Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 622
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Vilà R - - 1997
Epidural administration of combinations of opioids and a local anaesthetic provides prompt and effective analgesia and is increasingly used in paediatric anaesthesia. However, respiratory depression by rostral spread of opioid in the CSF is by far the greatest concern after epidural morphine. An infant of three months of age underwent ...
Puthoff T D - - 1996
There are insufficient data to support the use of Emla cream for circumcision in newborn infants at this time. There are no studies that adequately address safety or efficacy. Before efficacy studies can be evaluated, pharmacodynamic studies need to be completed. These studies are in progress and are closed (personal ...
Lowenwirt I - - 1996
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is often considered that essential thrombocythemia contraindicates placement of an epidural catheter because of the danger of epidural hematoma. Thromboelastography offers a possible means of determining the appropriateness of epidural analgesia in a patient with this disorder. METHODS: A pregnant woman with essential thrombocythemia and a ...
Campos A A - - 1996
Better understanding of the physiologic features of the masticatory system has led to the evolution of the concept of maxillomandibular centric relation from the mechanical to physiological bases. However, the reproducibility of physiologic methods for centric relation determination has been criticized. In this clinical study the swallowing technique was modified ...
Al Ramadhani S - - 1996
Sternomental distance and view at laryngoscopy were documented in 523 parturients undergoing elective or emergency Caesarean section under general anaesthesia. Eighteen (3.5%) had a grade III or IV laryngoscopic view (Cormack and Lehane's classification) and were classified as potentially difficult tracheal intubations. There was a significant difference between sternomental distance ...
Karmakar M K - - 1996
We have studied the efficacy of a continuous paravertebral infusion of bupivacaine for the management of post-thoracotomy pain in 20 infants with a median age of 5.3 weeks (range 2 days to 20 weeks). Immediately before chest closure, 0.25% bupivacaine 1.25 mg kg-1 was injected into an extrapleural paravertebral catheter, ...
Hirose M - - 1996
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of postoperative analgesia on the amount of breast feeding and infant weight gain. Thirty parturients undergoing elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to receive postoperative pain management with (S-E group, n = 15) or without epidural bupivacaine ...
Kern C - - 1996
The interaction between doxacurium and halothane, isoflurane or alfentanil has not been studied in children. Using the cumulative dose-response technique and electromyography, we determined ED50 and ED90 of doxacurium during halothane (n = 9), isoflurane (n = 12) or alfentanil (n = 9) based anaesthesia in children aged 2-10 years. ...
Kitajima T - - 1996
We assessed neuromuscular block at the thumb and great toe using accelography after the administration of vecuronium in infants. Train-of-four stimuli were simultaneously applied to the ulnar and tibial nerves using cutaneous electrodes. Anaesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide (66%) in oxygen and sevoflurane (1%). Vecuronium 0.1 mg.kg-1 was used ...
Saitoh Y - - 1996
PURPOSE: To compare recovery of accelographical responses to post-tetanic twitch (PTT) and train-of-four (TOF) stimuli obtained at the first dorsal interosseous muscle (DI) with those at the adductor pollicis muscle (AP) after administration of vecuronium 70 micrograms.kg-1. METHODS: Sixty adult patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups: PTT-DI ...
Wolf A R - - 1996
We have studied 20 infants, aged 2.5-8 weeks, undergoing general anaesthesia for pyloromyotomy with either desflurane or isoflurane. Patients were anaesthetized with equivalent 1 MAC values for age and agent. A blinded observer recorded times to breathing, swallowing, movement, extubation and side effects after discontinuation of the agent. Recovery times ...
Abel M - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Erroneous filling of an agent-specific anesthesia vaporizer may result in concentration and potency outputs that are very different from those expected from the concentration dial setting. Enflurane and sevoflurane have relatively similar saturated vapor pressures (SVPs 175 mmHg and 160 mmHg, respectively, at 20 degrees C) and potencies (MACs ...
Aronsson D D - - 1996
More premature infants are now surviving because of advances in perinatal care. Premature infants often have congenital anomalies requiring operative correction and are at increased risk for developing postoperative apnea. The purpose of this study was to review our results with spinal anesthesia in infants. Twenty-two infants (average age at ...
Booker P D - - 1996
alpha 1-Acid glycoprotein (AAG) is an acute phase protein that is responsible for binding basic drugs such as bupivacaine. In order to determine how AAG concentrations change in response to surgical stress, arterial blood samples were obtained from 50 infants undergoing major surgery, at induction of anaesthesia and daily for ...
Luz G - - 1996
Venous bupivacaine plasma concentrations were measured in six neonates and infants aged 4 days to 3.9 mo (mean, 2.1 mo) and 10 infants and children aged 9 mo to 6 yr (mean, 3.1 yr) after administration of an initial bolus of 0.5 mL/kg bupivacaine 0.25%, followed by a continuous infusion ...
Kansanaho M - - 1996
We evaluated the effect of different concentrations of isoflurane in a nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture on the infusion requirements of mivacurium in 60 adult surgical patients. Anaesthesia was induced with thiopentone and fentanyl, and intubation was facilitated with mivacurium 0.15 mg.kg-1. The patients were randomly assigned to one of four study ...
Law R M - - 1996
A statistically significant (p = 0.049) increase in methemoglobin (MetHb), which did not exceed normal values, was noted 8 h after application of 1 g of EMLA (Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics) to the foreskin of 10 normal newborns to reduce pain associated with circumcision. The highest MetHb concentration observed ...
Russell C T - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To assess the suitability and effectiveness of EMLA cream (a eutectic mixture of lignocaine and prilocaine) as a topical anaesthetic for routine neonatal circumcision. DESIGN: A clinical trial of EMLA cream was conducted on 208 consecutive routine neonatal circumcisions. All circumcisions were performed by the Plastibell technique with prior ...
Hodges U M - - 1996
Neuromuscular blocking drugs in intensive care units (ICU) may cause complications, including prolonged neuromuscular block as a result of overdosage and post-ventilation muscle weakness. These may be increased by using inappropriately high infusion rates for infants, in whom published studies are scarce, and by failure to monitor neuromuscular block. There ...
Kriss V M - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: The ventriculus terminalis, or fifth ventricle, is an ependymal-lined residual lumen of the caudal most portion of the spinal cord (the conus medullaris). We describe five neonates in whom this normal variant was depicted on sonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Screening lumbosacral spinal sonograms are performed at our institutions on ...
Kriss V M - - 1995
The progressive neurologic dysfunction caused by occult spinal dysraphism can be prevented with early clinical recognition, radiographic diagnosis, and neurosurgical treatment. However, detection of occult spinal dysraphism in the infant is difficult because neurologic symptoms often are not apparent until the child becomes ambulatory. Occult spinal dysraphism, however, can be ...
Komatsu T - - 1995
Alterations in autonomic activity caused by anaesthesia can be assessed by spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). This study examined the effects of ketamine and midazolam on HRV. Thirty patients of ASA PS 1 were studied. Fifteen were given ketamine (2 mg.kg-1) and 15 received midazolam (0.3 mg.kg-1), iv. ...
Beskow A - - 1995
BACKGROUND: To determine possible delays in recovery after intravenous anesthesia induction with thiopental, the drug was compared with methohexital in infants 1-12 months of age who were scheduled for hernia repair or circumcision. METHODS: The infants were given equipotent doses of methohexital (3.0 mg/kg, n = 21) or thiopental (7.3 ...
Saito Y - - 1995
We have evaluated the effects of lumbar extradural morphine and lignocaine on the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide. Twenty-four female patients were allocated randomly to receive extradural morphine 2 mg (group M), 2% lignocaine 10 ml (group L) or a combination of morphine 2 mg and 2% lignocaine 10 ml ...
Fiset P - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Compared with conventional routes of delivering potent analgesics to postoperative patients, transdermal administration of fentanyl offers the advantages of simplicity and noninvasive delivery. The only available form of transdermal fentanyl, the Duragesic system, has been implicated in preventable patient deaths when used for postoperative analgesia and is contraindicated in ...
Ng P C - - 1995
Five hundred and twenty term singleton infants delivered by Caesarean section were categorised into six groups according to type of Caesarean section (elective or emergency), type of anaesthesia (epidural or general) and presence of fetal distress. Infants delivered under general anaesthesia had a significantly higher incidence of respiratory depression at ...
Broomhead C J - - 1995
A 35-week pregnant patient with ankylosing spondylitis and a known previous failed intubation required an elective caesarean section for intrauterine growth retardation. Regional anaesthesia was prevented by extensive spinal fusion. The anaesthetic management involved an awake oral fibreoptic intubation followed by induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia allowing delivery of ...
Husaini S W - - 1995
This open study of 20 women compared epidural clonidine (300 microg)/fentanyl (100 microg) with bupivacaine (25 mg)/fentanyl (100 microg) in the provision of pain relief in labour. Sensory tests in the clonidine group revealed slight alterations in the appreciation of pin prick and temperature but motor power was unchanged. Analgesia ...
Asher M A - - 1995
STUDY DESIGN: The transverse plane evolution of the most common idiopathic deformities was studied using a cross-sectional database of 181 patients whose deformities were visualized by precise three-dimensional techniques. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to test the hypothesis that for all common idiopathic scoliosis deformities evolution occurs as a torsion, the ...
Mainous R O - - 1995
Opioids, particularly morphine sulfate and fentanyl, continue to be the most commonly used agents for analgesia. Morphine provides greater sedation, and there is less of a problem with rigidity of the chest wall than with fentanyl. Morphine also has a higher level of tolerance than does fentanyl. Table 2 provides ...
Barker D P - - 1995
The ability of topically applied lignocaine ointment to produce surface anaesthesia was examined in 45 preterm infants (gestational age 25 to 35 weeks) at a median age of 2 days. Two strengths of ointment, 5% and 30%, were tested at 30 and 60 minutes after application to the dorsum of ...
Sharma M - - 1995
STUDY DESIGN: The issue of segmental stability using finite element analysis was studied. Effect of ligament and facet (total and partial) removal and their geometry on segment response were studied from the viewpoint of stability. OBJECTIVES: To predict factors that may be linked to the cause of rotational instabilities, spondylolisthesis, ...
Krishnan L - - 1995
Seventy-eight parturient mothers undergoing elective caesarean section were studied with regard to the immediate neonatal outcome in those receiving general and spinal anesthesia. All mothers were of grade I anesthesia risk, were term and had singleton appropriate for gestational age babies. There was no difference in fetal acid base chemistry ...
Muhonen M G - - 1995
We present a report of a 22-month-old infant with a spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma arising from a purely epidural vascular malformation. Although often suspected as a cause of spontaneous epidural hemorrhage, vascular malformations have rarely been demonstrated. The important aspects of the presenting symptoms in this young age group are ...
Griffin R P - - 1995
The effect of analgesia on the incidence of hypoxaemia was assessed in an unrandomised trial in 51 parturients from the last hour of the first stage of labour until delivery. Women were retrospectively divided into four groups: no analgesia, pethidine with intermittent Entonox, extradural bupivacaine (either infusion of 0.125% or ...
Hamza J - - 1995
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the factors affecting the distance from skin to epidural space. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of consecutive cases over a 2-year period. SETTING: Inpatient obstetric unit in a French university hospital. PATIENTS: 2,123 consecutive term parturients who received epidural anesthesia for cesarean section or epidural analgesia for ...
Brodie S - - 1996
A simple modification of the standard ERG-jet contact lens recording electrode for use in infants and small children was developed. A small Plexiglas cylinder is fixed to the front surface of the electrode, which prevents lid closure and facilitates handling. Sedation or general anesthesia is rarely needed. Waveforms obtained with ...
Krane E J - - 1995
Eighteen formerly premature infants scheduled for inguinal herniorrhaphy and who were less than 51 wk postconceptional age were assigned to either the general anesthesia group (GA: atropine, halothane, and nitrous oxide) or the spinal anesthesia group (SA: hyperbaric tetracaine). Twelve-hour, three-channel continuous recordings of respiratory rate (chest wall impedance), electrocardiogram ...
Sandman C A - - 1995
In a prospective study, third trimester plasma levels of BE and ACTH were determined in 58 women who delivered vaginally. Peptide regulation was compared between subjects who used conduction anesthesia at delivery and subjects who did not. Third trimester levels of maternal BE and ACTH were significantly related; however, the ...
Hawkins J L - - 1995
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Over 100 papers in the medical literature suggest pro or con that epidural analgesia is associated with an increase in the incidence of instrument delivery. This two-component study was performed to evaluate the influence of epidural labor analgesia on the incidence of instrument delivery. METHODS: Component 1 ...
Gazarian M - - 1995
EMLA (eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine) cream is currently not recommended for use in infants < 1 month of age because of the potential risk of methemoglobinemia as a result of the o-toluidine metabolite of prilocaine. We studied bioavailability and changes in methemoglobin levels following topical penile exposure to ...
Beebe D S - - 1995
The charts and anaesthetic records of 97 infants less than two years of age who underwent bone marrow transplantation at the University of Minnesota from 1978-1992 were retrospectively reviewed. These infants underwent 564 general anaesthetics. There were 48 perioperative complications, most (39) involving the airway. There were 20 difficult intubations ...
Krishnan L - - 1995
Seventy eight parturient mothers undergoing elective caesarean section were studied with regard to the immediate neonatal outcome in those receiving general and spinal anesthesia. All mothers were of grade I anesthesia risk, were term and had singleton appropriate for gestational age fetuses. There was no difference in fetal acid base ...
Eisele P H - - 1994
The pregnant guinea pig may be a useful model for the study of drug effects in the newborn. A reliable technique for epidural catheterization in the guinea pig was developed to allow use of this model to evaluate the effects of epidural labor analgesics on neonates. Catheters were implanted in ...
Vane D W - - 1994
Spinal anesthesia has been described for infants and premature babies undergoing minor operative procedures. The advantages of shorter operating time, avoidance of intubation, and shorter hospital stay have made this the gold standard for premature and other high-risk infants requiring minor procedures. However, little is known about this technique for ...
Keenan R L - - 1994
BACKGROUND: The frequency and morbidity of bradycardia during anesthesia in infants are not well documented. This study sought to determine the frequency of bradycardia during anesthesia in infants (0 to 1 yr) compared to that in older children, describe causes and morbidity, and identify factors that influence its frequency. METHODS: ...
Zabielski R - - 1994
The effects of local and peripheral administration of cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) and secretin on the interdigestive pancreatic secretion were examined in conscious preruminating calves. Six calves were surgically fitted with a pancreatic catheter and duodenal cannula, duodenal electrodes and strain gauges, and cooling devices on the cervical vagi. Local intra-arterial (I.A.) ...
Olkkola K T - - 1994
The present study was designed to evaluate the interactions of rocuronium with etomidate, fentanyl, midazolam, propofol, thiopental, and isoflurane using closed-loop feedback control of infusion of rocuronium. Sixty patients were randomly assigned to one of six sequences where anesthesia was maintained with etomidate, fentanyl, midazolam, propofol, or thiopental and nitrous ...
Leite J A - - 1994
Postoperative apnea (PA) occurs between 12 and 40% in premature infants, varying inversely in postconceptual age (risk is greater if age is less than 44 weeks). It can appear as late as 12 hours after the end of the surgical anesthesia (7). In a recent article (1), the author related ...
Jones M J - - 1994
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the incidence of headaches following myelography could be reduced by using a needle with an atraumatic tip. 107 patients were studied in a trial of 22 gauge atraumatic versus 22 gauge bevel tipped needles. In the first 3 days after myelography, ...
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