Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 579
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Juhn Young J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: To test the hygiene hypothesis, previous studies have assessed the relationship between mode of delivery at birth and asthma incidence, but the results have been inconsistent because of potential selection and ascertainment biases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between mode of delivery at birth and asthma by following all ...
Bakhireva Ludmila N - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Given the high prevalence of asthma in pregnancy, it is important to understand the relationship between asthma medications and fetal growth in the context of appropriate treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the effect of inhaled corticosteroids, systemic corticosteroids, and beta(2)-agonists on fetal growth in 654 infants born to women ...
Greer Frank R - - 2005
Infants for whom formula may be prepared with well water remain a high-risk group for nitrate poisoning. This clinical report reinforces the need for testing of well water for nitrate content. There seems to be little or no risk of nitrate poisoning from commercially prepared infant foods in the United ...
McBrearty Sally - - 2005
There are thousands of fossils of hominins, but no fossil chimpanzee has yet been reported. The chimpanzee (Pan) is the closest living relative to humans. Chimpanzee populations today are confined to wooded West and central Africa, whereas most hominin fossil sites occur in the semi-arid East African Rift Valley. This ...
Stegelmeier B L - - 2005
Locoweed poisoning has been reported in wildlife, but it is unknown whether mule deer (Odocoileius hemionus) are susceptible. In areas that are heavily infested with locoweed, deer and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) have developed a spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease (CWD). Although these are distinct diseases, no good comparisons are ...
Ryan Patrick H - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of air pollution have not examined the association between exposure to varying types, distance, and amounts of traffic and wheezing in very young infants. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the relationship between types of traffic, traffic volume, and distance and wheezing among infants less than 1 year ...
Abraham Joseph H - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Infant endotoxin exposure has been proposed as a factor that might protect against allergy and the early childhood immune responses that increase the risk of IgE production to allergens. OBJECTIVE: Using a prospective study design, we tested the hypothesis that early-life endotoxin exposure is associated with allergen- and mitogen-induced ...
Acs N?ndor - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between bronchial asthma during pregnancy and gestational age/birth weight, and also preterm birth and low birth weight. METHOD: In the population-based large data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996, controls without congenital abnormalities were analysed. RESULTS: Of 38,151 newborn infants, ...
Valli K - - 2006
Zadra, Desjardins, and Marcotte (2006) have made a valuable contribution to the empirical testing of the Threat Simulation Theory (TST) (Revonsuo, 2000a) in recurrent dreams. For the most part, their results are in accordance with the theory, while some findings seem to conflict with the predictions of TST. In our ...
Rona R J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about the impact of the programming hypothesis in terms of nutritional status at birth, rate of growth in the first year of life, length of gestation, breast feeding, and episodes of illness on asthma. An analysis was therefore carried out to test this hypothesis. METHODS: Data ...
Franks Nigel R - - 2005
House-hunting ants avoid otherwise excellent potential nest sites that contain dead ants which may pose risks from poor hygiene. This discovery adds another category to the exceptionally long list of nest site attributes that ants evaluate. It further indicates the importance of disease as a selection pressure on social insects.
Kuiper Sandra - - 2005
The PREVASC study addresses the primary prevention of asthma in infants and small children. The objective of this study is to investigate whether a multifaceted prenatally started intervention strategy in high-risk infants leads to a decrease in the occurrence of (severe) asthma and whether a refinement of the prevention strategy ...
Biondi-Zoccai Giuseppe G L - - 2005
AIMS: Drug-eluting stents (DES) have been recently investigated, with favorable data for many devices, but comparative data are lacking. We thus performed an adjusted indirect comparison metaanalysis of DES. METHODS: Randomized trials comparing DES vs. bare-metal stents (BMS) were systematically searched, and random effect odds ratios (OR) were computed for ...
Nakagawa J - - 2005
In an entomological study in 2002, the degree of domestic and peridomestic infestation with triatomine bugs and the geographical distribution of such infestations were investigated in north-central Guatemala. The survey team searched for triatomines in houses constructed with mud walls or thatched roofs, in villages suspected of being infested. The ...
Debley Jason S - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Cesarean delivery modifies infant gut bacterial flora composition, which may result in hindered tolerance to allergenic substances, thereby increasing the risk of asthma in accordance with the hygiene hypothesis. Results of previous studies regarding an association between birth route and asthma are conflicting, and these studies have not evaluated ...
Franklin Peter J - - 2005
In infants, the effect of colds and other respiratory tract infections (RTI) on exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) is not clear. In this study, we measured FE(NO) in 24 infants (14 boys) who presented with rhinorrhea, with or without cough but not wheeze. Twelve of these infants had a history of ...
Saglani Sejal - - 2005
RATIONALE: We hypothesized that the epithelial reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickening and eosinophilic inflammation characteristic of asthma would be present in symptomatic infants with reversible airflow obstruction. METHODS: RBM thickness and numbers of inflammatory cells were determined in ultrathin sections of endobronchial biopsies obtained from 53 infants during clinical bronchoscopy ...
Klinnert Mary D - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To present an interim analysis of the effect of a home-based intervention with low-income caregivers of wheezing infants at risk for childhood asthma on mediating variables. METHOD: Infants aged 9 to 24 months with 3 or more physician-documented wheezing episodes were randomly assigned to environmental support intervention (ES) (n ...
Gold Diane R - - 2005
The prevalence of asthma in the United States is higher than in many other countries in the world. Asthma, the most common chronic disease of childhood in the United States, disproportionately burdens many socioeconomically disadvantaged urban communities. In this review we discuss hypotheses for between-country disparities in asthma prevalence, including ...
O'Donnell Michael J - - 2005
Transport of the organic anion salicylate by the Malpighian tubules and gut of larval and adult fruit flies was studied using two salicylate-selective microelectrode methods. The first method combined the high selectivity of tridodecylmethylammonium-based electrodes for salicylate with the self-referencing ion-selective microelectrode technique for non-invasive spatial and temporal analysis of ...
Knight Tiffany M - - 2004
We examined the effect of predation by the backswimmer (Notonecta undulata; Hemiptera: Notonectidae), competition by zooplankton and snails, and both predation and competition on the survival and development time of larval Anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes in experimental mesocosms. We found that both predation and interspecific competition greatly reduced the survivorship of ...
Inglis J H C - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To identify any effect on deaths and emergency admissions for poisoning resulting from the restriction on paracetamol sales introduced in September 1998. SETTING: Scotland. DATA: Deaths from poisoning were extracted from the General Registrar (Scotland) Office annual reports for 1991 to 2001 and emergency admissions data for 1990/91 to ...
Pino Paulina - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence implicates fine particulate matter (PM2.5), principally from vehicular exhaust, as a major cause of increased mortality and morbidity. However, there are limited data on the impact of PM2.5 on infant respiratory illnesses. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of 504 infants recruited at 4 months of age ...
Pettigrew Melinda M - - 2004
Otitis media is one of the most common infections of early childhood. Children who first experience acute otitis media at an early age (before 6 months) are at increased risk for recurrent otitis media. This prospective study investigated exposure to measured levels of airborne household mould and the risk of ...
Bentur Lea - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Chronic cough in babies is often associated with bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). The objective documentation of BHR in babies is difficult, and acoustic methods have been described (provocative concentration of a substance causing wheeze) for conducting bronchial provocation tests (BPTs). We conducted a study to evaluate automatic computerized wheeze detection ...
Cooper R D - - 2004
The effectiveness of light, 1-octen-3-ol (octenol), carbon dioxide (CO2) and a combination of CO2 and octenol were compared as mosquito attractants using encephalitis vector surveillance traps in 2 villages in Madang Province, Papua New Guinea (PNG). Five species were collected, Anopheles koliensis, Anopheles farauti 2, Anopheles farauti 4, Anopheles longirostris, ...
Wagner George W - - 2004
The effect of drop size on the degradation rate of VX, O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]methylphosphonothioate, in fresh concrete has been examined using (31)P NMR. Drops of neat VX, ranging in size from 4 microL to 0.2 microL, applied to small concrete coupons (8 mm x 15 mm) were observed to degrade at ...
Mohanty Manoj Kumar - - 2004
To determine the various factors involved in poisoning deaths, a 10-y retrospective review of 335 cases were carried out. There was an increasing trend in number of poisoning deaths from 1993-94 to 1999-2000, followed by a decline trend the last 2 y (2001-02). Ninety-one percent of the deaths were due ...
Gehring U - - 2004
East-West differences in prevalence of asthma and allergies were suggested to be associated with lifestyle factors. To describe endotoxin levels in mattress dust samples from East and West German homes collected approximately 10 years after reunification. To identify factors that may account for an East-West difference. Dust was collected from ...
van Strien Robert T - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on respiratory health have been the subject of extensive research. The outcomes of these studies were not consistent. Exposure to nitrous acid, which is a primary product of combustion, and is also formed when NO2 reacts with water, may play an important role in ...
Karr Catherine - - 2004
Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of infant morbidity, and hospitalization rates are rising. The effect of this disease is not limited to the acute illness episode. Approximately 40% to 50% of children diagnosed with bronchiolitis suffer from subsequent wheezing and airway reactivity or asthma. Attempts to address the burden of ...
Trevillian L F - - 2004
There is increasing evidence for a role for bedding items in the development of asthma. The use of some forms of synthetic bedding, such as foam mattresses and pillows, is associated with a significantly increased risk of childhood wheeze. Our aim was to examine prospectively whether the use of synthetic ...
Emenius G - - 2004
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between indoor exposures and the home environment, and the development of recurrent wheezing during infancy. METHODS: A birth cohort, comprising 4089 children, was followed. Information on exposures was obtained shortly after birth, and episodes of wheezing were recorded when ...
Westropp Jodi L - - 2004
Many indoor-housed cats seem to survive perfectly well by accommodating to less than perfect surroundings. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in the cats we treat, however, do not seem to permit adaptive capacity of healthy cats, so these cats may be considered a separate population with greater needs. Moreover, veterinarians are concerned more ...
Laerum B N - - 2004
Studies of birth characteristics and respiratory outcomes show contradictory findings. We wanted to investigate the association of birth weight with adult lung function as well as asthma symptoms while addressing the influence of demographic and environmental factors. Data was collected from the birth records of 1683 men and women born ...
Pinto Jayant M - - 2004
We previously showed that individuals with seasonal allergy have a reduced ability to condition air, which was improved by nasal inflammation. We also showed that subjects with asthma have a reduced ability to condition air. Because individuals with asthma usually have inflammation in the nose, we hypothesized that treatment with ...
Leiro J - - 2004
This study investigated the in vitro effects of the polyphenols resveratrol, mangiferin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the histiophagous ciliate Philasterides dicentrarchi, which causes fatal scuticociliatosis in farmed turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. Of the 3 polyphenols, resveratrol showed strongest antiprotozoal activity, reducing ciliate density after 1 wk culture by, on average, ...
Landrigan Philip J - - 2004
The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) created an acute environmental disaster of enormous magnitude. This study characterizes the environmental exposures resulting from destruction of the WTC and assesses their effects on health. Methods include ambient air sampling; analyses of outdoor and indoor settled dust; high-altitude imaging and modeling ...
Yamada Yumi - - 2004
Creola bodies (CrBs) have been shown to be present specifically in the sputum of adults with asthma, and are clinically useful in the estimation of airway hyper-responsiveness through correlation with the levels of eosinophil cationic protein in the sputum. Our aim was to investigate whether CrBs can be detected in ...
Lim Hyun-Sul - - 2004
Both airborne asbestos and non-asbestos fiber concentrations were evaluated in Korean non-occupational environments. The airborne fiber concentrations were analyzed in 96 air samples, from 48 different points, by transmission electron microscopy, with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The geometric means of the airborne asbestos and non-asbestos fiber concentrations were 0.62 and 67.86, ...
Kupiainen Kaarle - - 2004
Springtime urban road dust forms one of the most serious problems regarding air pollution in Finland. The composition and origin of springtime dust was studied in southern Finland with two different methods. Suspended particles (PM10 and TSP) were collected with high volume particle samplers and particle deposition was collected with ...
Townley R G - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Exposure to infectious diseases may reduce the development of asthma or allergy. In particular, the role of the BCG vaccine in modulating asthma or allergy has been a source of speculation. OBJECTIVE: To study newborns from 3 international sites to evaluate the prospective effect of BCG vaccine on allergic ...
Pande T K - - 2004
Poisoning by white or yellow phosphorus is reported in various forms and also in ages varying from infants to adults, but spontaneous combustion and explosion during its management has never been described. This incidence occurred while attempting to pass a Ryle's tube. Its free end first exhibited a yellow flame ...
Bratthauer Gary L - - 2004
Ductal intraepithelial neoplasia (DIN) is descriptive of in situ breast lesions from usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH) to advanced ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). A total of 2628 cases of DIN diagnosed at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology were separated based on their grade. These were assessed for the presence ...
Eid Nemr S - - 2004
The infant or child presenting to the physician's office with persistent or recurrent wheezing during the first two year's of life poses a diagnostic dilemma. A careful medical history should document risk factors for persistent wheezing, including maternal smoking, feeding practices, environmental history, and family history of asthma or cystic ...
Stanaland Brett E - - 2004
The development of asthma and allergic disease involves not only genetic factors but environmental influences as well. Preventative measures many involve changes in breastfeeding, diet, environmental exposure, medications, and vaccination methods. Breastfeeding is recommended during the first 4-6 months of life. Probiotics should be consumed by mothers during pregnancy and ...
Belson Martin - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Methanol poisoning during human pregnancy rarely has been described. We report the first human newborn with a documented methanol concentration resulting from maternal exposure. CASE REPORT: A 28-year-old pregnant woman EGA 30 weeks with HIV infection and asthma presented to the emergency department in respiratory distress. She was acidotic ...
Kappelman John - - 2003
Afro-Arabian mammalian communities underwent a marked transition near the Oligocene/Miocene boundary at approximately 24 million years (Myr) ago. Although it is well documented that the endemic paenungulate taxa were replaced by migrants from the Northern Hemisphere, the timing and evolutionary dynamics of this transition have long been a mystery because ...
Humphries Paul - - 2003
Wilhelm Blandowski, a Prussian émigré, arrived in Australia in 1849 with hopes of exploring and documenting the natural history of this still relatively scientifically nai;ve colony. After several years travelling, surveying and mining gold, he became the first government zoologist at the infant National Museum of Victoria and was a ...
Vargas Roger I - - 2003
Spinosad was evaluated in Hawaii as a replacement for organophosphate insecticides (naled, dichlorvos [DDVP], and malathion) in methyl eugenol and cue-lure bucket traps to attract and kill oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, B. cucurbitae Coquillett, respectively. In the first and second methyl eugenol trials with B. ...
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