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Results 301 - 350 of 623
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Collis R E - - 1999
Two hundred and twenty-nine nulliparous women who requested regional analgesia during labour were given a combined spinal-epidural block. They were randomly allocated to stay in bed or spend at least 20 min of every hour out of bed. There was no significant difference in duration of labour, analgesia requirements, mode ...
Wee L - - 1999
Infants born to mothers with myasthenia gravis may exhibit a transient form of the disease, with similar sensitivity to non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs. We report the case of an infant at risk who required major surgery when 48 h old for closure of bladder exstrophy. A combined epidural-general anaesthetic technique, ...
Holliday M A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB) and eutectic mixture of lidocaine (EMLA) for palliation of pain associated with circumcision in low-birth-weight infants. DESIGN: Randomized, blinded, controlled trial. SETTING: Intensive care nursery (step down unit) at Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty ...
Politis G D - - 1999
We conducted a survey of Society for Pediatric Anesthesia anesthesiologists practicing within the United States to determine the frequency of tracheal intubation of healthy infants and children using an inhaled anesthetic without muscle relaxation (IAWMR). We also examined reasons for the use of this technique. Of all responders who listed ...
Jayanthi V R - - 1999
PURPOSE: Despite the controversy regarding the need for routine neonatal circumcision, most boys in the United States are circumcised. Physicians are commonly asked to perform circumcision after the neonatal period and are often unaware of the cost factors related to the timing and location of postneonatal circumcision. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ...
Hafkamp H C - - 1999
Although the gross anatomy of the nasal septum is well-understood, the exact anatomy of its ventrocaudal or premaxillary area is not. More precisely, there is some confusion about the course of the perichondrial and periosteal fibers in this particular region. This paper considers the detailed anatomy of the chondro-spinal and ...
Pitkänen M T - - 1999
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Earlier studies of the use of articaine in intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) are conflicting. In fact, despite similar physicochemical properties and regional anesthetic action, significant differences between articaine and prilocaine in IVRA have been reported. Articaine, being a potent local anesthetic with low degree of toxicity and ...
Dugoff L - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To identify the effect of spinal anesthesia on the success rate of external cephalic version after 36 weeks' gestation. METHODS: Women with singleton breech presentations after 36 weeks' gestation were offered enrollment. Those who agreed were randomized to receive spinal anesthesia or no anesthesia. Up to four attempts were ...
Saarenmaa E - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and adverse effects of fentanyl or morphine analgesia during the first 2 days of life in newborn infants who underwent mechanical ventilation. STUDY DESIGN: In a randomized double-blind trial, 163 infants were allocated to receive a continuous infusion of fentanyl (10.5 microg/kg over a 1-hour ...
Kurtis P S - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: 1) To compare the Mogen and Gomco clamps with regard to pain experienced during neonatal circumcision, and 2) to assess neonatal circumcision pain with and without dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB). DESIGN/METHODS: A randomized, controlled, nonblinded clinical trial; 48 healthy, full-term infants were randomized into one of the following ...
Vas L - - 1999
A substantial mediastinal mass in a small infant can create a dilemma regarding the safest mode of airway management. To ensure safety at all times, we adopted one lung ventilation for fear of compression of the carina and/or both main bronchi. Anaesthesia was maintained at a very light plane by ...
Wee L H - - 1999
Neonates are known to be sensitive to volatile anaesthetic agents which may lead to prolonged recovery. In this study, a remifentanil infusion was used in conjunction with an infusion of epidural ropivacaine and isoflurane anaesthesia for major abdominal surgery in small infants. This led to a short recovery time for ...
Wolf A R - - 1999
The study of paediatric pain and the provision of safe but reliable analgesia for all age groups has become a central issue in paediatric anaesthesia. For the practising paediatric anaesthetist, this represents a major challenge: the developing infant is not a single discrete entity but one that changes constantly with ...
Kolatat T - - 1999
Anesthetic methods used during cesarean section have advantages and disadvantages to both mothers and infants and may result in short and long term neonatal effects. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of general and regional anesthesia on the infants, a prospective, randomized trial was performed in Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University. MATERIAL ...
Kohane D S - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Ropivacaine is a newly introduced local anesthetic. No data are available regarding its safety, efficacy, or sensory-selectivity in children. The sciatic block duration and systemic toxicity of bupivacaine and ropivacaine were compared among infant, adolescent, and adult rats. METHODS: Infant, adolescent, and adult rats received blocks with ropivacaine or ...
Johnson C B - - 1998
We have investigated in eight ponies the effects of three different end-tidal concentrations of halothane, isoflurane and methoxyflurane on median (F50) and 95% spectral edge (F95) frequencies of the EEG and the second differential (DD) of the middle latency auditory evoked potential (MLAEP). The three concentrations of each agent were ...
Runza M - - 1998
Although 0.75% hyperbaric bupivacaine is commonly administered to provide spinal anesthesia for cesarean section in the United States, in some countries, only the 1% hyperbaric solution of spinal bupivacaine is available. The aim of this study was to compare 0.75% with 1% hyperbaric spinal bupivacaine for cesarean section. In this ...
Sethna N - - 1998
Local and regional anesthetic techniques have a significant but limited place in the practice of infant pain control. In certain clinical circumstances, regional anesthetic techniques presumably afford many of the same advantages for the pediatric patient as in the adult patient. However, there are few controlled clinical trials on the ...
D'Alessio J G - - 1998
All commonly used anesthetic agents and drugs undergo placental transfer. Understanding the placental transfer of anesthetic drugs and their effects on the neonate is essential for optimal administration of both regional and general anesthesia. Regional anesthesia is decidedly safer for the mother and, when properly performed, actually may be beneficial ...
Durbridge J - - 1998
Women frequently use a mixture of analgesics to gain relief from the distress of childbirth and antenatally require information on their effectiveness and side-effects. One such example would be the reported long-term neonatal behavioural changes following systemic opioids such as pethidine. The most frequently reported maternal effects of epidural or ...
Somri M - - 1998
The incidence of inguinal hernia is higher in premature infants, particularly in low birth weight neonates. This latter group may also incur increased postoperative respiratory complications and inpatient admissions. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of general and spinal anaesthesia on postoperative respiratory morbidity and on ...
Skinner H J - - 1998
We have assessed the effect of two induction agents on tracheal intubating conditions after rocuronium 0.6 mg.kg-1 in unpremedicated patients undergoing simulated rapid sequence induction. Following pre-oxygenation, anaesthesia was induced with propofol up to 2.5 mg.kg-1 (n = 35) or etomidate 0.3 mg.kg-1 (n = 36), and further increments as ...
Porter J - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The addition of opioids to epidural infusions for laboring mothers may reintroduce the problem of neonatal depression seen with systemic opioids. The authors studied neonatal respiration and neurobehavior in newborns of mothers randomized to receive epidural analgesia with or without fentanyl. METHODS: One hundred thirty-eight women in labor received ...
Carson K D - - 1998
Humidification during anesthesia is important to prevent adverse changes in the upper airways and possible pulmonary compromise. These changes may take place in less than 1 hour using dry nonhumidified anesthetic gases. Consequently, some method of humidification should be employed for all but the shortest of surgical procedures requiring general ...
Kuhns L R - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Infants with torticollis require evaluation of the entire cervical spine for vertebral anomalies as part of the work-up, but open-mouth views to assess occiput to C2 are difficult to obtain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a "head wag" autotomographic technique for the frontal projection of this region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty ...
Pan P H - - 1998
To evaluate the success rate of the spinal needle exiting through the spinal needle orifice in two commonly available single-lumen, dual-orifice combined spinal-epidural (CSE) needle kits, and to study the effects of the epidural needle bevel orientation and the modified insertion technique on its success rate. Prospective, randomized study. Laboratory. ...
DeBry P - - 1998
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and usefulness of phaco-chop cataract extraction. SETTING: A university-associated, multispecialty ophthalmology practice. METHODS: Fifty-three patients in a university-associated ophthalmology practice had cataract extraction, 32 by the phaco-chop technique and 21 by four-quadrant divide and conquer phacoemulsification. Phacoemulsification energy and complication rates were compared. RESULTS: Mean ...
Gasparoni A - - 1998
Anesthetic drugs can influence the immune system, particularly granulocyte function. The goal of the present study was to evaluate if lidocaine used for epidural anesthesia during cesarean section can influence neonatal neutrophil chemotaxis. We measured chemotaxis and plasma cord lidocaine and cortisol levels in (A) 15 infants born by cesarean ...
Butler-O'Hara M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of the dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB) with a less invasive form of local anesthesia, eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA) cream, for reduction of pain during neonatal circumcision. DESIGN: Prospective, blinded, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Tertiary referral, neonatal intensive care nursery in a university ...
O'Brien K - - 1998
We have studied 40 infants with a post-conceptual age of less than 60 weeks undergoing general anaesthesia for herniotomy. Patients were anaesthetized with 1 MAC equivalent values for age and agent and allocated randomly to receive halothane, savoflurane or thiopental for induction, and halothane, sevoflurane or desflurane for maintenance of ...
Brown K - - 1998
Both end-inspiratory (EIO) and end-expiratory (EEO) occlusions have been used to measure the strength of the Hering-Breuer inflation reflex (HBIR) in infants. The purpose of this study was to compare both techniques in anesthetized infants. In each infant, HBIR activity was calculated as the relative prolongation of expiratory and inspiratory ...
Niruthisard S - - 1998
Two per cent lidocaine (18-20 ml) with epinephrine 1:200,000 plus 4 mg of morphine was given as a single epidural injection over 3 minutes for elective cesarean section in 60 healthy mothers at term. It provided effective, safe and adequate analgesia in the postoperative period. There was no evidence of ...
Sonntag J - - 1998
BACKGROUND: By comparing the results of cardiac operations with or without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in infants in a prospective study, we sought to determine which part of the postoperative systemic inflammatory response was caused by CPB. METHODS: Thirty-five patients were divided into two groups: 11 infants operated on without CPB ...
Dennehy K C - - 1998
PURPOSE: To describe the anaesthetic management and report the incidence of PDPH in three parturients who had experienced accidental dural puncture during labour and the subsequent deliberate intrathecal insertion of an epidural catheter. CLINICAL FEATURES: Inadvertent dural puncture with a 16-gauge Tuohy needle occurred during the first stage of labour ...
Paech M J - - 1998
Although epidural anaesthesia and analgesia are widely used in obstetrics, there are no large contemporary prospective series detailing associated complications. Prospective data was collected on all obstetric epidural blocks performed for labour and delivery in a single institution between July 1989 and August 1994. A data entry sheet was compiled ...
Grevitt M P - - 1998
We report the case of a 2-year-old infant who developed a staphylococcal septicaemia that subsequently resulted in an epidural abscess and paraparesis. The significance of early diagnosis and the roles of anterior surgery to decompress the spinal cord, debride infection and correct deformity are discussed.
Nageotte M P - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Among nulliparous women, there appears to be an association between the use of epidural analgesia during labor and an increased risk of dystocia. We tested the hypothesis that combined spinal-epidural analgesia, which permits ambulation during labor, is associated with a lower incidence of dystocia than continuous lumbar epidural analgesia. ...
McLure H A - - 1997
This laboratory study was designed to compare the speed of placement of a percutaneous tracheostomy using two common methods and to evaluate any damage caused to the trachea. The same operator who was experienced with both techniques placed 10 percutaneous tracheostomies into a pig tracheal model, five using the Griggs ...
Charnock D R - - 1997
In a retrospective review of the incidence of early postoperative otorrhea, we compared cortisporin otic suspension with sulfacetamide/prednisolone ophthalmic drops and found them to be approximately equally effective. The beneficial effect of topical otic and ophthalmic antibiotic drops after tympanoplasty tube placement has already been well documented. It is therefore ...
Sayson S C - - 1997
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Genitofemoral nerve (GFN) block is a known side effect of a lumbar sympathetic block (LSB), although the incidence has not been well documented. Furthermore, genitofemoral neuralgia can occur following neurolytic LSB. Because the level at which the GFN exits the psoas sheath varies, this study was designed ...
Long William W - - 1997
A 5-DAY-OLD white male infant was admitted to the hospital because of progressive cyanosis and coolness of one leg. He had a history of emesis and loose stools, but no fever, trauma, or abnormal birth history. Because of vomiting, the formula had been changed from a low-protein to a soy-protein ...
Wittels B - - 1997
Among nursing parturients after cesarean delivery, intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with meperidine is associated with significantly more neonatal neurobehavioral depression than PCA with morphine. A single dose of epidural morphine (4 mg) decreases postcesarean opioid analgesic requirements and may reduce or prevent neonatal neurobehavioral depression associated with PCA meperidine. Prospectively, ...
Dickinson J E - - 1997
We investigated the maternal characteristics, labour performance and delivery mode of 497 nulliparas entering labour spontaneously at term to identify the obstetric factors which influenced their choice of analgesia; 51.7% of these women used epidural analgesia. They were shorter (163 versus 165 cm, p = 0.002) and the mean gestation ...
Gueugniaud P Y - - 1997
PURPOSE: Invasive haemodynamic monitoring during general anaesthesia in infants is usually limited to very high risk operations, such as cardiac surgery. Nevertheless, different surgical procedures and/or anaesthetic techniques justify additional monitoring for children, as for adults. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a ...
Cheung S L - - 1997
We have studied the efficacy of prolonged, continuous paravertebral infusion of bupivacaine for the management of post-thoracotomy pain in 22 infants with a median age of 1.5 weeks (range 1 day to 20.4 weeks). Immediately before chest closure, 0.25% bupivacaine 1.25 mg kg-1 was given into an extrapleural paravertebral catheter, ...
Booker P D - - 1997
We have studied gut mucosal perfusion in 24 infants, aged 0.7-45 weeks, requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Group 2 patients (n = 12) had received the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril 0.8-0.9 mg kg-1 orally, 45 min before induction of anaesthesia. Group 1 infants were of similar age and size and ...
Hawkins J L - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Anesthesia-related complications are the sixth leading cause of pregnancy-related death in the United States. This study reports characteristics of anesthesia-related deaths during obstetric delivery in the United States from 1979-1990. METHODS: Each state reports deaths that occur within 1 yr of delivery to the Centers for Disease Control and ...
Decocq G - - 1997
Bupivacaine is the most widely used local anaesthetic in obstetrics for epidural analgesia. Nineteen women (mean age 26.9 +/- 5.3 years) who underwent epidural analgesia during labour were included in this study. All parturients received a first injection of 21.8 +/- 2.5 mg 0.25% plain bupivacaine. The following administrations were ...
Kelly M C - - 1997
A patient is described in whom the symptoms and signs of uterine rupture were not masked by combined spinal epidural analgesia with an epidural infusion of 0.1% bupivacaine and 1.5 microg ml(-l) fentanyl. Early recognition of the dehiscence of a previous caesarean section scar resulted in an excellent neonatal and ...
Roetman K J - - 1997
This study compared recovery characteristics and postoperative ventilatory function when halothane, fentanyl or combination of halothane and fentanyl in addition to N2O were used for intraoperative anaesthesia in term infants undergoing hernia repair as outpatients. Sixty-six full term ASA PS I infants ages 1-12 months were studied. All received inhalation ...
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