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Results 601 - 650 of 950
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Chen C L - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of an anterior ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) on static and dynamic postural stability in hemiplegic patients. DESIGN: A cross-sectional assessment of hemiplegic subjects with and without an AFO. SETTING: Outpatient department of a rehabilitation hospital. PATIENTS: A convenience sample of 24 subjects who had been prescribed ...
Schieve L A - - 1999
This study examined the validity of self-reported delivery weight among 3,518 respondents to the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. Self-reported delivery weight was ascertained from a mail survey administered during the postpartum period. Measured delivery weight was obtained by abstraction of medical records from the hospital of delivery. ...
Hickey C A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of maternal and prenatal WIC program participation characteristics with low prenatal weight gain among adult women delivering liveborn, singleton infants at term. METHODS: WIC program data for 19,017 Black and White Alabama women delivering in 1994 were linked with birth certificate files to examine the ...
Neufeld Lynnette - - 1999
The morbidity, mortality, and growth patterns of intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) infants vary according to body proportionality, or the ponderal index. Much less in known, however, about the factors that give rise to the various forms of IUGR. This study tests that hypothesis that the rate of maternal weight gain ...
Strauss R S - - 1999
Low maternal weight gain during pregnancy has been suggested as a cause of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). However, pregnancy weight gain and fetal growth vary greatly throughout pregnancy. We examined the relationship between maternal weight gain in individual trimesters to the risk of IUGR in 10,696 women enrolled in the ...
Martinez A - - 1999
AIMS: To examine whether hyperphagia is a clinically significant problem in infants born to women receiving methadone maintenance. METHODS: The volume of feeds, changes in infant body weight, as well as occurrence of adverse clinical effects in infants withdrawing from methadone were studied during the first month of life. A ...
Lesaffre E - - 1999
The Jimma Infant Survival Differential Longitudinal Study is an Ethiopian study, set up to establish risk factors affecting infant survival and to investigate socio-economic, maternal and infant-rearing factors that contribute most to the child's early survival. Here, a subgroup of about 1500 children born in Jimma town is examined for ...
Johnson R K - - 1999
Eleven generations of selection for increased index of ovulation rate and embryonal survival rate, followed by three generations of selection for litter size, were practiced. Laparotomy was used to count corpora lutea and fetuses at 50 d of gestation. High-indexing gilts, approximately 30%, were farrowed. Sons of dams in the ...
Ong K K - - 1999
Recent discoveries of human genetic leptin deficiency have demonstrated its importance in regulating weight gain in early childhood. To investigate whether normal variation in leptin and insulin levels in cord blood could influence infancy growth, we assayed samples from 197 infants from a representative birth cohort, who were measured at ...
Hermansen M G - - 1999
PURPOSE: To determine the weight of commonly used pieces of neonatal equipment that can affect the accuracy of daily weight measurements. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: Twenty-one pieces of equipment commonly attached to the neonate at the time of daily weight measurement were selected for analysis. Three examples of each piece of ...
Sánchez S - - 1999
Infant-carrying behavior among callitrichids seems to be a costly activity. Costs have been related to the physical efforts of carrying the weight of very heavy infants and to the resulting reduction in foraging efficiency. However, the costs of carrying in terms of the physical consequences for carriers have not previously ...
Kuchel R C - - 1999
Superfine merino lambs from superfine and medium-wool ewes were compared to test the hypothesis that superfine ewes have poorer maternal capacity than broader wool ewes. All lambs were sired by one ram using artificial insemination in the superfine ewes and embryo transfer in the medium-wool ewes. This ensured a similar ...
Rew R S - - 1999
Nematode parasite control in cattle is the goal of the parasitologist and the cattle producer. However, the language used to express the impact of that control has been a source of confusion between the two groups. Veterinary parasitologists speak in terms of reduction in worms or worm eggs, and cattle ...
Niezen J H - - 1998
Lambs were grazed on monospecific swards of one of six forages, some containing condensed tannins (CT); sulla (Hedysarum coronarium), Lotus corniculatus and L. pedunculatus and some without CT (lucerne (Medicago sativa), plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and a ryegrass/white clover pasture (Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens)) to evaluate effects of forage type on gastrointestinal ...
Secker-Walker R H - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To compare the estimated effect on birth weight of reductions in maternal cigarette consumption and urinary cotinine during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: An observational study of 641 women with complete data on cigarette consumption, urinary cotinine and infant birth weight. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine relationships between ...
Standley J M - - 1998
To assess the benefits of lullaby singing and multimodal stimulation on premature infants in neonatal intensive care, 40 infants in a Level III Newborn Intermediate Care Unit were divided into control (n = 20) and experimental (n = 20) groups by pair matching on the basis of gender, birthweight, gestational ...
Burgess R P - - 1998
Land application of broiler litter must fully regard agronomic and environmental issues, which requires increased precision in all aspects of land application of poultry litter. Previous researchers note that litter experiences significant nitrogen loss due to ammonia volatilization during the drying process. Others note that pH of poultry houses and ...
Firkins P - - 1998
The wear of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) in artificial joints and the resulting wear debris-induced osteolysis remains a major clinical concern in the orthopaedic sector. Third-body damage of metallic femoral heads is often cited as a cause of accelerated polyethylene wear, and the use of ceramic femoral heads in ...
Raghavan C V - - 1998
The usefulness of bioelectrical impedance (BI) with anthropometry to measure total body water (TBW) was evaluated in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. A specific regression equation to measure TBW in a VLBW population was developed by simultaneously using the H2[(18)O] dilution method and BI in 12 infants with a gestational age of ...
Green L E - - 1998
Over a 1-year period, data were collected from three flocks of sheep. A total of 213 lambs were examined routinely from birth to 32 kg (2178 examinations in total). Diarrhoea was seen in lambs of all ages but did not appear to make them systemically ill. The effect of diarrhoea ...
Lira P I - - 1998
In Brazil, the highest incidence of low birth weight (LBW) occurs in the northeast, and diarrhea and respiratory infections are the main causes of infant mortality and morbidity. We hypothesized that LBW infants may be zinc deficient, and that this might be adversely affecting their immune function, morbidity, and postnatal ...
Agarwal D K - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for high perinatal (PMR) and infant (IMR) mortality in a rural area. DESIGN: In 49 randomly selected villages from two adjoining blocks of rural Varanasi, all pregnant women and live births were followed for perinatal and infant mortality, during the years 1988-1992. SUBJECTS: 6790 births ...
Ogunyemi D - - 1998
Relationships between body mass index (BMI) and weight gain with perinatal outcome and birthweight were examined. BMI was calculated on 582 consecutive pregnant women who delivered at or >37 weeks gestational age. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square tests, analysis of variance, and multiple logistic regression. Of those studied, 13% ...
AbuSabha R - - 1998
Body weight, body composition, and energy intake changes are described for 13 breastfeeding mothers followed for 18-24 months after delivery. Body weight was assessed at 1-6, 9, 12, 18, 24 months postpartum and 1 month after infant weaning, and energy intake was assessed at 2-6, 9, 12, 18, 24 months ...
Kolsteren P W PW Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp, - - 1998
The objective of this study was to determine the zinc and copper status in hair of a group of Indonesian infants aged 0-5 months, a period when growth faltering in this population is known to occur, and to determine the daily zinc and copper availability in the habitual diet. A ...
Pauls J - - 1998
No body weight curves are available for preterm infants < 1000 g birth weight receiving early enteral and parenteral nutrition. Postnatal weight changes of 136 infants with a birth weight < 1000 g were analysed retrospectively. Body weight curves for the first 30 days of life were generated for five ...
Meetze W H - - 1998
I developed a single equation that simulated previously published growth charts for very low-birth-weight infants, using birth weight as the only variable. The intent of this study was to validate the equation using infants admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to determine if this equation could be ...
Frakaloss G - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is associated with failure to thrive in term infants with severe GER; however, this association has not been shown in premature infants. A retrospective case-control study of growth velocities, caloric intake, and length of hospital stay in premature infants with GER was conducted to determine the ...
Groff J Y - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is recognized as an important and modifiable risk factor for low infant birthweight. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of maternal smoking status on prenatal weight gain and infant birthweight, and to determine if maternal weight gain mediates the effect of ...
Luke B - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the association between maternal weight gain and twin birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: This historic cohort study was based on 646 live-born twin births of > or = 28 weeks from Baltimore, Maryland, Miami, Florida, and Ann Arbor, Michigan. The sum of twin-pair birth weight ...
Janney C A - - 1997
The effect of lactation on weight retention was investigated longitudinally, with data collected at 0.5, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 18 mo after parturition in 110 women aged 20-40 y who had been nulliparous or primiparous. At each evaluation women were categorized as fully breast-feeding, partly breast-feeding, or bottle-feeding including ...
Hickey C A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To that end examine differences in birth weight among the term infants of black and white women with weight gains in the upper or lower half of recommended ranges. METHODS: Birth weight (mean, low [at or below 2500 gl, and suboptimal [2501-2999 g]) among term infants of 2219 black ...
Helliwell R J - - 1997
Postnatal photoperiodic experience plays a pivotal role in determining the timing of ovarian activity in female lambs. This study examines whether a photoperiodic history gained while in utero is able to influence this timing. Pregnant Soay ewes were maintained in either long days (n = 7, 18 h light: 6 ...
Colburn D J - - 1997
A study was conducted over 3 yr to evaluate effects of sire birth weight EPD, calf birth weight and shape, and heifer pelvic area and weight, individually and in combination, on dystocia and subsequent rebreeding of 2-yr-old heifers. Heifers (n = 550), MARC II yearlings, were assigned for breeding to ...
Ozkan H - - 1997
The care of very-low-birth-weight infants has improved over the years with continuing changes in medical and nutritional management. In view of these changes, there is a need to study the pattern of postnatal weight gain. Postnatal weight gain patterns of 32 very-low-birth-weight infants were examined during the first two months ...
Marchini G - - 1997
OBJECTIVE AND STUDY DESIGN: Our goal was to study the water balance in healthy breast-fed infants (n = 139) during their first 5 days, by cross-sectional measurements of body weight, serum sodium, serum osmolality, and hematocrit. We also investigated infants' capacity to conserve body water by increased secretion of vasopressin, ...
Keen J E - - 1997
We used a previously described sensitive and specific ovine lentivirus (OLV) recombinant transmembrane (rTM) protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect anti-OLV antibodies and define OLV infection in breeding ewes from nine US Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) flocks. We estimated the production impacts of dam rTM ELISA seropositivity on ...
Hamilton H H - - 1997
Two hundred fifty parturition records on measures of maternal nest quality were collected over four seasons (S) from does (d; n = 108) of Californian (CAL), New Zealand White (NZW), and CAL x NZW breed types (DB). Service sires (s; n = 85) were from four sire lines (SL): CAL, ...
Hellerstedt W L - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: The associations of infant birth outcomes with maternal pregravid obesity, gestational weight gain, and prenatal cigarette smoking were examined. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 1343 obese and normal-weight gravidas evaluated the associations of cigarette smoking, gestational weight change, and pregravid body mass index with birthweight, low birthweight, and small- ...
Stevens-Simon C - - 1997
The objective of this study was to test three hypotheses concerning age-related differences in the composition of the weight gained by pregnant adolescents. We studied the change in maternal body composition during gestation in relation to maternal age and infant birth weight in relation to change in maternal body composition ...
Kitajima H - - 1997
AIM: To investigate the colonisation with Bifidobacterium breve of the bowels of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: The adverse effects of B breve were examined in 66 VLBW infants (preliminary study). A prospective randomised clinical study of 91 VLBW infants was also completed and these infants were followed up ...
Ulrich B D - - 1997
We examined the way in which infants with and without Down syndrome (DS) adapted their intrinsic dynamics, that is, their spontaneous leg movements, to perturbations. Weights totaling 25%, 50%, and 100% of their estimated calf mass were attached to one leg as they sat in an infant seat and moved ...
Hester P Y - - 1997
Particleboard residue is a by-product of the secondary wood products manufacturing industries. Large quantities of this product are landfilled for lack of better use. The objective of the current study was to investigate the possibility of using particleboard residue as a litter source for male turkeys. Two sizes of particleboard ...
Scafidi F - - 1996
Assigned randomly 28 neonates born to HIV-positive mothers to a massage therapy or control group. The treatment infants were given three 15-minute massages daily for 10 days. The massaged group showed superior performance on almost every Brazelton newborn cluster score and had a greater daily weight gain at the end ...
French N P - - 1996
A total of 1300 lambs from eight spring-lambing flocks in the south west of England were studied from birth to approximately six months of age. Within the first week of life a number of variables were recorded including the lambs' birth weight, sex, faecal consistency, 48- to 72-hour immunoglobulin status ...
Bennett G L - - 1996
Genetic and environmental (co)variances for birth weight, adjusted 200-d weight, and postweaning gain were estimated in nine parental and three composite populations of beef cattle. The parental breeds were Angus (A), Braunvieh (B), Charolais (C), Gelbvieh (G), Hereford (H), Limousin (L), Pinzgauer (P), Red Poll (R), and Simmental (S). The ...
Hickey C A - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between prenatal weight gain patterns and birth weight, using Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. METHODS: Data from a prospective follow-up study of risk factors for fetal growth restriction were used to examine the impact of low weight gain on mean birth weight. A total of ...
Aras R Y - - 1996
Holistic approach for healthy growth of infants is considered in this study by measuring weight as an important variable. There were significant increase in the average gain monthly weight throughout infancy (P < 0.01) and preponement of age at which weaning started (P < 0.001) in infants born to mothers ...
Wells J C - - 1996
In infants, sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) is used as a proxy for basal metabolic rate (BMR). BMR can be predicted from anthropometry using published equations. Our study was intended to evaluate the ability of these equations to predict measured SMR in infants aged 6 weeks to 12 months. SMR was ...
Iman N Y - - 1996
Cumulative lifetime (five lamb crops) lamb production and wool production of 681 ewes were evaluated in this study. Lamb production and wool production from each ewe at the end of age 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 yr were added to the previous year's production and analyzed within age of ...
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