Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 564
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Franklin Peter J - - 2005
In infants, the effect of colds and other respiratory tract infections (RTI) on exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) is not clear. In this study, we measured FE(NO) in 24 infants (14 boys) who presented with rhinorrhea, with or without cough but not wheeze. Twelve of these infants had a history of ...
Saglani Sejal - - 2005
RATIONALE: We hypothesized that the epithelial reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickening and eosinophilic inflammation characteristic of asthma would be present in symptomatic infants with reversible airflow obstruction. METHODS: RBM thickness and numbers of inflammatory cells were determined in ultrathin sections of endobronchial biopsies obtained from 53 infants during clinical bronchoscopy ...
Klinnert Mary D - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To present an interim analysis of the effect of a home-based intervention with low-income caregivers of wheezing infants at risk for childhood asthma on mediating variables. METHOD: Infants aged 9 to 24 months with 3 or more physician-documented wheezing episodes were randomly assigned to environmental support intervention (ES) (n ...
Gold Diane R - - 2005
The prevalence of asthma in the United States is higher than in many other countries in the world. Asthma, the most common chronic disease of childhood in the United States, disproportionately burdens many socioeconomically disadvantaged urban communities. In this review we discuss hypotheses for between-country disparities in asthma prevalence, including ...
O'Donnell Michael J - - 2005
Transport of the organic anion salicylate by the Malpighian tubules and gut of larval and adult fruit flies was studied using two salicylate-selective microelectrode methods. The first method combined the high selectivity of tridodecylmethylammonium-based electrodes for salicylate with the self-referencing ion-selective microelectrode technique for non-invasive spatial and temporal analysis of ...
Knight Tiffany M - - 2004
We examined the effect of predation by the backswimmer (Notonecta undulata; Hemiptera: Notonectidae), competition by zooplankton and snails, and both predation and competition on the survival and development time of larval Anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes in experimental mesocosms. We found that both predation and interspecific competition greatly reduced the survivorship of ...
Inglis J H C - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To identify any effect on deaths and emergency admissions for poisoning resulting from the restriction on paracetamol sales introduced in September 1998. SETTING: Scotland. DATA: Deaths from poisoning were extracted from the General Registrar (Scotland) Office annual reports for 1991 to 2001 and emergency admissions data for 1990/91 to ...
Pino Paulina - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence implicates fine particulate matter (PM2.5), principally from vehicular exhaust, as a major cause of increased mortality and morbidity. However, there are limited data on the impact of PM2.5 on infant respiratory illnesses. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of 504 infants recruited at 4 months of age ...
Pettigrew Melinda M - - 2004
Otitis media is one of the most common infections of early childhood. Children who first experience acute otitis media at an early age (before 6 months) are at increased risk for recurrent otitis media. This prospective study investigated exposure to measured levels of airborne household mould and the risk of ...
Bentur Lea - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Chronic cough in babies is often associated with bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). The objective documentation of BHR in babies is difficult, and acoustic methods have been described (provocative concentration of a substance causing wheeze) for conducting bronchial provocation tests (BPTs). We conducted a study to evaluate automatic computerized wheeze detection ...
Cooper R D - - 2004
The effectiveness of light, 1-octen-3-ol (octenol), carbon dioxide (CO2) and a combination of CO2 and octenol were compared as mosquito attractants using encephalitis vector surveillance traps in 2 villages in Madang Province, Papua New Guinea (PNG). Five species were collected, Anopheles koliensis, Anopheles farauti 2, Anopheles farauti 4, Anopheles longirostris, ...
Wagner George W - - 2004
The effect of drop size on the degradation rate of VX, O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]methylphosphonothioate, in fresh concrete has been examined using (31)P NMR. Drops of neat VX, ranging in size from 4 microL to 0.2 microL, applied to small concrete coupons (8 mm x 15 mm) were observed to degrade at ...
Mohanty Manoj Kumar - - 2004
To determine the various factors involved in poisoning deaths, a 10-y retrospective review of 335 cases were carried out. There was an increasing trend in number of poisoning deaths from 1993-94 to 1999-2000, followed by a decline trend the last 2 y (2001-02). Ninety-one percent of the deaths were due ...
Gehring U - - 2004
East-West differences in prevalence of asthma and allergies were suggested to be associated with lifestyle factors. To describe endotoxin levels in mattress dust samples from East and West German homes collected approximately 10 years after reunification. To identify factors that may account for an East-West difference. Dust was collected from ...
van Strien Robert T - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on respiratory health have been the subject of extensive research. The outcomes of these studies were not consistent. Exposure to nitrous acid, which is a primary product of combustion, and is also formed when NO2 reacts with water, may play an important role in ...
Karr Catherine - - 2004
Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of infant morbidity, and hospitalization rates are rising. The effect of this disease is not limited to the acute illness episode. Approximately 40% to 50% of children diagnosed with bronchiolitis suffer from subsequent wheezing and airway reactivity or asthma. Attempts to address the burden of ...
Trevillian L F - - 2004
There is increasing evidence for a role for bedding items in the development of asthma. The use of some forms of synthetic bedding, such as foam mattresses and pillows, is associated with a significantly increased risk of childhood wheeze. Our aim was to examine prospectively whether the use of synthetic ...
Emenius G - - 2004
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between indoor exposures and the home environment, and the development of recurrent wheezing during infancy. METHODS: A birth cohort, comprising 4089 children, was followed. Information on exposures was obtained shortly after birth, and episodes of wheezing were recorded when ...
Westropp Jodi L - - 2004
Many indoor-housed cats seem to survive perfectly well by accommodating to less than perfect surroundings. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in the cats we treat, however, do not seem to permit adaptive capacity of healthy cats, so these cats may be considered a separate population with greater needs. Moreover, veterinarians are concerned more ...
Laerum B N - - 2004
Studies of birth characteristics and respiratory outcomes show contradictory findings. We wanted to investigate the association of birth weight with adult lung function as well as asthma symptoms while addressing the influence of demographic and environmental factors. Data was collected from the birth records of 1683 men and women born ...
Pinto Jayant M - - 2004
We previously showed that individuals with seasonal allergy have a reduced ability to condition air, which was improved by nasal inflammation. We also showed that subjects with asthma have a reduced ability to condition air. Because individuals with asthma usually have inflammation in the nose, we hypothesized that treatment with ...
Leiro J - - 2004
This study investigated the in vitro effects of the polyphenols resveratrol, mangiferin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the histiophagous ciliate Philasterides dicentrarchi, which causes fatal scuticociliatosis in farmed turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. Of the 3 polyphenols, resveratrol showed strongest antiprotozoal activity, reducing ciliate density after 1 wk culture by, on average, ...
Landrigan Philip J - - 2004
The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) created an acute environmental disaster of enormous magnitude. This study characterizes the environmental exposures resulting from destruction of the WTC and assesses their effects on health. Methods include ambient air sampling; analyses of outdoor and indoor settled dust; high-altitude imaging and modeling ...
Yamada Yumi - - 2004
Creola bodies (CrBs) have been shown to be present specifically in the sputum of adults with asthma, and are clinically useful in the estimation of airway hyper-responsiveness through correlation with the levels of eosinophil cationic protein in the sputum. Our aim was to investigate whether CrBs can be detected in ...
Lim Hyun-Sul - - 2004
Both airborne asbestos and non-asbestos fiber concentrations were evaluated in Korean non-occupational environments. The airborne fiber concentrations were analyzed in 96 air samples, from 48 different points, by transmission electron microscopy, with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The geometric means of the airborne asbestos and non-asbestos fiber concentrations were 0.62 and 67.86, ...
Kupiainen Kaarle - - 2004
Springtime urban road dust forms one of the most serious problems regarding air pollution in Finland. The composition and origin of springtime dust was studied in southern Finland with two different methods. Suspended particles (PM10 and TSP) were collected with high volume particle samplers and particle deposition was collected with ...
Townley R G - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Exposure to infectious diseases may reduce the development of asthma or allergy. In particular, the role of the BCG vaccine in modulating asthma or allergy has been a source of speculation. OBJECTIVE: To study newborns from 3 international sites to evaluate the prospective effect of BCG vaccine on allergic ...
Pande T K - - 2004
Poisoning by white or yellow phosphorus is reported in various forms and also in ages varying from infants to adults, but spontaneous combustion and explosion during its management has never been described. This incidence occurred while attempting to pass a Ryle's tube. Its free end first exhibited a yellow flame ...
Bratthauer Gary L - - 2004
Ductal intraepithelial neoplasia (DIN) is descriptive of in situ breast lesions from usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH) to advanced ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). A total of 2628 cases of DIN diagnosed at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology were separated based on their grade. These were assessed for the presence ...
Eid Nemr S - - 2004
The infant or child presenting to the physician's office with persistent or recurrent wheezing during the first two year's of life poses a diagnostic dilemma. A careful medical history should document risk factors for persistent wheezing, including maternal smoking, feeding practices, environmental history, and family history of asthma or cystic ...
Stanaland Brett E - - 2004
The development of asthma and allergic disease involves not only genetic factors but environmental influences as well. Preventative measures many involve changes in breastfeeding, diet, environmental exposure, medications, and vaccination methods. Breastfeeding is recommended during the first 4-6 months of life. Probiotics should be consumed by mothers during pregnancy and ...
Belson Martin - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Methanol poisoning during human pregnancy rarely has been described. We report the first human newborn with a documented methanol concentration resulting from maternal exposure. CASE REPORT: A 28-year-old pregnant woman EGA 30 weeks with HIV infection and asthma presented to the emergency department in respiratory distress. She was acidotic ...
Kappelman John - - 2003
Afro-Arabian mammalian communities underwent a marked transition near the Oligocene/Miocene boundary at approximately 24 million years (Myr) ago. Although it is well documented that the endemic paenungulate taxa were replaced by migrants from the Northern Hemisphere, the timing and evolutionary dynamics of this transition have long been a mystery because ...
Humphries Paul - - 2003
Wilhelm Blandowski, a Prussian émigré, arrived in Australia in 1849 with hopes of exploring and documenting the natural history of this still relatively scientifically nai;ve colony. After several years travelling, surveying and mining gold, he became the first government zoologist at the infant National Museum of Victoria and was a ...
Vargas Roger I - - 2003
Spinosad was evaluated in Hawaii as a replacement for organophosphate insecticides (naled, dichlorvos [DDVP], and malathion) in methyl eugenol and cue-lure bucket traps to attract and kill oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, B. cucurbitae Coquillett, respectively. In the first and second methyl eugenol trials with B. ...
Mokany Karel - - 2003
In native stands of Eucalyptus delegatensis R. T. Baker, sapwood area (As) to foliage area (Af) ratios (As:Af) decreased as tree height increased, contradicting the common interpretation of the Pipe Model Theory as well as the generally observed trend of increasing As:Af ratios with tree height. To clarify this relationship, ...
Charlwood J D - - 2003
To determine if mating or gonotrophic age influenced the biting behaviour of Anopheles gambiae s.s., a series of all-night landing captures was performed on the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe in the Gulf of Guinea. On São Tomé 49% and on Príncipe 56% of the newly emerged An. gambiae ...
Viozzi Gustavo P - - 2003
Myxidium biliare sp. n., a new myxosporean species parasitizing the gall bladder of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns), in Patagonia, is described. Its coelozoic plasmodia were floating free in the bile. Spores are fusiform 13.7 +/- 0.9 microm long and 6.9 +/- 0.6 microm wide, with rounded ends in frontal view and ...
Helbling Arthur - - 2003
For decades airborne fungal spores have been implicated as causative factors in respiratory allergy. Exposure to high atmospheric spore counts and sensitization to specific fungal allergens have been associated with severe asthma, mainly in young adults. Although the prevalence of sensitization to commercial fungal extracts is approximately 3% in epidemiologic ...
Singhi Sunit - - 2003
The aim of the present study was to study the epidemiological and clinical profile of patients attending an exclusive pediatric Emergency Department (ED). Data was retrieved from records of the patients seen over a 6-year period from 1995 to 2000. Descriptive analysis was done to define demographic and clinical details, ...
Calzada Fernando - - 2003
Antiprotozoal activity-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of the aerial parts of Teloxys graveolens led to the isolation of one coumarinic acid derivative, melilotoside, and five flavonoids, pinocembrine, pinostrobin, chrysin, narcissin and rutin. Among them, melilotoside exhibited the most potent activity toward Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia (IC(50) 12.5 and ...
Miller J David JD Department of Chemistry, NSERC Industrial Research, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 0M3, Canada. - - 2003
This is a review of the literature of associations of the saprotrophic fungus Stachybotrys chartarum sensu lato with human and animal illnesses. This fungus grows on very wet cellulose-based building materials. S. chartarum has been the subject of considerable media attention because of temporal associations of exposure with unexpected and ...
Tarduno John A - - 2003
The Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track has a prominent bend, which has served as the basis for the theory that the Hawaiian hotspot, fixed in the deep mantle, traced a change in plate motion. However, paleomagnetic and radiometric age data from samples recovered by ocean drilling define an age-progressive paleolatitude history, indicating ...
Klinnert Mary D - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This study describes morbidity attributable to wheezing illness in a multi-ethnic sample of low-income infants younger than age 2, and examines biological, environmental, and psychosocial correlates of morbidity indexes. METHOD: Infants 9 to 24 months old, considered at risk for developing asthma on the basis of having had 3 ...
Moffat Kelly S - - 2003
This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a citronella bark collar and a new, scentless spray bark collar in a veterinary hospital or a similar kennel-type environment. Forty-one dogs were included in the study. The efficacy of each collar was evaluated independently in comparison to control as well ...
Kunkel G - - 2003
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The mechanical aerosol generator, MAGhaler, is a new chlorofluorocarbon-free inhalation device. The objective of this trial was to show equivalent efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) delivered via the MAGhaler and the metered-dose inhaler (MDI) in patients with mild to moderate bronchial asthma. Moreover, user-friendliness and acceptance of ...
Gustafsson P M - - 2003
The aim of the study was to assess how deep into the acinar region the airway response to cold dry-air hyperventilation challenge (CACh) reaches in subjects with asthma of different severity. Peripheral airway function was measured using a single-breath sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and helium (He) washout test and overall airway ...
Islam Muhammad Nurul - - 2003
In Bangladesh all poisoning death cases are recorded as unnatural death and medico-legal autopsy is routine. This paper investigates the pattern, trend and incidence of unnatural poisoning deaths attended in Sir Salimullah Medical College Mortuary, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 1, 1988 to December 31, 1997. A total of 2534 medico-legal ...
Hofhuis W - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Controversy remains regarding the effectiveness of bronchodilators in wheezy infants. AIMS: To assess the effect of inhaled beta(2) agonists on lung function in infants with malacia or recurrent wheeze, and to determine whether a negative effect of beta(2) agonists on forced expiratory flow (V'(maxFRC)) is more pronounced in infants ...
Littner Yoav - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the absolute nucleated red blood cell and lymphocyte count is elevated in term, appropriate-for-gestational-age infants born to women with asthma. STUDY DESIGN: We compared absolute nucleated red blood cell counts taken during the first 12 hours of life in two ...
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