 25% sucrose given orally 2 min before heel prick in fasting preterms to reduce the pain response were assessed. The effects of milk intake by nasogastric tube were also assessed ...
Hofer M A MA Department of Psychiatry and The Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City, USA. - - 2002
The absence of adverse health outcomes later in development and the similarity of defining features of "colic" across cultures suggest that an evolutionary perspective may give us some insight into the nature of this puzzling condition. Evidence suggests that the larynx evolved first as a protective valve and later as ...
Hofer M A - - 2001
This article describes how continued selection for divergent levels of the 10-day-old infant rat's ultrasonic vocal (USV) response to isolation affects the time course of development of that and other possible co-selected traits from 3 to 21 days postnatally. Since selective breeding for an infantile trait has not been reported ...
Tharpe A M - - 2001
The behavioral evaluation of hearing in very young infants has been fraught with procedural and interpretive problems. Despite the introduction of current physiological techniques of estimating hearing sensitivity, such as otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem-evoked responses, behavioral hearing assessment of young infants remains of interest to researchers of infant behavior ...
Zeifman D M - - 2001
The proximate causes, survival value, ontogeny, and evolutionary history of human infant crying are examined. Experiments and field observations involving infant distress vocalizations and begging calls in avian, mammalian, and nonhuman primate species are considered, as are ethnographic records of infant care and responses to crying in nonindustrialized societies. It ...
Goubet N - - 2001
The first goal of the study was to explore whether preterm newborns can learn to predict painful stimulation. The second goal was to provide a description of physiological and behavioral responses to repeated heel-sticks over days. Preterm newborns, born between 28 and 32 weeks gestational age, were observed five times ...
Branchi I - - 2001
Ultrasonic vocalisations (USVs) emitted by altricial rodent pups are whistle-like sounds with frequencies between 30 and 90 kHz. These signals play an important communicative role in mother-offspring interaction since they elicit in the dam a prompt response concerning caregiving behaviours. Both physical and social parameters modulate the USV emission in ...
Reijneveld S A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of varying definitions of excessive crying and infantile colic on prevalence estimates and to assess to what extent these definitions comprise the same children. METHODS: Parents of 3345 infants aged 1, 3, and 6 months (response: 96.5%) were interviewed on the crying behavior of their ...
Purhonen M - - 2001
Auditory event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to an emotional (a baby's cry) and a neutral (a word) stimulus in a group of mothers 2-5 days after childbirth (n = 20) and in control women (n = 18) who were not in the state of early motherhood. For ...
Wood R M - - 2001
These studies assessed adults' latencies to signal that they would respond to infant crying as functions of (1) the degree of infant distress they perceived in the cry, and (2) contextual information relevant to caregiving. In the first study (N = 34), listeners waited longer to respond to cries that ...
Moore G A - - 2001
This study investigated (a) stability and change in infant affective responses to the still-face interaction, (b) whether maternal depression affected infant responses, and (c) whether responses to the still-face interaction predicted toddler problem behaviors. Infants (63 girls and 66 boys) of European American mothers (67 depressed and 62 nondepressed) were ...
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