Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 953
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Jansen Brian D - - 2012
We investigated potential advantages in birth timing for mountain lion (Puma concolor) cubs. We examined cub body mass, survival, and age of natal dispersal in relation to specific timing of birth. We also investigated the role of maternal age relative to timing of births. We captured mountain lion cubs while ...
Althabe Fernando - - 2012
Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal mortality, responsible for 28% of neonatal deaths overall. The administration of antenatal corticosteroids to women at high risk of preterm birth is a powerful perinatal intervention to reduce neonatal mortality in resource rich environments. The effect of antenatal steroids to reduce mortality ...
Exavery Amon A fakara Health Institute (IHI), Plot 463, Kiko Avenue, off Old Bagamoyo Road, P.O. Box 78373, Dar es Salaam, Mikocheni, Tanzania. - - 2012
Poorly spaced pregnancies have been documented worldwide to result in adverse maternal and child health outcomes. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a minimum inter-birth interval of 33 months between two consecutive live births in order to reduce the risk of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. However, birth spacing ...
Waters Donald - - 2011
99% of the approximate 1 million annual neonatal deaths from life-threatening invasive bacterial infections occur in developing countries, at least 50% of which are from home births or community settings. Data concerning aetiology of sepsis in these settings are necessary to inform targeted therapy and devise management guidelines. This review ...
Brownell Elizabeth A - - 2012
Breastfeeding has numerous maternal and infant benefits. Progesterone contraception after birth is frequently recommended, but because a decrease in progesterone is required to initiate lactation, early postpartum progesterone contraception use could inhibit lactation. The purpose of this article is to critically evaluate the scientific basis for conflicting clinical recommendations related ...
Arikan I - - 2011
Aims: To assess the efficacy of vaginal micronized natural progesterone as a tocolytic and in maintenance therapy during threatened preterm birth. Methods: Eighty-three women with symptoms of threatened preterm birth were either randomized to study groups receiving tocolytic treatment combined with intravaginal micronized natural progesterone (200 mg daily) or to ...
Strier Karen B - - 2011
Levels of reproductive skew vary in wild primates living in multimale groups depending on the degree to which high-ranking males monopolize access to females. Still, the factors affecting paternity in egalitarian societies remain unexplored. We combine unique behavioral, life history, and genetic data to evaluate the distribution of paternity in ...
Macdorman Marian F - - 2011
KEY FINDINGS: Data from the 2007 linked birth/infant death data set In 2007, the infant mortality rate for non-Hispanic black women was 2.4 times the rate for non-Hispanic white women. American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN) and Puerto Rican women also had relatively high infant mortality rates. The higher infant ...
Benenson Joyce F - - 2011
Few experimental studies investigate the mechanisms by which young children develop sex-typed activity preferences. Gender self-labeling followed by selective imitation of same-sex models currently is considered a primary socialization mechanism. Research with prenatally androgenized girls and non-human primates also suggests an innate male preference for activities that involve propulsive movement. ...
Thompson Amanda L - - 2011
This study reports the validation of a noninvasive method for repeated assessment of testosterone from infant fecal samples. Fecal samples were collected from cotton diaper liners, subjected to methanol extraction, and assayed using a modified commercial testosterone RIA kit. Method validity was supported by a recovery near 100%, a sensitivity ...
Rode Line - - 2011
INTRODUCTION: Studies on high-risk singleton gestations have shown a preventive effect of progesterone treatment on the risk of preterm delivery. This study was conducted to investigate the preventive effect of vaginal micronised progesterone in a large population of twin gestations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was performed as a double-blind, ...
Campbell Alasdair - - 2011
In sub-Saharan Africa, unacceptably high rates of mortality amongst women and children continue to persist. The emergence of research employing new genomic technologies is advancing knowledge on cause of disease. This review aims to identify birth cohort studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and to consider their suitability as a platform ...
Hall Nicole Ruddock - - 2011
Preterm birth has increased over the last decade. In 2006, 12.5% of all births in the United States occurred at fewer than 37 weeks gestation. This is associated with significant health care costs as well as related neonatal morbidity and mortality. In 2003, costs related to care for infants with ...
Fabiano Valentina - - 2012
The detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are the primary aims of pharmacovigilance activities. Pediatric patients, especially all newborns and infants, are particularly at risk for experiencing drug-related adverse events. This review briefly analyzes the physiological peculiarities of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic aspects of drugs in newborns, ...
Zornoza-Moreno Matilde - - 2011
The authors developed a method useful for home measurement of temperature, activity, and sleep rhythms in infants under normal-living conditions during their first 6 mos of life. In addition, parametric and nonparametric tests for assessing circadian system maturation in these infants were compared. Anthropometric parameters plus ankle skin temperature and ...
Chalak Lina F - - 2011
The objectives of this prospective cohort study were to identify amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) background patterns predictive of severe intracranial hemorrhage. Thirty ventilated preterm newborns weighing <1,000 g were assessed by an aEEG cerebral function monitor and ultrasound measurement of cerebral blood flow velocity at time of surfactant administration and tracheal ...
Kambas Konstantinos - - 2011
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome can progress to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a serious pulmonary fibrotic disorder. Given the involvement of the extrinsic coagulation cascade in animal models of lung fibrosis, we examined its role in BPD. We observed a higher number of neutrophils expressing tissue factor (TF) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ...
Kim Pilyoung P Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. - - 2011
Research points to the importance of breastfeeding for promoting close mother-infant contact and social-emotional development. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified brain regions related to maternal behaviors. However, little research has addressed the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between breastfeeding and maternal behavior in human mothers. We ...
Zhang Dandan - - 2011
Amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) is a valuable tool for the continuous evaluation of functional brain maturation in infants. The amplitudes of the upper and lower margins of aEEGs are postulated to change with maturation and correlate with postmenstrual age (PMA). In this study we aimed to establish reliable reference values of ...
Riem Madelon M E - - 2011
Oxytocin facilitates parental caregiving and mother-infant bonding and might be involved in responses to infant crying. Infant crying provides information about the physical status and mood of the infant and elicits parental proximity and caregiving. Oxytocin might modulate the activation of brain structures involved in the perception of cry sounds-specifically ...
Li Nan - - 2011
Objective of the study was to explore factors associated with early childhood obesity and assess whether having a foreign born mother is protective against childhood obesity. Data sources include 9 months and 4 years parent interviews and direct assessments of possessive children's weight and height (4 years) or length (9 months) from the Early ...
Katz C - - 2011
At birth, lung fluid produced during fetal life must be cleared immediately and efficiently before the first breath takes place, in order for infants to achieve a normal and successful transition from prenatal to postnatal life. Postnatal lung fluid resorption is mediated through activation of airway epithelial sodium channels (ENaC). ...
Hatori Akiko - - 2011
Oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu(®)) is an orally active anti-influenza drug, which is hydrolyzed to its metabolite Ro 64-0802 inhibiting the influenza virus with potent activity. The abnormal behavior of young influenza patients associated with the use of oseltamivir has developed to a social problem in countries where Tamiflu is often prescribed. ...
Klebermass Katrin - - 2011
Changes in electroencephalography (EEG) background activity are powerful, but non-specific markers of brain dysfunction. Early EEG and amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) pattern predict further neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants, however sufficient data for prognostic value of aEEG in preterm infants are not available so far. Aim of the study was to ...
Doi Hirokazu - - 2011
Motor activities of interacting agents get temporally coordinated to form synchronized actions. Such activity synchrony is observed in several mammalian species and is supposed to play vital roles in human social interactions. Therefore, it has long been proposed that the activity patterns of mother and infant get temporally synchronized. However, ...
Wang Lin-Yen - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) activation in infants with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has in some cases led to severe hemolysis after transfusions of plasma-containing blood components, causing some authors to advise routine screening for T activation in all infants with NEC. However, no data are available on the frequency of T ...
Garcia Barbara Gerner de - - 2011
Ascertain the status of early hearing detection and intervention services in Latin America. Between June and November 2007, Gallaudet University, in collaboration with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Diversity Committee, disseminated a survey to 11 Latin American countries. It included questions about ...
O'Reilly Kathleen M - - 2011
Aim:  To compare the effectiveness of different cooling methods used during neonatal transport in maintaining target temperature. Methods:  Retrospective review of transport data for all infants centralised for therapeutic hypothermia between April 2008 and October 2009. Results:  46 infants were retrieved for therapeutic hypothermia during the study period. During transport ...
Wasilewska Jolanta - - 2011
Casein-derived peptides have been suggested to play a role in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In this study, we have determined the content of bovine β-casomorphin-7 (bBCM-7) and the activity of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV) in sera of infants with apparent life threatening events (ALTE syndromes, 'near miss SIDS'). We have ...
Schumacher Eva M - - 2011
Long term EEG monitoring (LTM) with several electrodes could be a useful tool for surveillance of the brain during the first critical days of life. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of multichannel LTM for automated analysis of EEG activity from day one to three using eight electrodes. Premature ...
Welzing Lars - - 2011
BACKGROUND:: No pharmacokinetic data about remifentanil in preterm infants exist, although remifentanil is increasingly used in this especially vulnerable subgroup of pediatric patients. Unfortunately, ethical restrictions in the volume of blood that can be withdrawn for kinetic sampling nearly prohibit pharmacokinetic studies in preterm infants. METHODS:: Because remifentanil is rapidly ...
Reines Amy E - - 2011
Supermassive black holes are now thought to lie at the heart of every giant galaxy with a spheroidal component, including our own Milky Way. The birth and growth of the first 'seed' black holes in the earlier Universe, however, is observationally unconstrained and we are only beginning to piece together ...
Lönnerdal Bo - - 2011
Novel dairy fractions have been isolated and are now commercially available. Several of them have been shown to have biological activities in various test systems. α-Lactalbumin was first isolated to provide a good source of tryptophan, often the first limiting amino acid in infant formulas, but has then been shown ...
Raith Wolfgang - - 2011
The aim of the study was to determine the presence of acupuncture ear points in neonates with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS). NAS occurs in the first days of life in neonates whose mothers have a history of drug abuse, and may also occur in neonates whose mothers are currently following ...
Norwitz Errol R - - 2011
Preterm birth is currently the most important problem in maternal-child health in the United States and possibly throughout the world. It complicates one in eight US deliveries, and accounts for over 85% of all perinatal morbidity and mortality. Although survival of preterm infants has increased steadily over the past four ...
Mann Rachel - - 2011
In this column, Rachel Mann shares the story of the birth of her third daughter, Louisa. After a previous pregnancy loss, Mann chose to give birth to her third baby in a hospital with attending care from an obstetrician. In spite of the high-risk medical environment, she was able to ...
Shah Ms - - 2011
Infant mortality rate is regarded as an important and sensitive indicator of the health status of a community. It also reflects the living standard of the people and the effectiveness of interventions for improving maternal and child health. Multiple factors related to social and economic conditions, health care and environment ...
Özkan Behzat - - 2011
Anogenital distances are considered to be a sensitive indicator of external genitalia exposure to factors such as anti-androgens, and/or endocrine distruptors during the prenatal period. Exposure to such factors can lead to changes in the anogenital measurements (AGM) of newborn infants. These measurements can be used to predict masculinization of ...
Luciano Angel A - - 2011
Preterm parturition is characterized by innate immune activation and increased proinflammatory cytokine levels. This well established association leads us to hypothesize that preterm delivery is also associated with neonatal T lymphocyte activation and maturation. Cord blood samples were obtained following term, preterm, and deliveries complicated by clinical chorioamnionitis. Activation marker ...
Perricone Giovanna - - 2011
The study deals with the characteristics of temperament of preterm infants during their preschool age in order to not only investigate likely "difficult or problematic profiles", guided by impairments driven by their preterm birth, but also to provide guidelines for the activation of interventions of prevention, functional to improve the ...
Ridgway Charlotte L CL MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, United - - 2011
Animal models suggest growth restriction in utero leads to lower levels of motor activity. Furthermore, individuals with very low birth weight report lower levels of physical activity as adults. The aim of this study was to examine whether birth weight acts as a biological determinant of physical activity and sedentary ...
Soukaloun Douangdao D Wellcome Trust-Mahosot Hospital-Oxford Tropical Medicine Collaboration, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic - - 2011
Infantile beriberi is a potentially lethal manifestation of thiamin deficiency, associated with traditional post-partum maternal food avoidance, which persists in the Lao PDR (Laos). There are few data on biochemical markers of infantile thiamin deficiency or indices of cardiac dysfunction as potential surrogate markers. A case control study of 47 ...
Bridgett David J - - 2011
Latent growth modeling (LGM) was used to examine the contribution of changes in infant orienting/regulation (O/R) to the emergence of toddler effortful control (EC), the contributions of maternal EC to the development of infant O/R and the emergence of toddler EC, the influence of maternal time spent in caregiving activities ...
Medoff-Cooper Barbara - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to assess the pattern of weight change from surgical intervention to home discharge and to determine predictors of poor growth in this population of infants with congenital cardiac disease. Neonates with functionally univentricular physiology enrolled in a prospective cohort study examining growth between March, ...
Klein David A - - 2010
To describe the rate and sociodemographic profile of live births to adolescents having U.S. Department of Defense healthcare coverage because of parental military service. All live births identified from the M2 database during 2003-2006 to 10- to 23-year olds in this population were stratified and compared. Birth rates rose in ...
Collado Maria Carmen - - 2010
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that deviations in gut microbiota composition may predispose toward obesity, and specific groups of commensal gut bacteria may harvest energy from food more efficiently than others. Alterations in microbiota compositions of mothers may be transferred to infants and lead to an increased risk of overweight. ...
Faith M S - - 2010
Little research has addressed the relationships among infant temperament, eating styles and obesity risk. To address this gap, we tested whether infant temperament and eating patterns at the age of 1 year are associated with a greater increase in standardized weight status, and greater obesity risk at 6 years of ...
Flaherman Valerie J - - 2010
Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant infectious disease. Losing > or =10% birth weight may lead to formula use. The predictive value of first-day weight loss for subsequent weight loss has not been studied. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between weight loss at <24 hours and ...
Dryden Carol - - 2012
It is widely accepted that maternal drug-exposed infants demonstrate excessive early weight loss, but this has not previously been quantified. Among 354 term, substitute methadone-exposed infants, median maximal weight losses were 10.2% and 8.5% for breast- and formula-fed infants, respectively (p=0.003). Weight loss was less in small for gestational age ...
Haruna Megumi - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the level of maternal serum coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), which is a lipid-soluble antioxidant, maternal body weight gain, fat mass gain, and infant birth weight. A longitudinal observational study was conducted with 50 healthy pregnant women (average age: 31.1 years, ...
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