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Raudies Florian F Center for Computational Neuroscience and Neural Technology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, U.S.A. - - 2014
Visual motion direction ambiguities due to edge-aperture interaction might be resolved by speed priors, but scant empirical data support this hypothesis. We measured optic flow and gaze positions of walking mothers and the infants they carried. Empirically derived motion priors for infants are vertically elongated and shifted upward relative to ...
Soska Kasey C KC Department of Psychology, Florida International University, - - 2014
Traditionally, crawling and sitting are considered distinct motor behaviors with different postures and functions. Ten- to 12-month-old infants were observed in the laboratory or in their homes while being coaxed to crawl continuously over long, straight walkways (Study 1; N = 20) and during spontaneous crawling during free play (Study 2; N = 20). ...
Vanderlinden Karen K Sociology Department, Ghent University, Korte Meer 3-5, 9000, Ghent, Belgium, - - 2014
In many European countries, mothers in poverty show a preference for bottled milk over breastfeeding. What remains unknown is whether the impact of poverty on feeding choices differs between immigrants and natives. We first assessed whether being born into poverty indicates a higher chance of being bottle-fed, then evaluated whether ...
Addyman Caspar - - 2014
Time is central to any understanding of the world. In adults, estimation errors grow linearly with the length of the interval, much faster than would be expected of a clock-like mechanism. Here we present the first direct demonstration that this is also true in human infants. Using an eye-tracking paradigm, ...
Shimokaze Tomoyuki T Department of Pediatrics, Saiseikai Yamagata Hospital, Yamagata, - - 2014
Objective Securing an arterial line to monitor continuous blood pressure (BP) is difficult in infants. We aimed to reveal the extent of discrepancies between oscillometric and direct BP. Study Design Infants who required continuous BP monitoring were prospectively enrolled. Direct and indirect BP were simultaneously recorded. Disposable BP cuffs matching one-half to ...
Elsner Claudia C Uppsala Child and Baby Lab, Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, 751 42 Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address: - - 2014
This research investigated infants' online perception of give-me gestures during observation of a social interaction. In the first experiment, goal-directed eye movements of 12-month-olds were recorded as they observed a give-and-take interaction in which an object is passed from one individual to another. Infants' gaze shifts from the passing hand ...
Boxum Anke G AG University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Dept. Paediatrics - Developmental Neurology, Groningen, The - - 2014
Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have impaired postural control. Posture is controlled in two levels: direction-specificity, and fine-tuning of direction-specific adjustments, including recruitment order. Literature suggests that direction-specificity might be a prerequisite for independent sitting. To study development of postural adjustments in infants at very high risk for CP (VHR-infants) ...
Kim Kyoung-Eun KE Department of Child Welfare, Namseoul University, Chungcheongnam-do, South - - 2014
The purpose of this study is to test a model linking infant health problem, mother's depression and marital relationship to infant abuse. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected from 2009 Data of Index Studies for Korean Children and Adolescents Development. Survey data from 1,060 infants and ...
Lloyd Carrie A CA Psychology Department, Northern Illinois University, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Mother-infant interactions are important to infant development because they are predictive of infants' social, cognitive, and language development (Lamb, Bornstein, & Teti, 2002; Tamis-LeMonda, Bornstein, & Baumwell, 2001). Because maternal responsive and directive behaviors are associated with differential infant outcomes, it is important to investigate influences on mothers' provision of ...
Gerson Sarah A SA Radboud University Nijmegen Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and - - 2014
Understanding the actions of others depends on the insight that these actions are structured by intentional relations. In a number of conceptual domains, comparison with familiar instances has been shown to support children's and adults' ability to discern the relational structure of novel instances. Recent evidence suggests that this process ...
Wambach Jennifer A JA Edward Mallinckrodt Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO. Electronic address: - - 2014
To determine whether synonymous variants in the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette A3 transporter (ABCA3) gene increase the risk for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in term and late preterm infants of European and African descent. Using next-generation pooled sequencing of race-stratified DNA samples from infants of European and African descent at ...
Padrón Elena E Department of Clinical Psychology, California School of Professional - - 2014
The disorganized infant has been described as experiencing "fright without solution" (Hesse & Main, 1999, p. 484) within the attachment relationship. Using a sample at risk because of poverty (n = 157), this study evaluated the role of newborn characteristics in predicting disorganized attachment and explored the existence of 2 ...
Claxton Laura J LJ Department of Health and Kinesiology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, - - 2014
In typical daily life, adults routinely adapt posture so that balance can be maintained while other goal-directed activities are performed. Interestingly, newly standing infants also control posture based on the demands of a task. It is unknown if the ability to properly adapt postural movements as a goal-directed task is ...
Green Dorota D Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Sweden. Electronic address: - - 2014
Why are infants able to anticipate occlusion events and other people's actions but not the movement of self-propelled objects? This study investigated infant and adult anticipatory gaze shifts during observation of self-propelled objects and human goal-directed actions. Six-month-old infants anticipated self-propelled balls but not human actions. This demonstrates that different ...
Hernik Mikolaj M Cognitive Development Center, Central European University, , 14 Hattyú utca, Budapest 1015, Hungary, Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, , Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, - - 2014
Animal actions are almost universally constrained by the bilateral body-plan. For example, the direction of travel tends to be constrained by the orientation of the animal's anteroposterior axis. Hence, an animal's behaviour can reliably guide the identification of its front and back, and its orientation can reliably guide action prediction. ...
Matsunaka Reiko R Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Department of General System Studies, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan ; CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama, - - 2014
Gaze direction cues and facial expressions have been shown to influence object processing in infants. For example, infants around 12 months of age utilize others' gaze directions and facial expressions to regulate their own behaviour toward an ambiguous target (i.e., social referencing). However, the mechanism by which social signals influence ...
Thorgrimsson Gudmundur B GB Communication Before Language Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics Nijmegen, - - 2014
We investigated 14-month-old infants' expectations toward a third party addressee of communicative gestures and an instrumental action. Infants' eye movements were tracked as they observed a person (the Gesturer) point, direct a palm-up request gesture, or reach toward an object, and another person (the Addressee) respond by grasping it. Infants' ...
Madre Chrystèle C Surgical Paediatric High Dependency Unit, AP-HP, Hôpital Robert Debré, 48 Boulevard Sérurier, 75019, Paris, - - 2013
Although the incidence of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) decreased markedly after campaigns to promote supine positioning during sleeping, it has remained unchanged over the last decade. Epidemiological data suggest a role for new causes such as suffocation, asphyxia, and entrapment. Health authorities in several countries have issued warnings ...
Kretch Kari S KS New York - - 2013
How does visual experience change over development? To investigate changes in visual input over the developmental transition from crawling to walking, thirty 13-month-olds crawled or walked down a straight path wearing a head-mounted eye tracker that recorded gaze direction and head-centered field of view. Thirteen additional infants wore a motion ...
Winiarska-Mieczan Anna A Department of Bromatology and Food Physiology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950, Lublin, Poland, - - 2013
Mother's milk is the fundamental food for infants. It contains proteins, fat, carbohydrates and essential metals which are necessary to ensure correct functioning of the organism. Unfortunately, breast milk is a potential source of toxic metals, which are dangerous for a baby. In Poland, previous research concerning the content of ...
Karasik Lana B - - 2013
We examined mothers' verbal responses to their crawling or walking infants' object sharing (i.e. bids). Fifty mothers and their 13-month-olds were observed for 1 hour at home. Infants bid from a stationary position or they bid after carrying the object to their mothers. Mothers responded with affirmations (e.g. 'thank you'), descriptions ...
Bouhouch Raschida R RR Laboratory of Human Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Zurich, - - 2014
Iodine deficiency in infants can damage the developing brain and increase mortality. Present recommendations state that oral iodised oil should be given to breastfeeding mothers to correct iodine deficiency in infancy when iodised salt is not available, and that direct supplementation should be given to infants who are not being ...
Bolnga John W - - 2013
To assess the frequency, causes, and reporting of maternal deaths at a provincial referral hospital in coastal Papua New Guinea (PNG), and to describe delays in care. In a structured retrospective review of maternal deaths at Modilon General Hospital, Madang, PNG, registers and case notes for the period January 2008 ...
Lee Mei-Hua - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of contingent auditory feedback on the development of infant reaching. Eleven full-term infants were observed biweekly from the age of 10 weeks to 16 weeks, and their arm kinematics were recorded. Auditory feedback that was contingent on arm kinematics was ...
Schaumburg Frieder - - 2013
Staphylococcus aureus colonization is a risk factor for invasive disease. There is a need to understand Staphylococcus aureus colonization in infancy as the burden of S. aureus infections in infants is high. We aimed to investigate the transmission of S. aureus between mothers and their newborns during one year after ...
Kim Jongwon - - 2013
Abstract Background: Aerosol drug delivery to infants is a strong function of their behavior. Infants can be active during medication administration, changing head position or breathing mode. The objective was to evaluate the influence of the head direction and breathing mode on the hood drug delivery in a 7-month-old girl ...
Melkie Mulugeta - - 2013
BACKGROUND: To generate clinically applicable reference intervals (RIs) for commonly requested electrolytes in Ethiopian newborns and infants that can help in early detection, close monitoring and correction of electrolyte abnormalities. Cord blood (from newborns, n = 60) and venous blood samples (from infants, n = 57) were collected and analyzed ...
Okumura Yuko - - 2013
Infants can acquire much information by following the gaze direction of others. This type of social learning is underpinned by the ability to understand the relationship between gaze direction and a referent object (i.e., the referential nature of gaze). However, it is unknown whether human gaze is a privileged cue ...
Henrichs Ivanina - - 2013
We investigated whether 12-month-old infants rely on information about the certainty of goal selection in order to predict observed reaching actions. Infants' goal-directed gaze shifts were recorded as they observed action sequences in a multiple-goals design. We found that 12-month-old infants exhibited gaze shifts significantly earlier when the observed hand ...
Condry Kirsten - - 2013
Recent research shows that young infants are sensitive to motion parallax in visual displays but leaves open the question of whether infants use the information to perceive spatial layout. In this experiment, 6-month-old infants were translated horizontally in front of two objects that were yoked to the infant's movement. One ...
Barnes Michelle - - 2013
Within a 3-month period, two infants presented non-specifically to hospital and rapidly progressed developing flaccid paralysis. Both children were diagnosed with infant botulism. We briefly review these two cases and discuss the diagnostic and management issues involved with this rare childhood disease.
Cristia Alejandrina - - 2013
ABSTRACT Typically, the point vowels [i,ɑ,u] are acoustically more peripheral in infant-directed speech (IDS) compared to adult-directed speech (ADS). If caregivers seek to highlight lexically relevant contrasts in IDS, then two sounds that are contrastive should become more distinct, whereas two sounds that are surface realizations of the same underlying ...
Dilley Laura C - - 2013
ABSTRACT Pronunciation variation is under-studied in infant-directed speech, particularly for consonants. Regressive place assimilation involves a word-final alveolar stop taking the place of articulation of a following word-initial consonant. We investigated pronunciation variation in word-final alveolar stop consonants in storybooks read by forty-eight mothers in adult-directed or infant-directed style to ...
Lugonja Nikoleta - - 2013
Early-onset and exclusive breast-feeding provides a significant health benefit to infants compared with infant formulas. The aim of this study was to compare mature breast milk with standard infant formulas by examining their effects on non-vascular smooth muscle contraction and their antioxidative properties. The pharmacologic effects of breast milk and ...
Shin Jeong Hee - - 2013
A retropharyngeal abscess is a rare disease entity in young infants but can develop after nasopharyngeal viral infection. Group B Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus are the most common pathogens in young infants, however, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is very rare. We report the case of retropharyngeal abscess and coinfection with S. aureus ...
Bion Ricardo A H - - 2013
In Japanese, vowel duration can distinguish the meaning of words. In order for infants to learn this phonemic contrast using simple distributional analyses, there should be reliable differences in the duration of short and long vowels, and the frequency distribution of vowels must make these differences salient enough in the ...
Reddy Vasudevi - - 2013
Anticipation of the actions of others is often used as a measure of action understanding in infancy. In contrast to studies of action understanding which set infants up as observers of actions directed elsewhere, in the present study we explored anticipatory postural adjustments made by infants to one of the ...
Parise Eugenio - - 2013
Infants' sensitivity to ostensive signals, such as direct eye contact and infant-directed speech, is well documented in the literature. We investigated how infants interpret such signals by assessing common processing mechanisms devoted to them and by measuring neural responses to their compounds. In Experiment 1, we found that ostensive signals ...
Kenward Ben - - 2013
Young children can be motivated to help adults by sympathetic concern based upon empathy, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. One account of empathy-based sympathetic helping in adults states that it arises due to direct-matching mirror-system mechanisms which allow the observer to vicariously experience the situation of the individual in ...
Fernández L - - 2013
Recent work has shown that human colostrum and milk, which had been traditionally considered sterile, provides a continuous supply of commensal and potential probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. More than 200 different bacterial species, including staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, have been isolated from human milk samples so ...
Smith Nicholas A NA Perceptual Development Laboratory, Boys Town National Research Hospital Omaha, NE, - - 2013
Two experiments used eye tracking to examine how infant and adult observers distribute their eye gaze on videos of a mother producing infant- and adult-directed speech. Both groups showed greater attention to the eyes than to the nose and mouth, as well as an asymmetrical focus on the talker's right ...
Yang Yifei Y Department of Physiology, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, - - 2013
Recently, a case of newborn infant with transient hyperinsulinism has been reported. This infant was reported to be free from typical perinatal risk factors of hyperinsulinism except for the fact that the mother of the baby was receiving the antidepressant bupropion during her pregnancy. However, the mother did not experience ...
Mendive Susana - - 2012
Coordinated joint engagement (CJE) is a behavioral measure used in the infant-caregiver interaction paradigm to measure joint attention. To know how mothers scaffold infant attention to prompt joint engagement states, this study attempted to determine (a) which specific maternal attention-directing strategies facilitate CJE in mother-infant interactions and (b) how attention-directing ...
Siu Luen Yee - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the specificity of a non-draining hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) for biliary atresia (BA) in preterm and full-term babies, to verify the relationship between non-draining scan and higher levels of direct bilirubin and to find an objective criterion to guide the time in ...
Saravia Jordy J Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, - - 2013
The health impacts of airborne particulate matter (PM) are of global concern, and the direct implications to the development/exacerbation of lung disease are immediately obvious. Most studies to date have sought to understand mechanisms associated with PM exposure in adults/adult animal models; however, infants are also at significant risk for ...
Delavenne Anne - - 2012
This longitudinal study compared the temporal characteristics of maternal singing at 3 and then at 6 months. Infant-directed (ID) singing is claimed to have different functions in preverbal communication. However few studies have focused on the specific characteristics of ID singing that change across the first months of life. We ...
Tampo Akihito - - 2012
Vallecular cysts are rare but cause respiratory failure in neonates and infants by obstructing the upper airway. They may also cause problems with direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation, and there have been several reports of difficult airway management because of a vallecular cyst in infants (1, 2). We describe successful ...
Reddy Vasudevi - - 2012
Complying with directives is an important indicator of developing cooperativeness and of the awareness of others' intentions for one's own actions. Nonetheless, little is known about the early emergence of compliance. In the present longitudinal study, we explore this phenomenon in naturalistic settings in two cultural groups. Nine middle-class urban ...
Goswami Gaurav G Departments of Pediatrics, LLRM, Medical College, Meerut, UP, and *Government Medical College, Chandigarh, - - 2013
To compare analgesic effect of direct breast feeding, 25% dextrose solution and placebo as we give 1st intramuscular whole cell DPT injection to 6week - 3month old infants. Randomized, placebo controlled trial. Immunization clinic of Department of Pediatrics, LLRM Medical College. Infants coming for their 1st DPT vaccination were randomized ...
Talbott John A - - 2012
ABSTRACT: This interview, with Professor Daniel Stern conducted on February 16, 2012, by Dr. John Talbott, reviews the field of infant psychiatry, the history of which goes back more than 100 years. Sigmund Freud, then Melanie Klein, Anna Freud, Donald Winnicott, and, finally, Margaret Mahler, all psychoanalysts, influenced its development. ...
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