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Results 351 - 400 of 1632
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Allen Richard M - - 2008
When provisioning offspring, mothers balance the benefits of producing a few large, fitter offspring with the costs of decreased fecundity. The optimal balance between offspring size and fecundity depends on the environment. Theory predicts that larger offspring have advantages in adverse conditions, but in favorable conditions size is less important. ...
Stenius Fredrik - - 2008
BACKGROUND: There is a close relation between the psychosocial environment of the infant--including the perception of maternal behaviour--and cortisol levels of the infant. One previous study has also demonstrated a correlation between mother and infant mean cortisol levels. In this study, this relation was further explored, also including father cortisol ...
Thun-Hohenstein Leonhard - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To study the predictive value of antenatal maternal mental representations about the child for mother-infant interaction at three months after birth. PROBANDS: A total of 73 pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound examination during the third trimester, who agreed to return with their baby for the interaction study. METHODS: ...
K.A. Oshikoya
This study is aimed at determining the prevalence in Nigeria of parental use of prescribed and non-prescribed drugs to their infants, to identify the drugs involved and the determinants that promote the act amongst Nigerian mothers. A total of 736 mothers, selected from 20 Primary Health Care (PHC) centres during ...
Goldstein Lou Ann - - 2008
PURPOSE: To determine if the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) could be used as an educational tool for mothers; if learning is dependent on the format used or the tester; and if mothers could retain information provided on motor development of infants born prematurely over a short period of ...
Noorlander Y - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: A pilot study was conducted which compared perceived mother-infant bonding in women admitted with postpartum depression or psychosis, with observations of mother-infant interaction by the nursing staff at both the time of hospitalization and that of release. METHOD: 25 mother-infant pairs admitted to a psychiatric unit were included in ...
Lyons-Ruth Karlen - - 2008
Recent high-risk longitudinal studies have documented a unique contribution of the quality of the early mother-child relationship to diverse forms of psychopathology in young adulthood, even with family economic status, later traumatic experiences, and some genetic factors controlled. In addition, measures of attachment-related deviations in caregiver-infant interaction predict more than ...
Wright Joyce A - - 2008
The birth of an infant with a disability is often perceived as the loss of a "perfect" baby and is typically an unanticipated event for the mother and family. Mothers may experience self-blame for the disability; therefore, sensitive communication is crucial. A private setting is recommended, with a minimum of ...
Brent Lauren J N - - 2008
This study describes natal attraction and infant handling in wild ursine colobus (Colobus vellerosus). Focal animal samples were collected from five infants of 1-16 weeks of age (mean: 14.5 focal hours per infant). Group members may be attracted to an infant, but unable to handle it because of resistance from ...
Correia Luciana Leonetti - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to characterize verbal contents expressed by preterm neonates' mothers during psychological support intervention. The sample was composed by 20 mothers of pre-term and very low birthweight neonates, hospitalized in NICU, allocated into two groups: 10 mothers with emotional clinical symptoms (MECS) and 10 ...
Reusch Margret - - 2008
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cultures were obtained from 288 mother-infant pairs. A questionnaire given to mothers and medical record review assessed risk factors for colonization. Only 2.1% of mothers and 0.7% of infants carried MRSA. There were no identical MRSA mother-newborn pairs. MRSA colonization by expectant mothers is uncommon and ...
Cevasco Andrea M - - 2008
The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of mothers' singing on their adjustment to and bonding with their new infants as well as use of music in the home environment in the first 2 weeks after their infants' birth. Preterm mothers were assessed for coping with their ...
Karl Donna J - - 2008
This article describes a simple, yet powerful postpartum intervention. The clinician gives each mother an instant photo taken of her with her newborn in the hospital a few hours or days after birth. For mothers, the photo becomes a snapshot-in-time to mark this memorable event. For clinicians, it represents a ...
Thomas Karen A - - 2008
Actigraphy is an easily applied approach for assessing activity and circadian patterns in mother-infant dyads. However, timing and duration of actigraphic measurements can affect assessment accuracy. The purpose of this study was to determine the number of days of actigraphy data required to portray circadian rhythm in mothers and their ...
Cho June - - 2008
To examine the effects of maternal depressive symptoms and infant gender on interactions between mothers and medically at-risk infants. Longitudinal, descriptive secondary analysis. Neonatal intensive care unit, intermediate care unit, and infectious disease clinic of the tertiary medical centers in the Southeast and East. One hundred and eight preterm infants ...
Winterbottom Janine B JB Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Lower Lane, Liverpool, UK, L9 7LJ. - - 2008
The provision of preconception counselling to women with epilepsy (WWE) has become established as recommended practice and includes a review of drug treatment and the provision of information and advice on both seizure and treatment-related risks to both mother and child. In this review we assess the evidence regarding the ...
Rickard Ian J - - 2007
Life-history theory states that reproductive events confer costs upon mothers. Many studies have shown that reproduction causes a decline in maternal condition, survival or success in subsequent reproductive events. However, little attention has been given to the prospect of reproductive costs being passed onto subsequent offspring, despite the fact that ...
Karraker Katherine Hildebrandt - - 2007
Relations between night waking in infants and depressive symptoms in their mothers at 6 months postpartum were examined using the data from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Although more depressive symptoms were only weakly correlated with a higher frequency of infant ...
Kirchengast Sylvia - - 2007
Human reproduction is a biological phenomenon, however, sociocultural factors such as marital status influence pregnancy outcome and reproductive success. In the present study the impact of maternal marital status on pregnancy outcome was tested for all births, which had taken place in Austria between 1999 and 2004, which met the ...
Raphael-Leff Joan - - 2007
This paper is informed by contemporary literature in two fields--neonatal research, on the one hand, and the burgeoning interdisciplinary interest in Moses and monotheism, on the other. The author postulates that a cluster of traumatic events during the first two years of Freud's life compelled him to repeat what could ...
Hirose Taiko - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Mother-infant interactions have been acknowledged as one of the most important elements in measuring outcomes of parent support and infant mental health interventions. The present study was conducted to measure early intervention outcomes using the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS), and to identify factors that affected Japanese mother-infant ...
Orhon Filiz Simsek - - 2007
AIMS: The aims of this study were to evaluate the associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and maternal perceptions of infant patterns with 1-year follow-up examinations, and to assess the impacts of treatment on these perceptions. METHODS: One hundred three mother-infant pairs were evaluated. Data on maternal reports of infant feeding, ...
Wise Michael J - - 2008
Evidence of poor correspondence between an insect herbivore's oviposition preferences and the performance of its offspring has generally been attributed either to maladaptive behavior of the insect mother or inadequate measurement by the researcher. In contrast, we hypothesize that many cases of "bad mothers" in herbivores may be a byproduct ...
Ferber Sari Goldstein - - 2008
The developmental trajectories of specific forms of maternal touch during natural caregiving were examined across the first year in relation to the development of mother-infant reciprocal communication. One hundred and thirty-one mothers and infants in four groups aged 3, 6, 9, and 12 months were observed in a cross-sectional design ...
Poobalan A S - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Postnatal depression has detrimental effects on the child's cognitive and emotional development. AIMS: To assess the benefits of treating postnatal depression for mother-infant interaction and child development. METHOD: A systematic search was made of 12 electronic bibliographic databases for randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials on treatment of ...
Kaitz M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Most research on maternal concerns has focused on their assessment during pregnancy and the early post-partum period. The aim of this study was to identify primary concerns of mothers later in the first post-partum year, changes over time, and factors that were associated with relatively intense concerns, including infant ...
Beebe Beatrice - - 2007
Associations of 6-week postpartum maternal self-criticism and dependency with 4-month mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies during face-to-face play were investigated in 126 dyads. Infant and mother face, gaze, touch, and vocal quality were coded second by second from split-screen videotape. Self- and interactive contingencies were defined as auto- and lagged ...
Gotuzzo Eduardo - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency of HTLV-1 infection among offspring of mothers who had presented with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), strongyloidiasis, or asymptomatic HTLV-1 infection, and to identify factors associated with HTLV-1 infection. METHODS: In a descriptive study, records were reviewed of HTLV-1-positive women and their offspring who had ...
Moehler Eva - - 2007
Maternal history of abuse has been proposed as a risk factor for child maltreatment, but the background of this "cycle of abuse" is as yet poorly understood. As a contribution toward a deeper understanding of this phenomenon, this study analyzed whether emotional availability is altered by maternal experiences of physical ...
Feldman Ruth - - 2007
Links between the temporal parameters of mother-infant synchrony and moral orientation in adolescence were examined in 31 children monitored from 3 months to 13 years. At 3 and 9 months, mother's and infant's affective states during face-to-face play were microcoded and synchrony was assessed with time-series analysis. Verbal IQ, behavior ...
Phillips Jane - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Depression and anxiety are known to be common among women presenting to residential mother-infant programmes for unsettled infant behaviour but most studies have used self-report measures of psychological symptomatology rather than diagnostic interviews to determine psychiatric diagnoses. The aim of the present study was to determine rates of depressive ...
Giardino Jennifer - - 2008
The present study was designed to determine whether becoming a mother during the adolescent period changes maternal responsiveness or maternal motivation, assessed through hormonal, autonomic, and hedonic responses to recorded infant cries and interactions with their babies. Fifty-six teen mothers were compared to 58 teen non-mothers and 49 adult mothers. ...
de Macedo Elizeu Coutinho - - 2007
Preterm babies are more prone to develop disorders and so require immediate intensive care. In the conventional neonatal intensive care, the baby is kept in the incubator, separated from the mother. Some actions have been taken in order to make this mother-child separation less traumatic. One of these actions is ...
Ozbek Aylin - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether mothers, with no known biological reason to account for elevated breast milk sodium (BMS) and associated hypernatremic dehydration (HND) in their exclusively breastfed infants, have more adverse psychosocial characteristics compared with controls. METHODS: Design is prospective case-control. Mothers of 21 term infants diagnosed as HND with ...
Beall, Jacqueline Anne
Environmental factors such as stress and hormones acting during embryogenesis, as well as early life experiences such as parental care have been clearly demonstrated in animal models to shape the individual's phenotypic gene expression, brain development, and behavioural repertoires ( Meaney, 2005 ). However, human studies have not assessed both ...
de Moraes Barros Marina Carvalho - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) is used to assess neurological integrity, behavioral function and the existence of stress and abstinence signs in newborn infants. AIM: To determine the neurobehavioral profile of healthy term neonates of adolescent mothers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with prospective collection of data. ...
Campbell Della - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Data collected on more than 12,000 women in 15 randomized controlled trials provide robust evidence of the beneficial effects of doula support on medical outcomes to childbirth. The objective of this paper was to examine the association between doula support and maternal perceptions of the infant, self, and support ...
Thompson Laura A - - 2008
This study investigated the effects of adrenocortical functioning on infant learning during an emotionally challenging event (brief separation from mother). We also explored possible relationships between maternal sensitivity and both infant and maternal cortisol reactivity during the learning/maternal separation episode. Sixty-three 3-month-olds and their mothers were videotaped for a 10 ...
McGrath Jacqueline M - - 2008
One hundred-thirty-nine women participated in this longitudinal study from the third trimester of pregnancy through 8-months postpartum. Women completed depression scales at several time points and rated their infant's characteristics and childcare stress at 2- and 6-months postpartum. Mothers' reports of infant temperament were significantly different for depressed and non-depressed ...
Hofer Tanja - - 2008
The present study investigates whether the maternal interaction style is related to 6-month-old infants' action interpretation. We tested 6-month-olds ability to interpret an unfamiliar human action as goal-directed using a modified version of the paradigm used by Woodward, A. L. (1999). Infant's ability to distinguish between purposeful and non-purposeful behaviours. ...
Korja Riikka - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between infant crying, holding and mother-infant interaction. METHODS: The study groups included 30 firstborn Finnish preterm infants (<1501 g or <32 weeks), and their 36 full-term controls. Caregiver's holding and infant's crying behavior was assessed using Baby Day Diary at ...
Noriuchi Madoka - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Maternal love, which may be the core of maternal behavior, is essential for the mother-infant attachment relationship and is important for the infant's development and mental health. However, little has been known about these neural mechanisms in human mothers. We examined patterns of maternal brain activation in response to ...
Hanly Margaret Ann Fitzpatrick - - 2007
Austen's extraordinary realism in depicting the dynamic internal processes which follow on the heroine's loss in Persuasion becomes clear in the light of a psychoanalytic understanding of mourning. Persuasion dramatizes the effects of a mother's death in adolescence as these come into play at the time of the heroine's separation ...
Black Maureen M - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To examine how maternal depressive symptoms are related to infant development among low-income infants in rural Bangladesh and to examine how the relationship is affected by maternal perceptions of infant irritability and observations of caregiving practices. METHODS: Development was measured among 221 infants at 6 and 12 months with ...
Liaqat P - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between mother's education, complementary feeding practices and malnutrition amongst mothers attending outpatient clinics in Islamabad. METHODS: Mothers of 500 Pakistani infants attending the Paediatric Outpatient department at the Federal Government Services Hospital, Islamabad completed pretested questionnaires on mother's educational status and complementary feeding practices. RESULTS: ...
Bernstein Henry H - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Postpartum discharge of mothers and infants who are not medically or psychosocially ready may place the family at risk. Most studies of postpartum length of stay, however, do not reflect the necessary complexity of decision-making. With this study we aimed to characterize decision-making on the day of postpartum discharge ...
Tarabulsy George M - - 2008
This study examined the similarities and differences in maternal and observer Attachment Behavior Q-Sort ratings (AQS; Waters, 1995) and their relations to dimensions of the developmental ecology - maternal sensitivity, infant irritability, parental stress and psychosocial risk. Data was gathered from low risk (adult mothers; N=44) and high risk mother-infant ...
Newman Louise K - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Parents diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are likely to find the emotional aspects of parenting challenging. Research into the difficulties that these parents experience, however, is lacking. The aims of the present study were to (i) gain an understanding of the interactional patterns of mothers with BPD and ...
Donovan Wilberta - - 2007
When their infants were 6 months of age, mothers were assessed for self-efficacy (low, moderate, and high illusory control) and knowledge of infant development to determine their impact on mothers' behavioral sensitivity and affect during a feeding task at 9 months (N=70). Mothers' sensory sensitivity to digital images of infants' ...
Hill Pamela D - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To examine preterm, near-term, and term mothers' self-reported quality of life in the early postpartum period. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal repeated measures design. SETTING: Four medical centers in the Midwest. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 184 mothers of either a preterm, near-term, or term infant. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Maternal Postpartum ...
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