Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1019
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Grech Victor - - 2012
Latitude gradients and secular trends in Europe and North America have been found in the male-female ratio at birth (M/F: male births divided by total births) which is expected to be 0.515. Annual national data for Czechoslovakia and the post-Czechoslovakian (Czech Republic and Slovakia) countries for male and female live ...
Azemi Mehmedali - - 2012
THE AIM OF WORK HAS BEEN THE PRESENTATION OF THE RATE AND TIME TRENDS OF SOME INDICATORS OF THE HEATH CONDITION OF MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN KOSOVO: fetal mortality, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, infant mortality, natality, natural growth of population etc. The treated patients were the newborn and infants ...
Palmér Lina - - 2012
A majority of women in Sweden initiate breastfeeding but almost a quarter stop or wean the infant in the first few weeks after birth because of difficulties. In order to develop care that facilitates initiation of breastfeeding and enables mothers to realize their expectations concerning breastfeeding, it is necessary to ...
Susuman A Sathiya - - 2012
Ethiopia's childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation ...
Tu Lh - - 2012
To determine the prevalence and characteristics of birth defects in perinatal infants in Hubei Province during 200l-2008. The prevalence of birth defects in perinatal infants delivered after 28 weeks or more was analyzed in Hubei surveillance hospitals during 200l-2008. The incidence of birth defects in perinatal infants from 200l to ...
Rajewska Justyna - - 2012
Hemangioma is found in approximately 10% of infants as the most prevalent benign neoplasm. The natural history of hemangioma is typical for this lesion and includes two phases: fast growth during the first year of life of the child and subsequent slow regression lasting some five years. Even though the ...
Collins Sorcha A - - 2012
The northern territory Nunavut has Canada's largest jurisdictional land mass with 33,322 inhabitants, of which 85% self-identify as Inuit. Nunavut has rates of infant mortality, postneonatal mortality and hospitalisation of infants for respiratory infections that greatly exceed those for the rest of Canada. The infant mortality rate in Nunavut is ...
Einarsdóttir Kristjana - - 2012
The Australian baby bonus maternity payment introduced in 2004 has been reported to have successfully increased fertility rates in Australia. We aimed to investigate the influence of the baby bonus on maternal demographics and birth characteristics in Western Australia (WA). This study included 200,659 birth admissions from WA during 2001-2008, ...
Suraweera Wilson - - 2012
It is estimated that India has more deaths from rabies than any other country. However, existing estimates are indirect and rely on non-representative studies. We examined rabies deaths in the ongoing Million Death Study (MDS), a representative survey of over 122,000 deaths in India that uses enhanced types of verbal ...
Melkie Mulugeta - - 2012
Reference intervals (RIs) are ranges of upper and lower limits of a given analyte which are used for a laboratory test to determine whether a disease is present or absent or to know if the patient is at risk for future disease states. In Ethiopia, a country with highly diversified ...
Fell Deshayne B - - 2012
The dramatic increase in multiple births is an important public health issue, since such births have elevated risks for adverse perinatal outcomes. Our objective was to explore the most recent temporal trends in rates of multiple births in Canada and the United States. Live birth data from Canada (excluding Ontario) ...
Bentley Jason P - - 2012
With the increasing use of probabilistically linked administrative data in health research, it is important to understand whether systematic differences occur between the populations with linked and unlinked records. While probabilistic linkage involves combining records for individuals, population perinatal health research requires a combination of information from both the mother ...
Jansen Brian D - - 2012
We investigated potential advantages in birth timing for mountain lion (Puma concolor) cubs. We examined cub body mass, survival, and age of natal dispersal in relation to specific timing of birth. We also investigated the role of maternal age relative to timing of births. We captured mountain lion cubs while ...
Althabe Fernando - - 2012
Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal mortality, responsible for 28% of neonatal deaths overall. The administration of antenatal corticosteroids to women at high risk of preterm birth is a powerful perinatal intervention to reduce neonatal mortality in resource rich environments. The effect of antenatal steroids to reduce mortality ...
Exavery Amon A fakara Health Institute (IHI), Plot 463, Kiko Avenue, off Old Bagamoyo Road, P.O. Box 78373, Dar es Salaam, Mikocheni, Tanzania. - - 2012
Poorly spaced pregnancies have been documented worldwide to result in adverse maternal and child health outcomes. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a minimum inter-birth interval of 33 months between two consecutive live births in order to reduce the risk of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. However, birth spacing ...
Mateus Solarte Julio César JC School of Public Health, Universidad del Valle. E mail: - - 2012
Breastfeeding promotion is one of the most important strategies against infant mortality and to control child undernourishment. Despite policies and plans to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia, its practice is low and its duration is short. To propose an ecology framework to interpret and incorporate contextual, interpersonal, and individual ...
Urrea Giraldo Fernando F Sociologist, Full Professor, Department of Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences and Economics, Universidad del Valle, Cali, - - 2012
To describe the changes that occurred in some patterns of socio-demographic variables and in living conditions among the Nasa, Guambiana and Afrocolombian populations in the northern region of the Department of Cauca, and those occurring in two residential communities, one white-mestizo and one black, in Cali during the 1993-2005 period. ...
Waters Donald - - 2011
99% of the approximate 1 million annual neonatal deaths from life-threatening invasive bacterial infections occur in developing countries, at least 50% of which are from home births or community settings. Data concerning aetiology of sepsis in these settings are necessary to inform targeted therapy and devise management guidelines. This review ...
Brownell Elizabeth A - - 2012
Breastfeeding has numerous maternal and infant benefits. Progesterone contraception after birth is frequently recommended, but because a decrease in progesterone is required to initiate lactation, early postpartum progesterone contraception use could inhibit lactation. The purpose of this article is to critically evaluate the scientific basis for conflicting clinical recommendations related ...
Arikan I - - 2011
Aims: To assess the efficacy of vaginal micronized natural progesterone as a tocolytic and in maintenance therapy during threatened preterm birth. Methods: Eighty-three women with symptoms of threatened preterm birth were either randomized to study groups receiving tocolytic treatment combined with intravaginal micronized natural progesterone (200 mg daily) or to ...
Strier Karen B - - 2011
Levels of reproductive skew vary in wild primates living in multimale groups depending on the degree to which high-ranking males monopolize access to females. Still, the factors affecting paternity in egalitarian societies remain unexplored. We combine unique behavioral, life history, and genetic data to evaluate the distribution of paternity in ...
Macdorman Marian F - - 2011
KEY FINDINGS: Data from the 2007 linked birth/infant death data set In 2007, the infant mortality rate for non-Hispanic black women was 2.4 times the rate for non-Hispanic white women. American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN) and Puerto Rican women also had relatively high infant mortality rates. The higher infant ...
Benenson Joyce F - - 2011
Few experimental studies investigate the mechanisms by which young children develop sex-typed activity preferences. Gender self-labeling followed by selective imitation of same-sex models currently is considered a primary socialization mechanism. Research with prenatally androgenized girls and non-human primates also suggests an innate male preference for activities that involve propulsive movement. ...
Thompson Amanda L - - 2011
This study reports the validation of a noninvasive method for repeated assessment of testosterone from infant fecal samples. Fecal samples were collected from cotton diaper liners, subjected to methanol extraction, and assayed using a modified commercial testosterone RIA kit. Method validity was supported by a recovery near 100%, a sensitivity ...
Rode Line - - 2011
INTRODUCTION: Studies on high-risk singleton gestations have shown a preventive effect of progesterone treatment on the risk of preterm delivery. This study was conducted to investigate the preventive effect of vaginal micronised progesterone in a large population of twin gestations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was performed as a double-blind, ...
Campbell Alasdair - - 2011
In sub-Saharan Africa, unacceptably high rates of mortality amongst women and children continue to persist. The emergence of research employing new genomic technologies is advancing knowledge on cause of disease. This review aims to identify birth cohort studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and to consider their suitability as a platform ...
Hall Nicole Ruddock - - 2011
Preterm birth has increased over the last decade. In 2006, 12.5% of all births in the United States occurred at fewer than 37 weeks gestation. This is associated with significant health care costs as well as related neonatal morbidity and mortality. In 2003, costs related to care for infants with ...
Fabiano Valentina - - 2012
The detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are the primary aims of pharmacovigilance activities. Pediatric patients, especially all newborns and infants, are particularly at risk for experiencing drug-related adverse events. This review briefly analyzes the physiological peculiarities of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic aspects of drugs in newborns, ...
Zornoza-Moreno Matilde - - 2011
The authors developed a method useful for home measurement of temperature, activity, and sleep rhythms in infants under normal-living conditions during their first 6 mos of life. In addition, parametric and nonparametric tests for assessing circadian system maturation in these infants were compared. Anthropometric parameters plus ankle skin temperature and ...
Chalak Lina F LF Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-9063, USA. - - 2011
The objectives of this prospective cohort study were to identify amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) background patterns predictive of severe intracranial hemorrhage. Thirty ventilated preterm newborns weighing <1,000 g were assessed by an aEEG cerebral function monitor and ultrasound measurement of cerebral blood flow velocity at time of surfactant administration and tracheal ...
Kambas Konstantinos - - 2011
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome can progress to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a serious pulmonary fibrotic disorder. Given the involvement of the extrinsic coagulation cascade in animal models of lung fibrosis, we examined its role in BPD. We observed a higher number of neutrophils expressing tissue factor (TF) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ...
Kim Pilyoung P Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. - - 2011
Research points to the importance of breastfeeding for promoting close mother-infant contact and social-emotional development. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified brain regions related to maternal behaviors. However, little research has addressed the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between breastfeeding and maternal behavior in human mothers. We ...
Zhang Dandan - - 2011
Amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) is a valuable tool for the continuous evaluation of functional brain maturation in infants. The amplitudes of the upper and lower margins of aEEGs are postulated to change with maturation and correlate with postmenstrual age (PMA). In this study we aimed to establish reliable reference values of ...
Riem Madelon M E - - 2011
Oxytocin facilitates parental caregiving and mother-infant bonding and might be involved in responses to infant crying. Infant crying provides information about the physical status and mood of the infant and elicits parental proximity and caregiving. Oxytocin might modulate the activation of brain structures involved in the perception of cry sounds-specifically ...
Li Nan - - 2011
Objective of the study was to explore factors associated with early childhood obesity and assess whether having a foreign born mother is protective against childhood obesity. Data sources include 9 months and 4 years parent interviews and direct assessments of possessive children's weight and height (4 years) or length (9 months) from the Early ...
Katz C - - 2011
At birth, lung fluid produced during fetal life must be cleared immediately and efficiently before the first breath takes place, in order for infants to achieve a normal and successful transition from prenatal to postnatal life. Postnatal lung fluid resorption is mediated through activation of airway epithelial sodium channels (ENaC). ...
Hatori Akiko - - 2011
Oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu(®)) is an orally active anti-influenza drug, which is hydrolyzed to its metabolite Ro 64-0802 inhibiting the influenza virus with potent activity. The abnormal behavior of young influenza patients associated with the use of oseltamivir has developed to a social problem in countries where Tamiflu is often prescribed. ...
Klebermass Katrin - - 2011
Changes in electroencephalography (EEG) background activity are powerful, but non-specific markers of brain dysfunction. Early EEG and amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) pattern predict further neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants, however sufficient data for prognostic value of aEEG in preterm infants are not available so far. Aim of the study was to ...
Doi Hirokazu - - 2011
Motor activities of interacting agents get temporally coordinated to form synchronized actions. Such activity synchrony is observed in several mammalian species and is supposed to play vital roles in human social interactions. Therefore, it has long been proposed that the activity patterns of mother and infant get temporally synchronized. However, ...
Wang Lin-Yen - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) activation in infants with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has in some cases led to severe hemolysis after transfusions of plasma-containing blood components, causing some authors to advise routine screening for T activation in all infants with NEC. However, no data are available on the frequency of T ...
Garcia Barbara Gerner de - - 2011
Ascertain the status of early hearing detection and intervention services in Latin America. Between June and November 2007, Gallaudet University, in collaboration with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Diversity Committee, disseminated a survey to 11 Latin American countries. It included questions about ...
O'Reilly Kathleen M - - 2011
Aim:  To compare the effectiveness of different cooling methods used during neonatal transport in maintaining target temperature. Methods:  Retrospective review of transport data for all infants centralised for therapeutic hypothermia between April 2008 and October 2009. Results:  46 infants were retrieved for therapeutic hypothermia during the study period. During transport ...
Wasilewska Jolanta - - 2011
Casein-derived peptides have been suggested to play a role in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In this study, we have determined the content of bovine β-casomorphin-7 (bBCM-7) and the activity of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV) in sera of infants with apparent life threatening events (ALTE syndromes, 'near miss SIDS'). We have ...
Schumacher Eva M - - 2011
Long term EEG monitoring (LTM) with several electrodes could be a useful tool for surveillance of the brain during the first critical days of life. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of multichannel LTM for automated analysis of EEG activity from day one to three using eight electrodes. Premature ...
Welzing Lars - - 2011
BACKGROUND:: No pharmacokinetic data about remifentanil in preterm infants exist, although remifentanil is increasingly used in this especially vulnerable subgroup of pediatric patients. Unfortunately, ethical restrictions in the volume of blood that can be withdrawn for kinetic sampling nearly prohibit pharmacokinetic studies in preterm infants. METHODS:: Because remifentanil is rapidly ...
Reines Amy E - - 2011
Supermassive black holes are now thought to lie at the heart of every giant galaxy with a spheroidal component, including our own Milky Way. The birth and growth of the first 'seed' black holes in the earlier Universe, however, is observationally unconstrained and we are only beginning to piece together ...
Lönnerdal Bo - - 2011
Novel dairy fractions have been isolated and are now commercially available. Several of them have been shown to have biological activities in various test systems. α-Lactalbumin was first isolated to provide a good source of tryptophan, often the first limiting amino acid in infant formulas, but has then been shown ...
Raith Wolfgang - - 2011
The aim of the study was to determine the presence of acupuncture ear points in neonates with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS). NAS occurs in the first days of life in neonates whose mothers have a history of drug abuse, and may also occur in neonates whose mothers are currently following ...
Mann Rachel - - 2011
In this column, Rachel Mann shares the story of the birth of her third daughter, Louisa. After a previous pregnancy loss, Mann chose to give birth to her third baby in a hospital with attending care from an obstetrician. In spite of the high-risk medical environment, she was able to ...
Shah Ms - - 2011
Infant mortality rate is regarded as an important and sensitive indicator of the health status of a community. It also reflects the living standard of the people and the effectiveness of interventions for improving maternal and child health. Multiple factors related to social and economic conditions, health care and environment ...
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