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Results 51 - 100 of 1614
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Niranjan H S - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: To study the role of hematological parameters in predicting retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm neonates. METHOD: Two hundred forty eight babies less than 34 wk and/or with a birth weight of less than 2,000 g were evaluated. Peripheral blood smear and complete blood count were done on day one ...
McGlone Laura - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:Drug misuse in pregnancy is associated with impaired infant visual development. Pilot data showed abnormal flash visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in neonates exposed to methadone in utero, but results were confounded by intrauterine growth restriction, gestation, and ongoing drug misuse. This large cohort study aimed to clarify the effects on ...
Weintraub Andrea S - - 2013
Background: Initiation of empiric antibiotic treatment for possible early-onset sepsis is recommended for late preterm and term neonates with respiratory distress. There is no evidence base to this approach. Objectives: To determine the incidence of adverse infectious events in neonates with transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) managed with a ...
Holgerson Pernilla L PL Department of Odontology, Cariology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. - - 2013
Little is known about the effect of diet on the oral microbiota of infants, although diet is known to affect the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to compare the oral microbiota in breast-fed and formula-fed infants, and investigate growth inhibition of streptococci by infant-isolated lactobacilli. A ...
Inoue Hirosuke - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease mostly occurring in preterm infants. The pathogenesis of BPD involves early inflammation and remodeling of the premature lung. AIM: To search for the novel predictive marker of BPD development, we studied serum levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), an innate immune ...
Jansen Esther - - 2013
Physiological leucocytosis is common in neonates. Leukemoid reaction is defined as a variable degree of leucocytosis with immature precursors, similar to that occurring in leukaemia but because of other causes. Leukemoid reactions are well-recognised in the neonatal intensive care unit population and are associated with antenatal corticosteroids, Down's syndrome, chorioamnionitis, ...
Ziske Judith - - 2013
Tanzanian guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV (PMTCT) recommend an antiretroviral combination regimen involving zidovudine (AZT) during pregnancy, single-dosed nevirapine at labor onset, AZT plus Lamivudine (3TC) during delivery, and AZT/3TC for 1-4 weeks postpartum. As drug toxicities are a relevant concern, we assessed hematological alterations in AZT-exposed women ...
Corvaglia Luigi - - 2013
Although gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a very common phenomenon among preterm infants, its therapeutic management is still an issue of debate among neonatologists. A step-wise approach should be advisable, firstly promoting nonpharmacological interventions and limiting drugs to selected infants unresponsive to the conservative measures or who are suffering from severe ...
Baan Elly - - 2013
The HIV-1 characteristics associated with mother to child transmission (MTCT) are still poorly understood and if known would indicate where intervention strategies should be targeted. In contrast to horizontally infected individuals, exposed infants possess inherited antibodies (Abs) from their mother with the potential to protect against infection. We investigated the ...
Makkar Manisha - - 2013
The present study was undertaken to evaluate and highlight the importance of hematological scoring system (HSS) in the early detection of neonatal sepsis. The cross-sectional study enrolled 110 neonates who were clinically suspected of infection (study group) and normal neonates for comparison (controls), during the 1(st) week of life. All ...
Stocker M - - 2013
Since publication of the initial guidelines for the prevention of group B streptococcal disease in 1996, the incidence of perinatal infection has decreased significantly. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis together with appropriate management of neonates at increased risk for early-onset sepsis not only reduces morbidity and mortality, but also decreases the burden ...
Makino Hiroshi - - 2013
Bifidobacterium species are one of the major components of the infant's intestine microbiota. Colonization with bifidobacteria in early infancy is suggested to be important for health in later life. However, information remains limited regarding the source of these microbes. Here, we investigated whether specific strains of bifidobacteria in the maternal ...
Coggins Sarah A - - 2013
Serial C-reactive protein (CRP) values may be useful for decision-making regarding duration of antibiotics in neonates. However, established standard of practice for its use in preterm very low birth weight (<1500 g, VLBW) infants are lacking. Evaluate compliance with a CRP-guided computerized decision support (CDS) algorithm and compare characteristics and ...
Torrazza Roberto Murgas RM Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of - - 2013
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most devastating intestinal disease affecting preterm infants. In addition to being associated with short term mortality and morbidity, survivors are left with significant long term sequelae. The cost of caring for these infants is high. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that use of antibiotics and type of ...
Faraji Darkhaneh Roya R Reproductive Health Research Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Guilan, - - 2013
Background: Asphyxia is a common cause of perinatal mortality in 5-10% of all births worldwide. The present parameters for determining perinatal asphyxia, e.g. preeclampsia, cannot be considered as markers per se, and require auxiliary markers, e.g. increased number of nucleated red blood (NRBC) cells, for early diagnosis of perinatal asphyxia. ...
Chan Gary M - - 2012
OBJECTIVE:: To validate the noninvasive resonance Raman spectroscopy method in infants in comparison with the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, and to evaluate the carotenoid status in preterm infants fed mother's milk or formula STUDY DESIGN:: In the first phase of this study, resonance Raman measurements were made on ...
Punpanich Warunee - - 2012
A case of 6-week-old male infant with meningitis and concurrent bacteremia caused by Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus (Streptococcus bovis biotype 11.2) is presented. The isolates were susceptible to all beta-lactam antibiotics. Nevertheless, delayed defervescence and lack of satisfactory clinical improvement after treatment with multiple beta-lactam antibiotics prompted the combination therapy ...
Bhattacharyya Kumkum - - 2012
Neonatal septicaemia is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Blood culture is the gold standard for diagnosis of neonatal septicaemia. Several laboratory investigations are available to detect neonatal sepsis, one important is 'sepsis screen' which includes C-reactive protein (CRP), micro -ESR, total WBC count including immature to mature ...
Yaron Sima - - 2012
OBJECTIVES:: Palmitic acid (PA) constitutes 17-25% of the human milk fatty acids, and ∼70% is esterified in the sn-2 position of triglycerides (beta-palmitate). In the sn-2 position, PA is not hydrolyzed and thus is efficiently absorbed. The PA in palm oils, commonly used in infant formulas, is esterified in the ...
Downie Lilian - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To review the aetiology and antibiotic resistance patterns of community-acquired sepsis in developing countries in infants where no clear focus of infection is clinically identified. To estimate the likely efficacy of WHO's recommended treatment for infant sepsis. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature describing the aetiology of community-acquired ...
Lee Soon Min - - 2012
AIM: We investigated the significance of the calculated delta neutrophil index (DNI) as a diagnostic factor for neonatal sepsis. METHODS: In retrospective study, twenty-four infants were diagnosed with blood culture-proven sepsis, and 48 non-septic neonates matched for gestational age and birth weight served as controls. Among the 24 infants with ...
Fink James B - - 2012
Although the manufacture of inhaled medications is a multibillion dollar industry, virtually no pharmaceutical drug/device combination has been approved for inhalation across the range of pediatric patient ages and sizes. The clinician who treats neonates, infants, or toddlers is often faced with the dilemma of prescribing inhaled medications that may ...
Stellwagen Lisa M - - 2012
Abstract Objective: We hypothesized that pooling a mother's expressed breastmilk for 24 hours compared with individual pump session collection of milk would provide a more consistent caloric product without increasing bacterial contamination. Study Design: We investigated 24-hour pooled breastmilk collection by enrolling 19 mothers who were expressing milk for their ...
Yeom Jung Sook - - 2012
To distinguish between febrile infants with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis who are finally diagnosed with Kawasaki disease and those with enterovirus meningitis poses a diagnostic challenge. We compared clinical and laboratory features at admission between two groups of infants, aged 30-90 days, to identify markers of Kawasaki disease that initially presented ...
Nittala Solomon S Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 840 S Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612, - - 2012
Neutrophil counts are used routinely as part of the sepsis evaluation in newborn infants. In this article, we review the normal blood neutrophil concentrations and the clinical approach to neutropenia and neutrophilia in the neonatal period. A literature search was performed using the databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus, and the ...
von Lindern Jeannette S - - 2012
To study whether the incidence of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) in very premature infants (<32 weeks gestation) with thrombocytopaenia is lower when using a liberal platelet-transfusion guideline compared with a restrictive guideline. A retrospective cohort study comparing the incidence of IVH in very premature infants with thrombocytopaenia (platelet count <150×10(9)/l) admitted ...
Marom Ronella - - 2012
Infants with severe intraventricular-periventricular hemorrhage (IVH) have higher absolute nucleated red blood cell counts (aNRBC) at birth (a marker of intrauterine hypoxia) than controls. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is known to be associated with prenatal and postnatal events. Whether PVL is also linked to intrauterine hypoxia is unknown. To test the ...
Pais Maria - - 2012
Data from hospital records of 96 neonates hospitalised with sepsis were analysed using SPSS 11.5 version to identify sepsis--its signs and symptoms with which they were admitted, bacterial isolates and antibiotic susceptibility patterns among neonates admitted during 2007-2009. The retrospective data revealed that majority of the neonates 61 (63.5%) were ...
Weitkamp Jörn-Hendrik - - 2013
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in premature infants. Immaturity of gastrointestinal immune regulation may predispose preterm infants to NEC as FOXP3 T regulatory cells (Treg) are critical for intestinal immune homoeostasis. To investigate the hypothesis that abnormal developmental regulation of lamina propria Treg would define premature ...
Verbsky James - - 2012
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a life-threatening disease of infants that is curable with hematopoietic cell transplantation if detected early. Population-based screening for SCID using the T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay began in Wisconsin in 2008; 5 infants with SCID or other forms of severe T-cell lymphopenia (TCL) have been ...
Jusko Todd A - - 2012
Previously, we reported an association between higher maternal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations and smaller thymus volume in newborns in a birth cohort residing in eastern Slovakia. In the present report we address whether thymus volume at later ages is influenced by prenatal and early postnatal PCB exposure. At the time ...
Howman Rebecca A - - 2012
The relationship between histological chorioamnionitis and haematological and biochemical markers in mothers and infants at delivery, and in infants postnatally, is incompletely characterised. These markers are widely used in the diagnosis of maternal and neonatal infection. Our objective was to investigate the effects of histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) on haematological and ...
Kumwenda Newton I - - 2012
Data on paediatric reference laboratory values are limited for sub-Saharan Africa. To describe the distribution of haematological and chemical pathology values among healthy infants from Malawi and Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted among healthy infants, 0-6 months old, born to HIV-uninfected mothers recruited from two settings in Blantyre, Malawi ...
Nishijo Muneko - - 2012
Dioxin exposure levels remain elevated in residents living around former US Air Force bases in Vietnam, indicating potential adverse impacts on infant growth. In this study, 210 mother-infant pairs in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam were recruited at the infants' birth and followed up for 4 months. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels ...
Morales Diego M - - 2012
Neurological outcomes of preterm infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus are among the worst in newborn medicine. There remains no consensus regarding the diagnosis or treatment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, and the pathological pathways leading to the adverse neurological sequelae are poorly understood. In the current study, we developed an innovative approach to ...
Lebensburger Jeffrey D - - 2012
Clinical complications of sickle cell anemia begin in infancy. BABY HUG (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00006400) was a NHLBI-NICHD supported randomized phase III placebo-controlled trial of hydroxyurea (HU) in infants (recruited at 9-18 months) unselected for clinical severity with sickle cell anemia. This secondary analysis of data from BABY HUG examines the influence ...
Black Allison - - 2012
Human neonates are at significantly greater risk of serious infection than immunocompetent adults. In particular, very low birth weight infants in the neonatal intensive care nursery are at high risk of developing life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. Recent studies have identified Th17 cells as critical mediators of immunity to bacterial ...
Puck Jennifer M - - 2011
Early detection of primary immunodeficiency is recognized as important for avoiding infectious complications that compromise outcomes. In particular, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is fatal in infancy unless affected infants can be diagnosed before the onset of devastating infections and provided with an immune system through allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation, enzyme ...
Verbsky James W - - 2011
Severe combined immunodeficiency is a life-threatening primary immune deficiency characterized by low numbers of naïve T cells. Early diagnosis and treatment of this disease decreases mortality. In 2008, Wisconsin began newborn screening of infants for severe combined immunodeficiency and other forms of T-cell lymphopenia by the T-cell receptor excision circle ...
Hikino Shunji - - 2011
Background:  Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) occurs in association with prenatal conditions predisposing infants to inflammation and remodeling of the premature lungs. Because of no useful biomarkers of BPD, we analyzed the gene expressions in tracheal aspirate fluid (TAF) cells of premature infants. Methods:  Of 148 consecutive patients, 26 preterm infants (gestational ...
Chase Nicole M - - 2011
Over the past three years, newborn blood screening (NBS) for severe T cell lymphopenia/severe combined immunodeficiency (sTCL/SCID) using the T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay has revolutionized the early detection of infants with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) associated with T cell lymphopenia. Nonetheless, despite the comprehensive NBS protocols developed by ...
van der Aa L B - - 2011
BACKGROUND: In a murine model of allergic inflammation, Bifidobacterium breve M-16V has been shown to reduce IL-4 and IgE by inducing IL-10 and IFN-γ. However, it remains unknown whether this strain has the same effect in humans with allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V combined ...
Farquhar Carey - - 2011
Although evidence supports a relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 exposure and HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cell responses, studies have not demonstrated a direct association between the quantity of HIV-1 to which a person is exposed and the presence or absence of a response. From 1999 to 2005, maternal HIV-1 RNA ...
Kubo Masako - - 2011
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with tuberous sclerosis (TSC) has been reported in adult patients; however, this association is rare in children. We have encountered 2 different types of RCCs in infants who developed TSC later in childhood. The pathologic diagnoses were papillary RCC in one infant and a clear ...
Urquia Marcelo Luis - - 2011
Immigrants' health is jointly influenced by their pre- and post-migration exposures, but how these two influences operate with increasing duration of residence has not been well-researched. We aimed to examine how the influence of maternal country of birth and neighborhood deprivation effects, if any, change over time since migration and ...
Rath M E A - - 2011
Objective  To evaluate the incidence and severity of and risk factors for thrombocytopenia at birth in neonates with red cell alloimmunization. Study design  All neonates with haemolytic disease of the foetus/newborn (HDFN) due to red cell alloimmunization admitted to our centre between January 2000 and September 2010 were included in ...
Sim Ji Hyun - - 2011
Dermatomyofibroma is a rare benign cutaneous mesenchymal neoplasm of the fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. The majority of dermatomyofibromas present as red-brown discolored plaques or nodules, commonly located on the shoulder, upper arm, axilla, neck, and/or upper trunk. These lesions develop most frequently in young female patients at a mean of 28-years-of-age. ...
Mazzola Taís N - - 2011
OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate cell-mediated immune response to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination in uninfected, HIV-1-exposed infants, comparing it to unexposed children. DESIGN:: Cross-sectional study. METHODS:: BCG-specific lymphoproliferation and T cell subsets (CD4, CD8 and TCR γδ) by flow cytometry and IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α concentration by ELISA were analyzed in HIV-exposed ...
Lönnerdal Bo - - 2011
OBJECTIVES:: Human lactoferrin (hLF), a major protein in human milk, has been shown to exert multiple biological activities. To achieve some of the benefits of breast-fed infants, we therefore investigate the feasibility of adding commercially available bovine LF (CbLF) to infant formula. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:: An intestinal enterocyte model (Caco-2 ...
Wykes Clare - - 2011
Evaluation of: Wang WC, Ware RE, Miller ST et al. Hydroxycarbamide in very young children with sickle-cell anaemia: a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial (BABY HUG). Lancet 377(9778), 1663-1672 (2011). The BABYHUG study is the first randomized controlled prospective trial of hydroxycarbamide in infants with sickle cell anemia to look at ...
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