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Deuber Charlene - - 2011
Supplemental oxygen plays a critical role in the management of infants born at the lower limit of viability, but not without the risk of complications resulting from high levels or prolonged exposure. Longitudinal studies of very premature infants, born at less than 28 weeks' gestation, establish a clear relationship between ...
Schmidt Barbara - - 2011
To examine whether treatment with antenatal corticosteroids modifies the immediate and long-term effects of prophylactic indomethacin sodium trihydrate in extremely low-birth-weight infants. Post hoc subgroup analysis of data from the Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms. Thirty-two neonatal intensive care units in Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and ...
Slater Megan E - - 2011
Utilizing data from the largest study to date, we examined associations between maternal preconception/prenatal exposure to household chemicals and infant acute leukemia. We present data from a Children's Oncology Group case-control study of 443 infants (<1 year of age) diagnosed with acute leukemia [including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid ...
Thompson Lisa M - - 2011
A growing body of evidence indicates a relationship between household indoor air pollution from cooking fires and adverse neonatal outcomes, such as low birth weight (LBW), in resource-poor countries. We examined the effect of reduced wood smoke exposure in pregnancy on LBW of Guatemalan infants in RESPIRE (Randomized Exposure Study ...
Proverbio Alice Mado - - 2011
It is known that infant faces stimulate visual and anterior brain regions belonging to the mesocortical limbic system (orbito-frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens), as well as the fusiform gyrus during face coding, suggesting a preferential response to baby schema. In the present investigation, faces of infants, children, ...
Dórea José G - - 2011
Different chemical forms of mercury occur naturally in human milk. The most controversial aspect of early post-natal exposure to organic mercury is ethylmercury (EtHg) in thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV) still being used in many countries. Thus exclusively breastfed infants can be exposed to both, fish derived methylmercury (MeHg) in maternal diets ...
Ganda Augustine Josie - - 2011
Background. Babies often show signs of discomfort and distress by crying during the neonatal screening examination (NSE). The authors hypothesized that supporting the baby with maternal participation may reduce infant crying during NSE. The objective of this study was to document incidental infant crying during NSE, before and after training ...
Mezzacappa Enrico - - 2011
Prenatal exposures to neurotoxins and postnatal parenting practices have been shown to independently predict variations in the cognitive development and emotional-behavioral well-being of infants and children. We examined the independent contributions of prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation, as well as their inter-relationships in predicting variations in the proficiency ...
Medoua Gabriel Nama - - 2011
Exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of infant's life is a public health recommendation and important factor for the promotion of optimal growth, health and behavioural development of each child. The accuracy of the mothers' self-reported past infant-feeding events was examined and compared with the isotopic dilution technique. Breastfeeding ...
Disantis K I - - 2011
A chronic mismatch of caregiver responsiveness to infant-feeding cues, such as feeding when the infant is not hungry, is hypothesized to have a role in the development of overweight by impairing an infant's response to internal states of hunger and satiation. Although this concept of mismatch or discordance has long ...
Henning Anne - - 2011
A perturbation paradigm was employed to assess 3- and 6-month-old infants' and their mothers' sensitivity to a 3-s temporal delay implemented in an ongoing televised interaction. At both ages, the temporal delay affected infant but not maternal behavior and only when implementing the temporal delay in maternal (Experiment 1, N = 64) ...
Lord David J E - - 2011
Several conditions presenting in the neonatal and infant period benefit from embolization, including hemangioma, vascular shunts, and tumors. The physiological delicacy and small size of newborns create distinct challenges. This paper discusses embolization of these patients and illustrates the techniques involved.
Nishitani Shota - - 2011
A considerable body of research has focused on neural responses evoked by emotional facial expressions, but little is known about mother-specific brain responses to infant facial emotions. We used near-infrared spectroscopy to investigate prefrontal activity during discriminating facial expressions of happy, angry, sad, fearful, surprised and neutral of unfamiliar infants ...
Slaughter Virginia - - 2011
This study revealed that 4- and 6-month-old infants produced social-communicative behaviours only in response to faces, and not in response to hands. However, infants' spontaneous responses to hands were unique in that they scanned the space above the hands, perhaps searching for a face.
Agnoli Sergio - - 2011
The present study investigated whether three methodologies currently used in animal as well as human adult startle research could be adapted for measuring the startle response in 5-month-old infants. The three methods performed: an automated and computerized recording of the infants' whole-body motor reactions (Automated Infant Motor Movement Startle Seat, ...
Currie Andrew J - - 2011
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of early- and late-onset sepsis in the newborn. Preterm infants have markedly increased susceptibility and worse outcomes, but their immunological responses to GBS are poorly defined. We compared mononuclear cell and whole-blood cytokine responses to heat-killed GBS (HKGBS) of preterm infants (gestational ...
Ng Pak Cheung - - 2011
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is essential for maintaining homeostasis in the fetus and newborn. A proportion of extremely preterm infants suffer from transient adrenocortical insufficiency of prematurity. Although these infants have suboptimal adrenocortical response to stress in the first week of life, the HPA axis adapts rapidly, and most exhibit ...
Bar-Yishay Ephraim - - 2011
In infants, small volume nebulizers with a face mask are commonly used to facilitate aerosol therapy. However, infants may be disturbed by mask application, causing poor mask-to-face seal and thus reducing the dose delivered. To compare lung function response to bronchodilator nebulization via two delivery devices: hood versus mask. We ...
Ebela Inguna - - 2011
BACKGROUND. Mortality of infants and children younger than 5 years is a globally recognized and broad national welfare indicator. Scientific literature has data on the correlation of mortality indicators with macroeconomic indicators. It is important to study the associations between prevalence and mortality indicators and socioeconomic factors, since deaths from ...
Al Namshan Mohammad - - 2011
Thigh swelling in an infant can be a symptom of a simple benign condition or a life-threatening condition. We observed a cluster of thigh swelling episodes in infants in which the cause was Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-related cold thigh abscess. We report this unusual case series to raise awareness about this diagnosis. ...
Apiliogullari B - - 2011
Pneumothorax progresses quickly in newborns and can lead to death. This study collected data prospectively over a 2-year period on risk factors, clinical course and prognostic factors of newborn cases diagnosed and treated for pneumothorax. Thirty patients were evaluated for risk factors including concurrent disease, method and duration of chest ...
Joung Kyoung Hwa - - 2011
To investigate the pre- and post-heelstick stress response patterns of infants and to identify related maternal factors. Fifty-two mothers and their 57 infants were studied. Stress response patterns in neonates were collected by measurements of pulse rate, oxygen saturation, and salivary cortisol. Maternal demographic factors and awakening saliva were collected. ...
Burl Sarah S Infant Immunology, Medical Research Council (UK) The Gambia, Fajara, The Gambia. - - 2011
The global burden of neonatal and infant mortality due to infection is staggering, particularly in resource-poor settings. Early childhood vaccination is one of the major interventions that can reduce this burden, but there are specific limitations to inducing effective immunity in early life, including impaired neonatal leukocyte production of Th1-polarizing ...
Bharadwaj Shrikant R SR Hyderabad Eye Research Foundation, Bausch and Lomb School of Optometry, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. - - 2011
Pupil responses of adults to near visual demands are well characterized but those of typically developing infants and children are not. This study determined the following pupil characteristics of infants, children and adults using a PowerRefractor (25 Hz): i) binocular and monocular responses to a cartoon movie that ramped between ...
Cabrera Susanne M SM Department of Pediatrics, Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Medicine, 702 Barnhill Drive, Room 5960, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. - - 2011
Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is a form of sex chromosome disorder of sex development with large phenotypic variability. Patients with MGD typically have asymmetric and ambiguous genitalia with a combination of Müllerian and Wolffian duct derivatives. Prenatal androgen exposure results in variable degrees of phallic enlargement and a urogenital sinus. ...
Ziegler Toni E - - 2011
Olfactory cues can exert priming effects on many mammalian species. Paternally experienced marmosets, Callithrix jacchus, exposed to direct isolated olfactory contact with their own infant's scent show rapid decreases in testosterone levels within 20 min, whereas paternally inexperienced males do not. The following study tests whether there is a differential ...
Marcoux Andre M - - 2011
The objective of this study was to quantify the maturation of the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) at discrete periods during infancy and to provide a means to appropriately estimate hearing thresholds when the ABR is immature. A longitudinal study was designed to measure the in situ ABR thresholds of infants ...
Jeng Fuh-Cherng - - 2010
Neural plasticity of pitch processing mechanisms at the human brainstem, as reflected by the scalp-recorded frequency-following response (FFR) to voice pitch, has been reported for normal-hearing adults. Characteristics and maturation of such a response during the first year of life have remained unclear. The purpose of this study was to ...
Swain James E - - 2010
The parent-infant dyad, characterized by contingent social interactions that develop over the first three months postpartum, may depend heavily on parental brain responses to the infant, including the capacity to smile. A range of brain regions may subserve this social key function in parents and contribute to similar capacities in ...
Davis Elysia Poggi - - 2011
The objective of this study was to determine the consequences for HPA axis functioning among healthy full-term newborns of prenatal treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid (GC), betamethasone, which is the routine treatment for threatened preterm delivery. Ninety full-term infants were recruited into two study groups (30 betamethasone treated; 60 comparison ...
Davis Elysia Poggi - - 2010
The objective of this study was to determine the consequences for HPA axis functioning among healthy full-term newborns of prenatal treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid (GC), betamethasone, which is the routine treatment for threatened preterm delivery. Ninety full-term infants were recruited into two study groups (30 betamethasone treated; 60 comparison ...
Coenraad S - - 2011
Infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units have a higher incidence of significant congenital hearing loss. We classified audiologic diagnoses and follow-up in infants who had been admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit. We included all infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at Sophia Children's Hospital between ...
Mendelsohn Alan L - - 2010
The goal of this study was to determine whether verbal interactions between mothers and their 6-month-old infants during media exposure ('media verbal interactions') might have direct positive impacts, or mitigate any potential adverse impacts of media exposure, on language development at 14 months. For 253 low-income mother-infant dyads participating in ...
Casali Raquel Leme - - 2010
Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) is important for the early diagnosis of hearing impairment in infants. To compare ABR responses in full-term and premature infants; gender and ear were taken into account. A cross-sectional prospective cohort study was carried out. We evaluated 36 full-term and 30 premature infants that had passed ...
Ravichandra K S - - 2010
Cleft lip and palate is a birth defect occurring in the orofacial region. One of the immediate problems to be addressed in a newborn with this defect would be to aid in suckling and swallowing. Here we present a case of a 5-day-old infant with unilateral cleft lip and palate ...
Maayan-Metzger Ayala - - 2010
To measure 3 intervals of time-induction of regional anesthesia to delivery (I-D), initial skin incision to delivery (S-D), and uterine incision to delivery (U-D)-in elective cesareans and to evaluate the impact of the duration of these 3 components on short-term neonatal outcome. We reviewed retrospective data on the duration of ...
Frawley Geoff - - 2010
Postoperative apnoea in ex-premature infants is inversely proportional to gestational age at birth and postmenstrual age (PMA). Spinal anaesthesia is an important technique in ex-premature infants as it reduces the risk of postoperative apnoea, provided intra-operative sedation is avoided. Recent studies have provided more data on recommended doses of local ...
Caruselli Marco - - 2011
For many years the opportunity of reducing the pain of birth through the administering of drugs (e.g. local anesthetics and opioids) into the epidural space has been known. Numerous studies have been conducted throughout the years to clarify whether the use of the epidural has resulted in a higher incidence ...
Wilder Robert T - - 2010
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is now more than a decade of mounting animal data that anesthetic drugs can cause apoptosis during a critical period of brain development and that this correlates with later behavioral disturbances. Initial articles examining the effects of early anesthesia on human infants have recently been published. ...
Hoelzle Martin - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Spinal anesthesia (SA) is widely used for awake regional anesthesia in ex-preterm infants scheduled for herniotomy. Awake caudal anesthesia (CA) is suggested as an alternative approach for these patients and type of surgery. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy and complications of the two different techniques. ...
Brenner L - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Caudal anaesthesia is a common procedure for infants and children undergoing subumbilical surgery, mostly performed in conjunction with general anaesthesia. Even if complications are rare, the risk of postoperative apnoea is significant, especially in infants born preterm or operated upon before 46 weeks of post-conceptual age. Caudal block in ...
Sorrell Jennifer - - 2010
Intralesional corticosteroids are one preferred method for treating small localized infantile hemangiomas because of efficacy in halting proliferation and minimal systemic side effects. Although often efficacious, this procedure is uncomfortable for infants. We describe the successful use of an oral 24% sucrose solution given via needleless syringe to the anterior ...
Bell Aleeca F - - 2010
To explore relationships between maternal epidural analgesia and two measures of neurobehavioral organization in infants at the initial feeding 1 hour after birth. Prospective comparative design. Inner-city community hospital, Chicago, Illinois. Convenience sample of 52 low-risk, mainly Black and Latino, mother/infant dyads. Mothers self-selected to labor with epidural or no ...
Mesnil Malcie - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Congenital cleft palate (CP) is a common and painful surgical procedure in infants. CP repair is associated with the risk of postoperative airway obstruction, which may be increased with administration of opioids, often needed for analgesia. No described regional anesthesia technique can provide adequate pain control following CP repair ...
Mirilas P - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: The endogenous opioid beta-endorphin is a known indicator of stress and pain. Opioid anesthesia during operation may prevent postoperative beta-endorphin hypersecretion. We examine the effect on serum beta-endorphin of both preoperative stress and stress of operation under opioids in neonates, infants and preschool children. In order to eliminate the ...
Ozdogan Hatice - - 2010
Local anesthesia with prilocaine has become a routine part of ambulatory circumcision procedures. Methemoglobinemia is a rare but potentially lethal complication of local anesthetics. We report the case of a 40-day-old Turkish boy who presented with cyanosis after receiving local anesthesia with prilocaine. His methemoglobin level revealed severe methemoglobinemia (methemoglobin ...
Dani Carlo - - 2010
The aim of the No Pain in Labour (NoPiL) study was to evaluate the stress and clinical outcome of infants vaginally born without maternal analgesia and after maternal epidural or systemic analgesia. We studied 120 healthy term infants, 41 in the no analgesia group, 38 in the epidural analgesia group, ...
Rauh Virginia A - - 2010
Environmental contaminants pose a threat to infant neurodevelopment. In this current paper, we discuss evidence for the potentially harmful impact of fetal and early childhood exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. We focus on effects resulting from chronic and low-level exposure during ...
Saroyan John M - - 2009
Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) describes a spectrum of disease from occasional bullae and callus formation to a debilitating life-threatening condition. In this study, we report the use of intravenous ketamine given orally to an infant with a phenotypically severe form of EB simplex, Dowling-Meara subtype, to achieve analgesia during painful dressing ...
Smets Koenraad Jan - - 2010
A newborn presented on day 15 of life with an epidural hematoma, extending through a diastatic sutura squamosa in an external cephalhematoma. There was no skull fracture. The cephalhematoma was punctured twice with 24-h interval, reducing both the cephalhematoma and the epidural component. In the absence of neurological signs or ...
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