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Diaz M - - 1988
We examined the effects of maternal lidocaine hydrochloride anesthesia on the brain-stem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) in neonates born by cesarean delivery. Sixteen term neonates were enrolled in the study. Eight neonates were delivered by cesarean section following lidocaine anesthesia, and eight were delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery without maternal ...
Kuhnert B R - - 1988
Reports of whether or not bupivacaine affects neonatal neurobehavior have been contradictory. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that scores on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS) after epidural anesthesia with bupivacaine for cesarean section would not be different than those after chloroprocaine. Furthermore, if ...
Juul J - - 1988
A prospective study based upon interviews included 92 women who had undergone cesarean section, 38% with epidural analgesia and 62% under general anesthesia. The two groups were compared with respect to anesthesiological complications, postoperative morbidity and birth experience. The puerperal period was less complicated after epidural analgesia than after general ...
Artru A A - - 1988
The present study was designed to determine whether the Cordis lumbar catheter is more effective than spinal needles or epidural catheters for intraoperative removal of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We also sought to determine whether placing two spinal needles, two epidural catheters, or two Cordis CSF catheters per patient provides more ...
Sakala E P - - 1988
Two hundred twenty-seven consecutive full-term deliveries by cesarean section over a 10-month period were divided into "father present" and "father absent" groups. The father present group tended to have received prenatal care in the private office and to have experienced regional anesthesia more frequently. Apgar scores at one and five ...
Marks W A - - 1988
Spinal epidural abscess is a rare infection in childhood. We report the first documented case of pneumococcal epidural abscess in an infant and review the literature regarding this entity. In children, the signs and symptoms of spinal epidural abscess may not be as helpful as those in older patients. Furthermore, ...
Negrini D - - 1987
Using liquid-filled catheters, we recorded, in 30 anesthetized, spontaneously breathing supine rabbits, the hydraulic pressure from the parietal subpleural interstitial space (Pspl). Through a small exposed area of parietal pleura a plastic catheter (1 mm ED), with a closed and smooth tip and several holes on the last centimeter, was ...
Engberg G - - 1987
The aim of the study was to measure the plasma levels of lidocaine and prilocaine after dermal application of EMLA in infants and to evaluate whether this procedure increases the levels of methaemoglobin (Met-Hb). Two groups of infants, 3-6 (n = 12) and 6-12 months (n = 10) of age, ...
Ghaly R G - - 1987
The application of low frequency (10 Hz) electrical current for 5 minutes to an acupuncture needle placed at the P6 (Neiguan) point is as effective as manual needling in the reduction of emetic sequelae in women premedicated with nalbuphine 10 mg for a minor gynaecological operation carried out under a ...
Maxwell L G - - 1987
Circumcision in neonates is performed, almost universally, without anesthesia or analgesia. It is associated with pain, crying, agitation, and physiologic stress. Twenty infants receiving penile nerve block for circumcision were compared with ten infants having circumcision without anesthesia. Heart rate and blood pressure rose 34 and 15%, respectively, in unblocked ...
Larsson L E - - 1987
Carbon dioxide tensions (PCO2) in arterialized capillary blood samples were measured in 39 infants anaesthetized for minor paediatric surgery. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with oxygen, nitrous oxide and halothane, using a Mapleson-D system with spontaneous ventilation and a Rendell-Baker face mask. The duration of anaesthesia was between 15 and ...
Ong B - - 1987
The obstetrical anaesthesia experience of the Winnipeg Women's Hospital from 1975 to 1983 was reviewed (n = 22,925 infants). Use of narcotics in labour for analgesia decreased from 38.7 to 18.3 per cent of the deliveries. For analgesia during spontaneous vaginal deliveries, epidural anaesthesia increased from 6.0 to 24.0 per ...
Kangas-Saarela T - - 1987
The effects of maternal segmental epidural analgesia on neonatal neurobehavioural responses were studied at the ages of 3 h, 1 day, 2 days and 4-5 days. Subjects were healthy, term neonates born vaginally to 14 mothers with an epidural block and to 15 mothers without analgesia. The only statistically significant ...
Kaminski H M - - 1987
In a retrospective study, 155 women who had epidural analgesia only for pain relief during labor and delivery were matched by age, parity, and race with 155 women who had either pudendal or local analgesia for delivery. Infant birth weights were similar in the two groups. The frequency of low ...
Bozynski M E - - 1987
There have been many reports of lidocaine toxicity especially after maternal paracervical block anesthesia. We recently treated a term infant with evidence of fetal distress who presented with symptoms of lidocaine toxicity after maternal pudendal anesthesia. The infant developed apnea and bradycardia soon after birth which responded to mechanical ventilation ...
Purdy G - - 1987
In a prospective comparative study 240 patients received extradural bupivacaine, either by regular timed injections or "on demand", for pain relief during the first stage of labour. Three concentrations of bupivacaine were used (0.5%, 0.375% and 0.25%). Quality and continuity of analgesia, motor blockade, spread of sensory blockade, cardiovascular changes, ...
Krehbiel D - - 1987
Several experiments were carried out to study the effects of peridural anesthesia (Sylvocaine, 6 ml between sacrum and 1st caudal vertebra) performed either at the first signs of birth (early peridural: EP), or little before expulsion (late peridural: LP). When performed late, peridural anesthesia altered maternal behavior only slightly when ...
Gale R - - 1986
In 147 elective and 384 non-elective cesarean sections, the need for neonatal respiratory assistance at birth was significantly greater for babies born under general anesthesia compared to epidural anesthesia, and the differences could not be explained by differences in pre-operative risk factors. For 114 babies on whom blood gas data ...
Voutsinas S A - - 1986
The sagittal plane of the growing spine was studied from standardized radiographs of 670 normal subjects to establish standards of reference for thoracic kyphosis, lumbosacral lordosis, and sacral inclination. Cobb's method of measuring spinal deformities was compared with new indices of kyphosis and lordosis that take into consideration the length ...
Williamson P S - - 1986
Eleven male newborns were circumcised with a local dorsal penile nerve block, and 13 controls were circumcised without anesthetic. Matched pairs of pre- and postcircumcision cortisol levels in the two groups were compared. The adrenal cortisol response to surgery was not significantly reduced by the administration of lidocaine. Blood sampling ...
Whitburn R H - - 1986
Halothane hepatitis is extremely rare in childhood. However, this occurred in an 11-month-old infant, following multiple exposure to halothane. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of specific antibodies to halothane-sensitised rabbit hepatocytes. The anaesthetic technique for a subsequent procedure with a halothane-free breathing system is also outlined.
Yamashita M - - 1986
Oculocardiac reflex is one of the trigemino-vagal reflexes, and is frequently observed during anesthesia for pediatric strabismus surgery. The reflex is greatly exaggerated in the presence of hypoventilation, hypoxemia and acidosis. The reflex is important as a cause of cardiac arrest during eye surgery. Several related reflexes are known, such ...
Räisänen I - - 1986
Concentration of beta-endorphin in relation to the mode of delivery and anesthesia was studied in maternal and umbilical cord plasma in 30 healthy women at term pregnancy. At elective cesarean section under epidural anesthesia, the mean maternal beta-endorphin level rose from 9.8 +/- 2.7 pmol/L (SE) before induction to 15.5 ...
Engel D - - 1986
In 1936 scoliosis was produced in growing animals by exposing one side of one or more vertebrae to radium action. The purpose of this treatment was to recurve existing curvatures of the spine on the same principle. No attempt has been made so far to correct congenital scoliosis of infants ...
Robinson G A - - 1986
The effects of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist bicuculline (BCC) on hindlimb motor performance was examined in mature spinal cats with spinal cord transections made either on the day of birth or at approximately two weeks postpartum and in chronic adult cats with spinal transections made in adulthood. In those ...
Diaz J H - - 1985
Infants are well known to be sensitive to the myocardial depressant effects of halothane. In this study of more than 300 infants, 0 to 24 weeks of age, who received halothane anesthesia, preoperative risk factors were correlated with intraoperative outcome and postoperative recovery. Possible risk factors considered were age, history ...
Abboud T K - - 1985
Fifty-two neonates delivered by elective cesarean section were evaluated using the Neonatal Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Scores. Twenty of the mothers received general anesthesia, 14 received epidural, and 18 received spinal anesthesia. All mothers receiving regional anesthesia were prehydrated with 1000 ml of lactated Ringer's solution and were given oxygen ...
Veyckemans F - - 1985
The authors present a retrospective study on the safety of their induction technique of anaesthesia in infants less than 30 days old. The records of 197 consecutive cases are reviewed, 47 of which concern major cardiac surgery. All the details of the technique are given: inhalation of halothane in O2 ...
Slavazza K L - - 1985
An exploratory study of 77 primiparous women during the first 48 hours postpartum tested for differences between those who had received epidural anesthesia, those who had received analgesia during labor with local or pudendal block for delivery, and those who had received no analgesia and either no anesthesia or local ...
Corke B C - - 1985
Toxic reactions to bupivacaine and 2-chloroprocaine recently have been reported in parturients receiving epidural analgesia. Neurotoxicity has occurred after the accidental subarachnoid injection of large doses of 2-chloroprocaine. Cardiac arrest and death have occurred after the accidental intravascular injection of bupivacaine. Obstetricians should be aware of these hazards and how ...
Buzello W - - 1985
Vecuronium was studied in eight malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptible pigs for its potential to either trigger or prevent MH. Two sets of experiments were performed in the same animals: 1-hr total neuromuscular blockade by vecuronium infusion with thiopental anesthesia in the absence of invasive monitoring and halothane; and 1-hr infusion ...
Raghavendra B N - - 1985
Sonography has proved to be a valuable method for the examination of the spine in children with spinal dysraphism. It facilitates the diagnosis of meningocele, lipoma, and/or spinal cord tethering rapidly and noninvasively. It is suggested that sonography be utilized for screening infants with neurocutaneous signature of spinal dysraphism.
Li D F - - 1985
The efficacy of an extradural infusion of 0.0625% or 0.125% bupivacaine was studied in 98 primigravid mothers in active labour. No special measures were taken to posture the mother (except to avoid aorto-caval compression). The study regimen included a control group (no infusion) receiving intermittent top-ups (0.25%. bupivacaine 8-10 ml), ...
Clark G A - - 1985
Does infant malnutrition produce smaller adult spinal canals? Lumbar and thoracic vertebrae (n X 1073), from a prehistoric American Indian population (15-55 yrs of age), were measured for anteroposterior (AP) and transverse (TR) vertebral canal sizes, nerve root tunnel (intervertebral foramen) widths (NRT), vertebral heights (VH), vertebral osteophytosis (VO), and ...
Sakuma S - - 1985
Following local anesthetic use, maternal and umbilical serum levels of lidocaine were determined at delivery by means of a gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry technique in 13 cases. In six cases, where delivery was performed by cesarean section, lidocaine was used for epidural analgesia. The dose given averaged 4.0 +/- 1.7 mg/kg, and the ...
Baltaxe H A - - 1984
We describe a 24-cm long coaxial needle that has a 15-cm, beveled outer sleeve and accepts a 0.038-inch (0.097-cm) guidewire. A Luer-loc fastens the outer needle to the inner one. The outer sleeve has markings etched 1 cm apart to indicate the distance from the tip of the inner needle ...
Robbins R - - 1984
Equipotent, paralysing doses of pancuronium and tubocurarine were administered to 40 patients, aged from 1 day to 12 months, during nitrous oxide, oxygen and fentanyl anaesthesia. Neuromuscular activity was measured during onset and recovery from paralysis using train-of-four stimulation. At the same depression of the first stimulus of the train, ...
Berg R A - - 1984
An emergency infusion of catecholamines into the bone marrow of a 6-month-old infant was performed. We believe this is the first report of continuous intraosseous infusion of dopamine hydrochloride and dobutamine hydrochloride. Intraosseous infusions are efficacious and complications are rare. We recommend use of this technique in emergency circumstances when ...
Murphy J F - - 1984
This study examines the changing pattern of maternal analgesia administration during the decade 1970-1979. In addition, the relationship between analgesia, anaesthesia and the infant's Apgar score was documented. Approximately 40000 deliveries to South Glamorgan residents were included in the study. Over the two quinquennia 1970-1974 and 1975-1979 the administration of ...
Benjamin B - - 1984
The requirements of anesthesia for laryngoscopy and microlaryngeal surgery must be compatible with maximum safety and minimum patient discomfort. Some techniques require the use of an endotracheal tube while some do not. Others use a modified tube or a jetting system. In general, for pediatric endoscopy we prefer spontaneous respiration ...
Philipson E H - - 1984
Local infiltration of the perineum is a simple and commonly used technique for providing pain relief for episiotomy. It has always been considered safe and effective because a small amount of local anesthetic agent could be administered quickly and accurately to the perineum just prior to vaginal delivery and cord ...
Kileff M E - - 1984
We compared the early neonatal neurobehavioral responses after lumbar epidural anesthesia for elective cesarean section using 2% lidocaine (n = 10) and 0.5% bupivacaine (n = 21). We tested the infants at 4 and 24 hr after birth and found that the neonates in the lidocaine group scored as well ...
Shaw D B - - 1984
Anesthesia in an emergency presents an additional risk to the mother and may have some possibly harmful effects on the stressed fetus. The risk to the mother can be reduced by using regional anesthesia, whenever reasonable, and by taking measures to minimize the risk of aspiration of vomitus. The stressed ...
Cyr R M - - 1984
Comparison of birth asphyxia and trauma in the same obstetric service during periods 18 years apart shows some reassuring and some disquieting findings. Liberalized cesarean sections, electronic monitoring of fetal heart in labor, and replacement of opiate sedation by epidural anesthesia have had their effect. There has been dramatic reduction ...
Zagorzycki M T - - 1984
Advances in anesthetic techniques during the past several decades have resulted in an excellent outcome in infants delivered by cesarean section under general anesthesia. To understand these results, it is important to be familiar with the physiologic changes which occur during general anesthesia. A review of the literature which focuses ...
Goudsouzian N G - - 1984
The response of the adductor of the thumb to ulnar nerve stimulation (0.1 Hz) was evaluated during continuous infusion of succinylcholine (SCh) in 20 infants anesthetized with halothane (1%) and N2O2/O2. Train-of-four stimulation (2 Hz for 2 s) was used to differentiate between phase I and phase II block. Some ...
Hickey P R - - 1984
The safety and efficacy of fentanyl-oxygen (50 and 75 micrograms/kg) and sufentanil-oxygen (5 and 10 micrograms/kg) were studied in 40 infants undergoing repair of complex heart defects. When fentanyl or sufentanil was given simultaneously with pancuronium, induction of anesthesia was rapid and smooth with only mild and clinically insignificant hemodynamic ...
Obara H - - 1984
We measured plasma cortisol levels during surgery in seven neonates within ten days after birth and in 14 infants ranging in age from three months to 11 months. The 14 infants were divided into two groups; Group I included eight infants in whom general anaesthesia was maintained with oxygen, nitrous ...
Lundell B P - - 1984
Left ventricular systolic time intervals, plasma norepinephrine concentration, hematocrit, and blood pressure were recorded in infants delivered vaginally and by cesarean section from mothers under epidural or general anesthesia. Each group comprised 12 infants. Left ventricular ejection time and the preejection period were longer in infants delivered vaginally, although the ...
Ryhänen P - - 1984
Changes in the peripheral blood leucocyte count, lymphocyte subpopulations, and in 'in vitro' responses of lymphocytes to phytohaemagglutinin and tuberculin after induced labour were investigated in 10 normal parturients and their newborns. Every other parturient was given segmental epidural analgesia at level T 10-12 for pain relief during the first ...
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