Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 950
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Kuusipalo Heli - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Fortified spreads (FSs) have proven effective in the rehabilitation of severely malnourished children. We examined acceptability, growth and change in blood haemoglobin (Hb) concentration among moderately underweight ambulatory infants given FS. METHODS: This was a randomised, controlled, parallel-group, investigator-blind clinical trial in rural Malawi. Six- to 17-month-old underweight infants ...
Xiong Xu - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Infant growth assessment often focuses on "optimal" infant weights and lengths at specific ages, while de-emphasizing infant weight gain. Objective of this study was to examine infant growth patterns by measuring infant weight gain relative to birth weight. METHODS: We conducted this study based on data collected in a ...
Griffiths Lucy J LJ MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London, UK. - - 2007
Parental weight and height correlate with offspring birthweight and weight gain, suggesting genetic and environmental influences on fetal growth. The differential contributions of the mother's and father's height and weight to birthweight, or weight gain in infancy, remain unclear and were examined using data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. ...
Stotland Naomi E - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between gestational weight gain and adverse neonatal outcomes among infants born at term (37 weeks or more). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 20,465 nondiabetic, term, singleton births. We performed univariable and multivariable analyses of the associations between gestational weight gain and neonatal ...
Donovan Ramona - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Early nutrition intervention, both parenteral and enteral, is becoming a standard of care for the extremely low-birth-weight infant (ELBW; <1,000 g) in many neonatal intensive care units (NICU) across the United States. However, there are no published or widely accepted guidelines regarding nutrition support strategies for this population. Most ...
Farrow Claire - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Our objective with this study was to examine whether observed maternal control during feeding at 6 months of age moderates the development of early infant weight gain during the first year of life. METHODS: Sixty-nine women were observed feeding their 6-month-old infants during a standard meal. Mealtimes were coded ...
Darlington Anne-Sophie E - - 2006
Difficult temperament has been associated with fast weight gain and slow weight gain, although the latter mostly in referred subjects studies in late infancy. The current study set out to investigate early weight gain in relation to all domains of temperament in a community-screened sample. Weight gain from birth to ...
Nielsen Jennifer Notkin - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Because pregnant African American women and teens are at risk of low birth weight, they are frequently counseled to strive for gestational weight gains at the upper limits of the Institute of Medicine's recommended ranges. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine whether such weight gains improve birth outcomes in ...
Hiware C J - - 2006
Silk worm (Bombyx mori L.) larvae were fed on Mulberry leaves treated with Nux vomica mother tincture. The impact on larval, cocoon, shell and pupal weight, silk ratio, average filament length and denier, and number of breakages during reeling were investigated. The results were positive in all parameters under study ...
Kuh Diana D MRC National Survey of Health and Development, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Royal Free and University College London Medical School, London, UK. - - 2006
There is growing evidence that the prenatal environment has long-term effects on adult grip strength, but little is known about the effects of the postnatal environment. We tested whether prepubertal growth, pubertal growth, or the development of motor and cognitive capabilities was associated with midlife muscle strength independently of other ...
Voegele Ralf T - - 2006
This MiniReview is intended to provide an overview of the current knowledge regarding cytological, physiological, and molecular aspects of Uromyces fabae. For almost five decades this rust fungus has served as a model system to gain insight into the features characterizing an obligate biotrophic parasite. While earlier studies mostly focused ...
Vitezica Z G - - 2006
In this study, the potential association of PrP genotypes with ewe reproductive traits and lamb growth traits was investigated. Data were included on ewes and lambs of the INRA 401 breed from the Bourges-La Sapinière INRA experimental farm. This breed was chosen because of good breeding (prolificacy and maternal abilities) ...
Desjardins Eve-Catherine - - 2006
Here, we evaluate the potential of the bumble bee Bombus impatiens Cresson, obtained from commercial colonies, as a pollen vector for lowbush blueberry, Vaccinium augustifolium Aiton. We wanted to gain insight into the relationships between pollination by introduced bumble bees, the categories of seeds produced, and the weight and the ...
Wright Charlotte M - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to study the influences of child and maternal feeding behavior on weight gain and failure to thrive in the first year of life. METHODS: The Millennium Infant Study recruited a population birth cohort in Northeast England shortly after birth and studied them prospectively ...
Ong Ken K KK Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, United Kingdom. - - 2006
Rapid infant weight gain has been shown to predict later obesity risk; however, it is unclear which factors influence infant diet and weight gain. The objective of this study was to determine whether different feeding patterns and energy intakes that are provided to infants affect body weight and BMI later ...
Gadzik James - - 2006
Body mass index (BMI) is derived from Quetelet's equation. Federal guidelines define a healthy BMI range of 18.5 to 24.9. Unfortunately, few physicians can quickly convert these BMI recommendations into corresponding weights, because Quetelet's formula is tedious to compute. Two new linear equations (one metric, the other Avoirdupois) are introduced ...
Backman Torbjörn - - 2006
The objectives of this study were to report our experience with the laparoscopic video-assisted gastrostomy technique in infants operated during their first year of life. A total of 53 infants (35 males, 18 females) aged 6 +/- 3 months, varying from 3 weeks to 11 months, underwent video-assisted gastrostomy. They ...
Wright C M - - 2006
To study the influence of maternal socioeconomic and emotional factors on infant weight gain and weight faltering (failure to thrive) in the first year of life. The Gateshead Millennium Baby Study is a population birth cohort in northeast England studied prospectively from birth, via parental questionnaires and a health check ...
García Andrés José - - 2006
Calving date in many mammals is matched to the time of greatest food availability. Out of season calving results in heavy penalties in terms of own and offspring survival or body condition. This study examined whether gestation length is affected by advancing fertilisation. Thirty-six red deer hinds (of the Iberian ...
Volk Anthony A - - 2006
Infant and child facial cues influence perceptions and ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm as well as actual parental care. A previous study demonstrated that infant and child facial cues of low body weight negatively influenced adults' ratings. The current study sought to replicate and expand on those results by ...
Flidel-Rimon Orna - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine if the recommended weight gain of >680 g/week during the first 24 weeks of pregnancy decreases the frequency of adverse birth weight outcomes in triplet mothers with a normal pregravid BMI. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study of a large sample of triplet mothers with a normal (19.8-26) ...
Rigo Jacques - - 2006
Knowledge of changes in body composition is of great potential benefit to the understanding of the nutritional needs and functional outcome of nutritional management for both healthy and sick infants. This review evaluates the different methods presently available to evaluate whole-body composition analysis based on different models, i.e. 2, 3, ...
Bhat Swarna Rekha - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of significant weight loss, dehydration, hypernatremia and hyperbilirubinemia in exclusively breast-fed term healthy neonates and compare the incidence of these problems in the warm and cool months. METHODS: During the study period 496 neonates were recruited. RESULTS: 157 neonates ...
Nyaruhucha C N M - - 2006
A prospective study was carried out to determine the relationship between weight gain in the second and third trimesters with the corresponding birth weights in Morogoro, Tanzania. A total of 270 pregnant women who gave birth to singleton deliveries and their consecutive newborns were randomly selected from among women who ...
Kim Won-Suk - - 2006
The purpose of this study is (1) to determine the repeatability and reproducibility of thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF) in measuring the molecular weight of compounded natural rubber, and (2) to examine the correlation between the molecular weights obtained from ThFFF and the rheological data. 8 batches of compounded natural rubber ...
Arora Jyoti - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of oil massage on growth and neurobehavior in preterm babies less than 1500 g. DESIGN: Randomized Controlled Trial. SETTING: Tertiary level neonatal unit of a teaching hospital. Subjects: Neonates with birth weight <1500 grams, gestation >37 weeks, receiving enteral feeds of at least 100 mL/kg/day ...
Savino F - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: Ghrelin, a recently discovered hormone mainly secreted by the stomach, has several metabolic functions including regulation of food intake, energy homeostasis and body weight. There are few studies on this hormone in healthy infants during the first year of life. The aim of this study was to examine the ...
Siahanidou Tania - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin are gastrointestinal tract-derived hormones that play roles in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. Negative energy balance often occurs in hospitalized preterm infants. METHODS: To measure serum concentrations of PYY in preterm and full-term infants and to investigate their correlations with anthropometric ...
Diekmann Mareike - - 2005
Early enteral nutrition improves growth of extremely low birth weight infants, but growth curves beyond 30 days of life are lacking for such infants receiving early enteral nutrition. Based on the data of all infants born in a 4-year interval with a birth weight <1000 g and surviving for >56 ...
Burke J M - - 2005
The objective of the experiment was to determine the effectiveness of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) in pregnant ewes and safety to lambs. COWP have been used recently as an anthelmintic in small ruminants to overcome problems associated with nematode resistance to chemical dewormers. Doses of COWP (<or=4 g) have ...
Keogh J B - - 2005
Effective weight loss strategies are needed to help overweight and obese people lose weight and maintain weight loss in the long term. Meal replacements for weight loss are available in the community; however, their efficacy in the longer term is not clear. This review summarizes recent evidence on the use ...
Diego Miguel A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Multiple studies have documented an increase in weight gain after 5 to 10 days of massage therapy for preterm neonates. The massaged preterm neonates did not consume more calories than the control neonates. One potential mechanism for these effects might involve massage-induced increases in vagal activity, which in turn ...
Sánchez Susana - - 2005
Infant carrying in cotton-top tamarins is a costly activity that results in weight loss by the fathers and helpers. However, to date, measures of carrying costs have been obtained in small indoor enclosures. We studied body weight changes in adult and subadult individuals from eight large groups (n > 5) ...
Pande Sumati - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Carnitine transfer across the placenta occurs predominantly during the third trimester. Unless L-carnitine is provided, very preterm infants develop carnitine deficiency. Although breast milk and infant formulas contain L-carnitine, parenteral nutrition solutions do not routinely provide L-carnitine. We hypothesized that prolonged L-carnitine supplementation in very preterm infants would improve ...
Sørensen Thorkild I A - - 2005
Weight loss in the obese improves risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. However, several studies have shown inconsistent long-term effects of weight loss on mortality. We investigated the influence on mortality of intention to lose weight and subsequent weight changes among overweight individuals without known co-morbidities. In 1975, a ...
Lugli A - - 2005
In 1821 Napoleon died in exile on the Island of St. Helena. Although the autopsy had suggested stomach cancer as the cause of death, in 1961 an elevated arsenic concentration was found in Napoleon's hair. This finding elicited numerous theories of conspiracy, treachery, and poisoning. Most recent reports even suggested ...
Fésüs L - - 2005
Two F2 generations of an intercross between Hampshire boars and Hungarian Large White sows were produced to estimate the effects of the porcine KIT genotypes (II, Ii and ii) on quantitative and qualitative haematological indices, on piglet birth weight and growth performance until weaning. Piglets carrying the I allele had ...
Coffey Christopher S - - 2005
Although obesity is associated with increased mortality rate and short-term weight loss improves risk factors for mortality, it has not been convincingly shown that weight loss among obese people results in reduced mortality rate. When considering the human literature, it has been pointed out that weight loss is often a ...
Dwyer C M - - 2005
Lamb survival is impaired in low birth weight lambs, and those that are slow to stand and suck. Many of the factors that influence lamb vigour, such as parity, litter size, and breed, may exert their effects, at least partially, before birth by influencing placenta development. Our hypothesis was that ...
Maroun Lisa Leth - - 2005
Standards for body parameters and organ weights are important tools in fetal and perinatal pathology. Previously there has been only a weak emphasis on the effect of maceration on dimensions and weights. This study provides autopsy standards for body weight, body dimensions, and fresh organ weights for nonmacerated fetuses and ...
Van Vleck L D - - 2005
Analyses of birth and weaning weights, fleece weights of ewes, and number born per litter of Polypay sheep collected at the U.S. Sheep Experimental Station from 1978 through 1998, confirmed previous analyses of three other dual-purpose breeds that cytoplasmic effects do not contribute to variation in these four traits. In ...
Engström Eva - - 2005
IGF-I is important for somatic growth and development of the human fetus and neonate. IGF-I also plays an important role in normal vascularization of human retina, as it has been suggested that insufficient IGF-I may be a factor in the development of retinopathy of prematurity. The principal regulator of the ...
Blickstein Isaac - - 2005
We analyzed a cohort of 2850 live-born triplet sets to compare age, parity, stature, pre-gravid body mass index (BMI), and weekly weight gain in mothers who delivered triplets with a total weight in the 10th, 5th, and 1st deciles corresponding to the heaviest, average-weight, and lightest triplet sets, respectively. Mothers ...
Cevasco Andrea M - - 2005
Within the past 5 years there has been an increase of premature infants surviving in the neonatal intensive care unit as well as an increasing cost for each day the infant is kept there. It is important for the premature infant to acquire the feeding skills necessary for weight gain, ...
Madoz-Escande C - - 2005
This work is aimed at quantifying foliar transfer of cesium, strontium, barium and tellurium under the influence of rainfall characteristics (intensity, frequency and time elapsed between contamination and first rainfall). Grassland boxes were contaminated by dry deposition of multi-element aerosols of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (133)Ba and (123m)Te. They were grown in ...
DeSutter Tom M - - 2005
Gaseous emissions from animal manure storage facilities can contribute to global greenhouse gas inventories. Biogas fluxes were measured for one year from a 2-ha anaerobic lagoon that received waste from a 10500-head swine (Sus scrofa) finishing operation in southwestern Kansas. During 2001, ebullition of biogas was measured continuously by using ...
Ding Jian Jun - - 2005
The luminescence enhancement effect of different kinds and contents of rare earth complexe (RE(DBM)3Phen, RE = Dy, La, Gd, Sm, Y; DBM = dibenzoylmethane; Phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) sensitized Eu(DBM)3Phen doped in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix was investigated using the combinatorial method. The efficiency of the luminescence enhancement increases with a ...
Rising Russell - - 2005
There are no data regarding the relationship between maternal adiposity and interaction and feeding of infants and possible contribution to childhood obesity. In this study we determined the relationship between maternal body weight and composition and infant feeding patterns and maternal-infant interaction during 24-hour metabolic rate measurements in the Enhanced ...
Stotland Naomi E - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To examine how the association between excessive weight gain and cesarean birth is modified by infant birth weight in nondiabetic women. METHODS: We designed a retrospective cohort study of singleton, term, nulliparous women with cephalic presentations delivering at a single university hospital. Subjects with diabetes were excluded. Bivariate and ...
Wright C M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The recommended age of introduction of solids food to the diet of infants (weaning) has recently been increased in the UK to 6 months, but most babies are still weaned before the age of 4 months. AIMS: To examine what predicts the age of weaning and how this relates ...
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