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Almeida Mariangela Bartha de Mattos de MB Fernandes Figueira Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. - - 2011
Neonatal nutrition is an important subject in health in the short, medium and long term. In preterm newborns, nutrition assumes a predominant role for the child's overall development. Babies with uncoordinated swallowing or respiration may not have the necessary oral abilities to suck the mother's breast and will need to ...
Hsu Ho-Torng - - 2011
Abstract Background and Aims: Human milk bank is a source of human milk supply in many neonatal intensive care units. However, there are some hospitals without this facility because of financial or religious impediments, such as the Muslim community. Methods: We introduced human milk donation as an alternative to human ...
Lizza John P - - 2011
The 'decapitation gambit' holds that, if physical decapitation normally entails the death of the human being, then physiological decapitation, evident in cases of total brain failure, entails the death of the human being. This argument has been challenged by Franklin Miller and Robert Truog, who argue that physical decapitation does ...
Philipp M T - - 2012
Nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae precedes pneumococcal disease. Elucidation of procedures to prevent or eradicate nasopharyngeal carriage in a model akin to the human would help to diminish the incidence of both pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease. We conducted a survey of the nasopharynx of infant rhesus macaques from our ...
Brenner Michelle G - - 2011
Abstract Hospital breastfeeding initiation rates (75%) show that most mothers in the United States want to breastfeed and are trying to do so. Even from the very start, however, mothers may not be getting the breastfeeding support they need. Low breastfeeding rates at 3, 6, and 12 months illustrate that ...
Deligianni Fani F Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck, University of London, - - 2011
The current study tested whether the purely amodal cue of contingency elicits orientation following behavior in 8-month-old infants. We presented 8-month-old infants with automated objects without human features that did or did not react contingently to the infants' fixations recorded by an eye tracker. We found that an object's occasional ...
Järvinen K M - - 2012
Occasionally, exclusively breastfed infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA) remain symptomatic despite strict maternal milk avoidance. To determine whether or not persistence of symptoms could be due to sensitization against endogenous human milk proteins with a high degree of similarity to bovine allergens. Ten peptides representing known bovine milk IgE-binding ...
Coppa Giovanni V - - 2011
Background: In a recent study, we performed a complete structural characterization of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in human mature milk. However, no data are available on the total content of GAGs in human milk from healthy mothers having delivered term or preterm newborns. Objectives: In this study, we evaluated the total content ...
Piffer Laura - - 2011
Non-verbal numerical behavior in human infants, human adults, and non-human primates appears to be rooted in two distinct mechanisms: a precise system for tracking and comparing small numbers of items simultaneously (up to 3 or 4 items) and an approximate system for estimating numerical magnitude of a group of objects. ...
Di Natale C - - 2011
During the last few decades, neonatal survival rates for preterm infants have markedly been improved. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. Although human milk is ...
Marticorena Drew C W DC Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, - - 2011
The capacity to reason about the false beliefs of others is classically considered the benchmark for a fully fledged understanding of the mental lives of others. Although much is known about the developmental origins of our understanding of others' beliefs, we still know much less about the evolutionary origins of ...
Herrmann Esther - - 2011
The adaptive behavior of primates, including humans, is often mediated by temperament. Human behavior likely differs from that of other primates in part due to temperament. In the current study we compared the reaction of bonobos, chimpanzees, orangutans, and 2.5-year-old human infants to novel objects and people - as a ...
Lewkowicz David J DJ Department of Psychology, Center for Complex Systems & Brain Science, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA. - - 2012
When adults view very realistic humanoid robots or computer avatars they often exhibit an aversion to them. This phenomenon, known as the "uncanny valley," is assumed to be evolutionary in origin, perhaps tapping into modules for disgust or attractiveness that detect violations of our normal expectations regarding social signals. Here, ...
Reid Alistair Balfour - - 2011
We describe an outbreak of human rhinovirus type C infection in 7 infants in our neonatal/pediatric intensive care unit. Five infants had clinically significant apneic episodes and 5 required increased oxygen or ventilatory support. Infants shed virus detectable by polymerase chain reaction for a median of 4 weeks.
Ganapathy Vaidyanathan - - 2012
This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a 100% human milk-based diet composed of mother's milk fortified with a donor human milk-based human milk fortifier (HMF) versus mother's milk fortified with bovine milk-based HMF to initiate enteral nutrition among extremely premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A net ...
Rasmussen Kathleen M KM Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. - - 2011
A quiet revolution has been taking place in the feeding of US infants in the form of women using electric breast pumps. This revolution in milk expression may be a boon for both mothers and infants if more infants are fed human milk or if they receive human milk for ...
Gillett Grant - - 2011
We are bedevilled with varying definitions of death, ranging from higher brain death to cardiovascular or somatic death. They all try to capture what is essential to our reasoning about the importance of human death. This column argues that what they all neglect is the Aristotelian inspiration of many of ...
Lacour DeLese E - - 2012
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is very common in reproductive age women. It has been demonstrated that this infection can be transmitted from mother to infant. Evidence of HPV infection can be seen in infant and toddlers. A review of the literate was undertaken to examine the manner in which HPV can ...
Luo Yuyan - - 2011
The present research examined whether 3-month-old infants, the youngest found so far to engage in goal-related reasoning about human agents, would also act as if they attribute goals to a novel non-human agent, a self-propelled box. In two experiments, the infants seemed to have interpreted the box’s actions as goal-directed ...
Popat H - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To determine Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure rates for extremely preterm infants in a tertiary care centre, factors affecting response to indomethacin and outcomes of these infants relative to their PDA status. Multiple courses of standard intravenous indomethacin (dose: 0.2 mg/kg 12 hourly; 3 doses) followed by a tail ...
Giambartolomei Luis A - - 2011
The objective of this study was to determine morphological characteristics and measurements of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc in human fetuses between 16 and 20 weeks of intrauterine life, and correlate it with oral-facial neuro-muscular maturing. Scanner images were used to record the length of the disc (D) and the ...
Simmer Karen - - 2011
The provision of donor human milk instead of formula is an important contribution to the nutrition and protection from infections for preterm infants. Systematic reviews suggest a lower risk of necrotizing enterocolitis with pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) as opposed to artificial formula, although evidence supporting PDHM use from randomized ...
Jensen Henrik R - - 2011
Haptocorrin is a vitamin B12-binding protein present in high amounts in different body fluids including human milk. Haptocorrin has previously been shown to inhibit the growth of specific E. coli strains, and the aim of the present study was to elucidate whether the antibacterial properties of this protein may exert ...
Stein Werner - - 2011
To analyze the relationship of the time interval between two deliveries, done by one obstetric team, on the delivery mode of the subsequent birth; to define the length of this interval; and to evaluate this time interval as a risk factor for increased perinatal mortality in a population-based cohort. All ...
Chichlowski Maciej - - 2011
In addition to a nutritive role, human milk also guides the development of a protective intestinal microbiota in the infant. Human milk possesses an overabundance of complex oligosaccharides that are indigestible by the infant yet are consumed by microbial populations in the developing intestine. These oligosaccharides are believed to facilitate ...
Saini Rajiv - - 2011
Periodontitis is a destructive inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth and is caused by specific microorganisms or a group of specific microorganisms. Association of periodontal infection with organ systems like cardiovascular system, endocrine system, reproductive system, and respiratory system makes periodontal infection a complex multiphase disease. Inflamed ...
Schmidt Marco F H - - 2011
Human cooperation is a key driving force behind the evolutionary success of our hominin lineage. At the proximate level, biologists and social scientists have identified other-regarding preferences--such as fairness based on egalitarian motives, and altruism--as likely candidates for fostering large-scale cooperation. A critical question concerns the ontogenetic origins of these ...
Hunt Katherine M - - 2011
Recent investigations have demonstrated that human milk contains a variety of bacterial genera; however, as of yet very little work has been done to characterize the full diversity of these milk bacterial communities and their relative stability over time. To more thoroughly investigate the human milk microbiome, we utilized microbial ...
Chen Frances S - - 2011
Ordinary variations in human infants' attachment behaviors - their proclivity to seek and accept comfort from caregivers - are associated with a wide range of individual differences in psychological functioning in adults. The current investigation examined variation in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene as one possible source of these variations ...
Zeskind Philip Sanford PS Neurodevelopmental Laboratory, Department of Pediatrics, Levine Children's Hospital at Carolinas Medical Center Charlotte, NC, - - 2011
The purpose of this article is to describe the development of translational methods by which spectrum analysis of human infant crying and rat pup ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) can be used to assess potentially adverse effects of various prenatal conditions on early neurobehavioral development. The study of human infant crying has ...
Feldman Ruth - - 2011
Studies in mammals have implicated the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) in processes of bond formation and stress modulation, yet the involvement of OT in human bonding throughout life remains poorly understood. We assessed OT in the plasma, saliva, and urine of 112 mothers and fathers interacting with their 4-6-month-old infants. Parent-infant ...
Patterson Danielle - - 2010
: Severe perineal lacerations have been associated with the development of fecal incontinence. This study was designed to identify risk factors for severe perineal lacerations in vaginal delivery in a teen population. : This was a retrospective database analysis of 534 teen term, singleton, cephalic vaginal deliveries. The primary outcome ...
Kim Jh - - 2010
It is universally accepted that breast milk is the optimum exclusive source of nutrition for the first six months of life, and may remain part of the healthy infant diet for the first two years of life and beyond. Despite advances in infant formulas, human breast milk provides a bioactive ...
Dinsdale Elsa C - - 2010
Soy isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potential hormonal activity due to their similar chemical structure to 17-β-estradiol. The increasing availability of soy isoflavones throughout the food supply and through use of supplements has prompted extensive research on biological benefits to humans in chronic disease prevention and health maintenance. While much of ...
Pauli Richard M - - 2010
Fetal disorders (including congenital malformations) are among the most frequent of causes of intrauterine death. Assessment to detect fetal processes is straightforward: history (prenatal, perinatal, and family); external clinical examination; photographs; whole body radiographs; cytogenetic investigation; and internal necropsy. Unfortunately such investigations are profoundly underused. When appropriately and nonselectively assessed, ...
Honda Shohei - - 2010
Ingestion of a button battery has been considered a serious problem, causing necrosis and perforation, when impacted in the esophagus. However, such batteries in the stomach rarely cause any harm to the gastric wall, which is regarded as evidence supporting the use of conservative treatment. We present the rare case ...
Madea Burkhard - - 2010
The post mortem external examination is the final service that a physician can render to a patient. Its purpose is not just to establish medical diagnoses, but to provide facts in the service of the judicial process and the public interest. Its main tasks are the definitive ascertainment of death, ...
Pearson G A - - 2011
Aim To validate a descriptive tool for the causes of child death, which was designed to circumvent problems posed by the analysis of a confidential enquiry. Method 3 participants from different healthcare backgrounds used clinical data, including the entries on the medical certificate of the cause of death, to classify ...
Corpeleijn Willemijn E - - 2010
The number of human milk banks is increasing worldwide. Although the beneficial effects of feeding premature infants with their mother's milk are well documented, less is known about the effects of feeding these infants with pasteurized donor milk. We propose a randomized trial comparing the effects of a 100% human ...
Matshes Evan W - - 2010
The fundamental function of all North American systems of death investigation is to determine cause and manner of death. Modern teaching emphasizes the need to consider all investigative aspects including careful evaluation of the scene and circumstances, history, physical examination of the body, and ancillary laboratory studies, prior to death ...
Studdert David M - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the changes in the understanding of the manner and cause of death occurring during the course of coronial investigations. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of deaths reported to coroners in Australia between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2007, using the National Coroners Information System. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (i) ...
Iwase Hirotaro - - 2010
We report two infant deaths attributable to intussusception, but without clear evidence of peritonitis. In the first instance, a 3-year-old girl had presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, and melena before her demise. Aspirated vomitus was subsequently ascertained as the immediate cause of death, due to intussusception-induced ileus. The other infant, ...
Herbst Jonathon - - 2010
The principle causes of infant death are natural causes [including the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)]. Natural deaths in infants are principally due to infections, cardiovascular anomalies and other metabolic or genetic disorders. Gastrointestinal pathology including anomalies may also cause death in this age group. This case describes a 6 ...
Tabarani Christy M - - 2010
An infant had a subdural empyema caused by the rare Salmonella species enterica subspecies houtenae (IV) serotype 44:z4,z23:- after only indirect exposure to exotic reptiles in her foster home. Infants recovering from preexisting subdural hematoma are at risk for development of empyema.
Boudewyns An - - 2010
Stridor is the sound caused by abnormal air passage during breathing. The cause of stridor can be located anywhere in extrathoracic airway (nose, pharynx, larynx, and trachea) or the intrathoracic airway (tracheobronchial tree). Stridor may be acute (caused by inflammation/infection or foreign body inhalation) or chronic. It may be congenital ...
Bugeja Lyndal - - 2010
Availability of ICD-10 cause of death codes in the National Coroners Information System (NCIS) strengthens its value as a public health surveillance tool. This study quantified the completeness of external cause ICD-10 codes in the NCIS for Victorian deaths (as assigned by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) in the ...
Pal Kamalesh - - 2010
Occult enterorrhagia in infancy may become obscured and lead to diagnostic dilemma. Abnormal findings on investigative modalities, if not properly interpreted and clinically correlated, might complicate the matter leading to missed diagnosis and chronic anaemia. Occult enterorrhagia is an uncommon presentation of intestinal duplications. We describe the intriguing case of ...
De Vries Charlotte - - 2010
Our daily lives are a series of ordinary moments and unnoticed thresholds-times that define us in ways we often do not give much attention. While we consider childbirth to be one of life's extra-ordinary events, the hours of labor and birth need not be dramatic (or traumatic) ones. I describe ...
McElroy Michele K - - 2010
Adult nesidioblastosis is an uncommon cause of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia characterized by diffuse islet hyperplasia with beta-cell hypertrophy and atypia. The cause of nesidioblastosis in adults is unclear but may be different from nesidioblastosis in infants. In contrast to infants, a focal form of adult nesidioblastosis (ie, "nesidioblastoma") has not been ...
Gill James R - - 2010
We retrospectively analyzed 100 deaths because of suspicions and concerns expressed by the family. We compared the preautopsy cause of death, as determined by a thorough review of the clinical data and circumstances, to the autopsy-derived cause of death. In the majority (91/100), the preautopsy and postautopsy proximate causes of ...
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