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Results 501 - 550 of 950
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Holyoake P K - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To provide production data that would support or discount current teeth clipping practices in sucking pigs. DESIGN: Intervention study of 207 litters of pigs on a commercial farm. PROCEDURE: Litters were assigned to one of three interventions undertaken at 1 day of age: clipped using hand-operated side cutter pliers, ...
James R J A - - 2004
Lower ghrelin levels have been related to slower growth in small for gestational age infants, and infants with higher cord leptin levels have been reported to gain weight more slowly from birth to 2 yr. This study investigated whether cord blood ghrelin and leptin levels are related to weight gain ...
Chen Gang - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to develop an easily usable integrated formula for predicting the probability of cephalopelvic disproportion/failure to progress (CPD) and cesarean delivery (CS) as a function of demographic factors in a middle-class private practice, and to evaluate risk factors for CS in a low-risk primiparous population. METHODS: ...
Kac Gilberto - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors potentially associated with weight retention measured 9 months after childbirth. DESIGN: Prospective study with four follow-up waves in time (0.5, 2, 6 and 9 months postpartum). SETTING: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-six Brazilian women of childbearing age. Analysis was based ...
Winkelstein Warren W - - 2004
In 1912, Janet Elizabeth Lane-Claypon, a British medical scientist 35 years of age who had already contributed substantial research findings in the fields of reproductive physiology and the bacteriology and biochemistry of milk, reported the results of a retrospective cohort study of weight gain during the first year of life ...
Razzell Peter - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between poverty, birthweight, and infant weight gain in Hertfordshire, 1923-1939. DESIGN: Cohort study based on the Hertfordshire Health Visitors' Register (HHVR). SETTING: The population of Hertfordshire, and a sub-sample of five Hertfordshire towns-Hoddesdon, Berkhampstead, Hertford, Hitchin, and Bishops Stortford-extracted from the HHVR. SUBJECTS: Some 71 ...
Murakami Maki - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The influence of maternal body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy and weight gain during pregnancy on perinatal outcomes in the Japanese population remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we estimated the risk of perinatal morbidity of the mother and infant with respect to maternal prepregnancy BMI and weight gain during ...
Lucas Jane S - - 2004
Recent evidence suggests that impaired lung development is linked with diminished lung function and an increased risk of chronic obstructive airway disease in adulthood. To examine environmental influences on early lung development, we measured lung function in 131 normal-term infants aged 5-14 weeks. Adjusting for age at measurement, FEV at ...
Ong Ken K - - 2004
Associations between low birth weight and higher adrenal androgen secretion before puberty have yet only been reported in case-control studies in girls. We examined the influence of birth weight and early postnatal weight gain on overnight-fasting adrenal androgen and cortisol levels in 770 children from a large normal United Kingdom ...
Blair P S - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The epidemiological profile of infants failing to thrive is unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the prenatal and socioeconomic factors associated with these infants using standardized weight gain conditional on previous weight. METHODS: In a large UK population cohort study, 11 718 infants born at term ...
Wright C M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Although it is a well known phenomenon, limited normative data on neonatal weight loss and subsequent gain are available, making it hard to assess individual children with prolonged weight loss. OBJECTIVE: To establish, using data from a large prospective population based cohort study, norms and limits for postnatal weight ...
Thompson Wavelet S - - 2004
No recent studies of organ weights of normal infants exist. We completed a 15-year retrospective study of organ weights of normal infants who died between 1986 and 2000 in an effort to update the "normal" weight standards for infants up to one year of age. Additionally, we compared organ weights ...
Boyington Josephine Aggor - - 2004
For 10 weeks, a sample of 105 postpartum African-American clients of three inner-city clinics, were recruited for this nine-month prospective study. Data from 54 mother-infant dyads were used to explore the associations between maternal perceptions of infant body size and the development of adiposity at six- to seven months of ...
Mihatsch W A - - 2004
Abdominal distension is one of the major clinical indications to withhold feedings in preterm infants. The abdominal circumference (AC) was measured in 42 premature infants on full enteral nutrition in order to establish reference values. AC decreased linearly (r2 = 0.83) with decreasing weight. However, the AC to weight ratio ...
Maloni Judith A - - 2004
Despite lack of evidence for effectiveness, obstetricians in the United States prescribe antepartum bed rest for more than 700,000 women per year. However, in nonpregnant samples, bed rest treatment produces weight loss. This study assessed maternal weight change (gain) during antepartum hospitalization for bed rest treatment; compared appropriateness of infant ...
Mounla Nabil - - 2004
Growth curves of low-birth-weight infants updated over the past 50 years accept many exclusions and do not provide a standard way to assess the nutritional status of these infants regardless of their diseases in the neonatal period. A new way for assessment is proposed. It is based on the excess ...
New K - - 2004
The use of incubators in helping to maintain a thermoneutral environment for preterm infants has become routine practice in neonatal nurseries. As one of the key criteria for discharging preterm infants from nurseries is their ability to maintain temperature, the infant will need to make the transition from incubator to ...
Vickers A - - 2004
It has been argued that infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Units are subject both to a highly stressful environment - continuous, high-intensity noise and bright light - and to a lack of the tactile stimulation that they would otherwise experience in the womb or in general mothering care. As massage ...
Sarlio-Lähteenkorva S - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Information on weight satisfaction in Eastern Europe is limited. This study compares relative weight, weight satisfaction and self-esteem of teenagers living in two post-Soviet capitals, Moscow and Tallinn, and a western capital Helsinki. METHOD: Classroom surveys including data about weight and height, weight satisfaction and self-4 esteem among 15-18-year-old ...
MacNeil M D - - 2003
The CGC population is a stabilized composite of 1/2 Red Angus, 1/4 Charolais, and 1/4 Tarentaise germplasm. The objectives of this research were to estimate genetic parameters for weight traits of CGC and to evaluate genetic responses resulting from selection based on the following index: I = 365-d weight 3.2(birth ...
Klindt J - - 2003
The importance of birth-to-weaning average daily gain as a determinant of weight at a final age and yield of marketable pork was investigated. Treatments were imposed to create variation in birth-to-weaning ADG independent of birth weight. Newborn pigs were cross-fostered to create litters of four through 14 pigs/litter. Creep feed ...
Jarrar Mohammed H - - 2003
Most cases of Rett syndrome are associated with mutations in the coding region of MECP2. Here we characterized a novel MeCP2 immunoreactivity, initially detected in normal cerebral cortex, by using a panel of MeCP2 antibodies and a combination of immunochemical techniques. We found that a novel higher-molecular-weight form (approximately 100 ...
Paul Matthias - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Volume replacement with hydroxyethyl starch (HES), a synthetic colloid, is widely accepted in adults, but only few data exist regarding its use in children. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a low molecular weight HES solution (HES 70/0.5) compared with lactated Ringer's solution (LR) ...
Dieter John N I - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of 5 days of massage therapy on the weight gain and sleep/wake behavior of hospitalized stable preterm infants. METHODS: Massage therapy (body stroking/passive limb movement for three 15-minute periods per day) was provided to 16 preterm neonates (mean gestational age, 30.1 weeks; mean birth weight, ...
Habib Fawzia Ahmed - - 2003
To monitor the progress in the practice of early breastfeeding of newborn babies within half an hour to one hour after delivery, and to identify the reasons for not breastfeeding the babies in the labor room. This is a descriptive study conducted in the labor and delivery rooms of King ...
Bloom Barry T - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To increase weight gain in the first 28 days after birth for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants by isolating and sharing meaningful process differences between high- and low-weight-gain centers within a neonatal network. DESIGN/METHODS: We identified weight gain as an important target for improvement in 1999 for our ...
Anchieta L M - - 2003
A longitudinal and prospective study was carried out at two state-operated maternity hospitals in Belo Horizonte during 1996 in order to assess the weight of preterm appropriate-for-gestational-age newborns during the first twelve weeks of life. Two hundred and sixty appropriate-for-gestational-age preterm infants with birth weight <2500 g were evaluated weekly. ...
Rhodes Julia C - - 2003
After declining for many years, cesarean delivery rates recently increased. To explore whether this increase is associated with excess weight gain during pregnancy, resulting in macrosomic infants who require cesarean delivery, we examined trends in excess weight gain, macrosomia, and cesarean delivery. Analysis of 1990-2000 US Natality Files of birth ...
van Hanswijck de Jonge Laurence - - 2003
Early growth is considered critical for the development of obesity and adulthood cardiovascular diseases. Because season and environmental temperature at birth have also been associated with obesity, it is important to examine whether birth weight and postnatal weight gain vary by season. Data from the National Collaborative Perinatal Project were ...
Hendrick Victoria - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the physical development of infants who are exposed to antidepressant medications through breast milk. METHOD: Seventy-eight breastfeeding women taking antidepressant medications were included in the study. Maternal mood was prospectively evaluated at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Infants' weights were obtained from review of ...
Senn Theresa E - - 2003
Neonatal intensive care unit personnel and parents often are concerned that developmental assessment will tire preterm neonates and impair their feeding ability and subsequent weight gain. Therefore, the amount of fluid consumed by 108 preterm neonates (<or=36.5 wk gestational age) was compared before and after administration of the Neurobehavioral Assessment ...
Bauer Jacqueline - - 2003
The aim of the present study was to obtain serial values of O2 consumption (VO2), CO2 production (VCO2) and energy expenditure (EE) in healthy but extremely-low-birth-weight infants (birth weight <1000 g), during the first 5 weeks after birth. A total of seventeen spontaneously breathing and appropriate-for-gestational-age (birth weight and body ...
Damgaard L H - - 2003
The objective of this study was to ascertain whether maternal additive genetic variance exists for within-litter variation in birth weight and for change in within-litter variation in piglet weight during suckling. A further objective was to estimate maternal genetic correlations of these two traits with mortality, birth weight, growth, and ...
Ho Man-Yau - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study evaluated two different modes of nutrition supplementation in premature neonates with respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: Data were collected from the medical records of premature infants treated from January 1, 1997 to July 31, 2000. Seventeen infants were given peripheral amino acids and gradual advanced minimal hypocaloric ...
Sørensen T I A - - 2003
There are many good reasons to expect that weight loss in overweight and obese subjects should lead to reduced mortality, not least because the general risk factor profile of several diseases responsible for the excess mortality associated with overweight and obesity improves with weight loss. However, observational long-term population studies ...
Dwyer C M - - 2003
The survival of the neonate relies on the integrated expression of appropriate behaviours from both the mother and young. In precocious species, like the sheep, the speed with which the lamb stands and seeks the udder is related to lamb survival. In this study the effects of birth difficulty, lamb ...
Secker-Walker Roger H - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of smoking on infant birthweight independent of gestational age and maternal weight gain during pregnancy. METHODS: Stepwise regression was used to identify sets of maternal and infant characteristics not modified by prenatal smoking that were predictors of infant birthweight, gestational age, and net maternal weight ...
Mesa H - - 2003
The objective of this study was to evaluate correlated response in placental efficiency to selection for components of litter size. Fourteen generations of selection had resulted in a difference between lines of three fully formed piglets at birth. Gilts from a line selected for an index of components of litter ...
Dwyer Cathy M - - 2003
Maternal undernutrition in pregnancy results in low birth-weights and impaired postnatal survival in sheep. Largely anecdotal evidence suggests that the expression of appropriate maternal and neonate behaviours may also be disrupted by undernutrition. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a moderate (35 %) reduction in ewe nutritional ...
Milligan Barry N - - 2002
To determine the effect of within-litter neonatal-weight variation on pre-weaning mortality and weight gain, we analyzed piglet survival and weight gain within 400 litters from 10 commercial farms. Neonatal-weight variation (independent of mean neonatal weight, litter size and sow parity) was associated with pre-weaning survival and weaning-weight variation-but not with ...
Lam Tania - - 2003
Previous results from this laboratory have shown that human infants (<12 mo old) respond appropriately to transient changes in sensory input during stepping. We examined how infants adapted to a more enduring change in sensory input by applying load to one limb during stepping. A small weight (500-900 g) was ...
Hanford K J - - 2002
Genetic parameters from both single-trait and bivariate analyses for prolificacy, weight and wool traits were estimated using REML with animal models for Columbia sheep from data collected from 1950 to 1998 at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station (USSES), Dubois, ID. Breeding values from both single-trait and seven-trait analyses calculated using ...
Iñiguez Germán - - 2002
Wide ranges in postnatal weight gain are seen in infants born small for gestational age (SGA); most show some catch-up growth and this may be driven by increased appetite. Ghrelin, the natural ligand of the GH secretagogue receptor, has potent orexigenic effects. In adults circulating ghrelin levels are increased in ...
Mainous Rosalie O - - 2002
Infant massage has been practiced for centuries by segments on the continents of Africa and South America and in the Far East. Infant massage is a relatively new modality in North America. Numerous studies support its use in preterm infants, who have exhibited decreased stress levels, increased weight gain, and ...
Bulk-Bunschoten Anneke M W - - 2002
We describe the determinants of weight gain in the first 4 months of life in a cohort of 3256 infants. The study was designed as a survey with follow-up. In the period 1 April to 1 July 1998, all infants, usually 4 weeks old but not older than 4 months, ...
Erasmus Helen D - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether lactase-treated preterm feeds enhance weight gain and feeding tolerance in premature infants. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial involving 130 infants (26-34 weeks postconceptual age). The primary outcome variable was weight gain (g per day). Other outcome measures included gains in length and head circumference, ...
Eliakim Alon - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of daily movements on weight gain, serum leptin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in premature infants. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty very-low-birth-weight premature infants were matched and randomized to a daily movement (n = 10) and control groups (n = 10). Daily movement consisted of passive ...
De Curtis M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Most preterm infants are still preterm and have a low birth weight when they are discharged from the hospital. An important issue is whether the long-term consequences of early growth restriction can be diminished by nutritional intervention in preterm infants after discharge from the hospital. AIM: To evaluate differences ...
Palacio Ana - - 2002
Circulating leptin levels, proinflammatory and T helper cells type 1 (Th1), Th2 cytokine production, and lymphoproliferative response were measured in 15 infants with primary moderate protein calorie malnutrition on admission and after recovery of 10% of weight. Sixteen healthy, well nourished infants of comparable age served as controls. A significant ...
Goldstein Stuart L - - 2002
Very few pediatric studies have monitored nutritional status using normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) or treating protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) with intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN). The current study compares nPCR with serum albumin as a marker for nutritional status and examines the effectiveness of IDPN treatment in three malnourished adolescent patients ...
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