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Miyake Y - - 2008
Epidemiological evidence for an effect of breastfeeding on asthma continues to be inconclusive. The present prospective study examined the relationship between breastfeeding and the risk of wheeze and asthma in Japanese infants. A birth cohort of 763 infants was followed. The first survey during pregnancy and the second survey between ...
Shamovsky Igor - - 2008
The inhibition of the hERG channel by noncardiovascular drugs is a side effect that severely impedes the development of new medications. To increase hERG selectivity of preclinical compounds, we recommend the study of nondesolvation related interactions with the intended target and hERG using a baseline lipophilicity relationship approach. While this ...
Smith L M LM - - 2008
German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), catch by five types of traps and modifications of each, were tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Cockroach catch differed significantly among traps. Lo-line trap caught the greatest number of cockroaches in the test arena for each size class (23% small nymphs, 39% of ...
van Hennekeler K - - 2008
The ability to monitor the abundance and diversity of tabanid flies over wide areas requires effective and low-cost surveillance methods. Such monitoring activities help to quantify the risk of transmission of pathogens by tabanids. Here we examine the effectiveness and practicality of two types of trap (canopy traps and Nzi ...
Flanagan Robert J - - 2008
Certified deaths from fatal poisoning (accidents, suicides and open verdicts) in England and Wales have declined steadily (from 3952 in 1979 to 2565 in 2004). There was also a small annual reduction in suicides in males and in females over this period. In 2004, self-poisoning accounted for 25% of suicides ...
Yang Kun - - 2008
Forest ecosystems play a significant role in maintaining climate stability at the regional and global scales as an important carbon sink. Regional forest carbon storage and its dynamic changes in the Pearl River Delta have been estimated using the continuous biomass expansion factor (BEF) method based on field measurements of ...
Bakshi Rashmi - - 2008
Histopathologic analysis of 73 cases of mycetoma occurring in western Rajasthan was done from January 2001 to December 2005. Maduromycotic mycetoma remains commonest in this region as compared to actinomycotic mycetoma, which is more common in the southern part of Rajasthan. The incidence of actinomycotic mycetoma has increased during the ...
Pamer Carol - - 2008
Our study is a cross-sectional analysis of Maryland poisoning deaths for years 2003 and 2004. We used Classification and Regression Tree (CART) methodology to classify undetermined intent Maryland poisoning deaths as either unintentional or suicidal poisonings. The predictive ability of the selected set of variables (i.e., poisoned in the home ...
Bonier Frances - - 2007
Urbanization dramatically changes the composition and diversity of biotic communities. The characteristics distinguishing species that persist in urban environments, however, are poorly understood. Here we test the hypothesis that broadly adapted organisms are better able to tolerate urbanization, using a phylogenetically controlled, global comparison of birds. We compared elevational and ...
Accordino Rosalba - - 2008
Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is being used increasingly to sample airway fluid. EBC pH may be a biomarker of airway inflammation in asthma. In this study, we assessed the long-term reproducibility of EBC pH in asthma. We examined 31 asthmatic patients and eight healthy subjects three times over a 1-year ...
Cabana Michael D - - 2007
The hygiene hypothesis suggests that the absence of infectious exposure at a critical point in immune system development leads to a greater risk for the later development of atopic disease. As a result, it may be possible to devise strategies that can block the onset of atopic diseases such as ...
Kassa Jiri - - 2007
The neuroprotective effects of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in combination with atropine in rats poisoned with cyclosarin were studied. The cyclosarin-induced neurotoxicity was monitored using a functional observational battery at 24 h and 7 days following cyclosarin challenge. The results indicate that the ...
Pole Jason D - - 2008
This paper presents a hypothesis that fetal exposure to corticosteroids is an independent risk factor for the development of asthma in childhood. The prevalence of childhood asthma saw a dramatic rise from the 1980s up until the early 2000s. Among the explanations for the increase in asthma prevalence included interest ...
Saengkerdsub S - - 2007
AIMS: To detect the presence of methanogens in the faeces of broiler chicks during the first 2 weeks of age. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chicken faecal samples from 120 broiler chicks were incubated for methane gas formation and methanogenic archaea were analysed using real-time PCR. The copy number of the order ...
Joad Jesse P - - 2008
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are recommended to treat infants with asthma, some with intermittent asthma. We previously showed that exposing infant monkeys to allergen/ozone resulted in asthma-like characteristics of their airways. We evaluated the effects of ICS on histology and intrinsic responsiveness of allergen/ozone-exposed and normal infant primate airways. Infant monkeys ...
Cheng Sen-Sung - - 2008
Mosquito larvicidal activities of methanolic extracts from different plant parts of red heartwood-type Cryptomeria japonica D. Don against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were examined. Results of mosquito larvicidal tests demonstrated that the n-hexane fraction of C. japonica sapwood methanolic extract had an excellent inhibitory effect ...
Parchman Thomas L - - 2007
Crossbills (Aves: Loxia) and several conifers have coevolved in predator-prey arms races over the last 10,000 years. However, the extent to which coevolutionary arms races have contributed to the adaptive radiation of crossbills or to any other adaptive radiation is largely unknown. Here we extend our previous studies of geographically ...
Chong Neto Herberto J - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of recurrent wheezing in infants in the city of Curitiba, PR, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study carried out by means of administering questionnaires to the parents of infants aged 12 to 15 months attending health centers for immunization during the period between August 2005 and ...
Parisi Alfio V - - 2007
The aims of this paper were to investigate how glass-filtered UV irradiances vary with glass thickness, lamination of the glass and the effect of solar zenith angle (SZA), and to measure the glass-filtered UV exposures to different receiving planes with a newly developed UVA dosimeter. Spectroradiometric and dosimetric techniques were ...
Thavara Usavadee - - 2007
Seven commercial essential oils extracted from the plant species Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf., Citrus hystrix DC., Curcuma longa L., Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers., Piper nigrum L., Psidium guajava L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and naphthalene as a control, were evaluated for repellent activity against the three cockroach species Periplaneta americana ...
Yoo Jennifer - - 2007
The "hygiene hypothesis" proposes that the increase in allergic diseases in developing countries reflects a decrease in infections during childhood. Cohort studies suggest, however, that the risks of asthma are increased in children who suffer severe illness from a viral respiratory infection in infancy. This apparent inconsistency can be reconciled ...
Bianchini Adalto - - 2007
The present study was carried out to examine possible differential silver distribution among several tissues of three marine invertebrate species: the shrimp Penaeus duorarum, the sea hare Aplysia californica, and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum. Animals were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of silver (1 or 10 microg/L) in seawater for ...
Bernard Alfred - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Irritant gases and aerosols contaminating the air of indoor swimming pools can affect the lung epithelium and increase asthma risk in children. We evaluated the impact of infant swimming practice on allergic status and respiratory health later in childhood. METHODS: Clara cell protein, surfactant-associated protein D, and total and ...
O'Connor C E - - 2007
AIM: To investigate the behavioural, biochemical and pathological responses of possums following poisoning with phosphorus paste, in order to assess the implications for the welfare of possums. METHODS: After ingestion of phosphorus paste by wild-caught possums (18 high dose, nine low dose, and 12 non-poisoned controls), behavioural observations were made ...
Carroll Kecia N - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to determine whether maternal asthma and maternal smoking during pregnancy are associated with the incidence and severity of clinically significant bronchiolitis in term, otherwise healthy infants without the confounding factors of small lung size or underlying cardiac or pulmonary disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a ...
van Mastrigt Esther - - 2007
In adults and older children the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) has been shown to be useful as a tool to diagnose and monitor eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, the recommended method to measure FENO in school-age children is not suited for use in preschool children and infants. This ...
Ayala Ignacio - - 2007
Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony is described; this condition has not previously been reported in ponies. Discussion of what factors in the pony's history and treatment may have predisposed to the severity and ultimate death is provided.
Llewellyn Smith Chris - - 2007
Fusion is potentially an environmentally responsible and intrinsically safe source of essentially limitless power. It should be possible to build viable fusion power stations, and it looks as if the cost of fusion power will be reasonable. But time is needed to further develop the technology and to test in ...
Piippo-Savolainen Eija - - 2007
Although eosinophilia in wheezing infants predicts subsequent wheezing, it is not known how long the association persists. Our aim was to evaluate the connection between blood eosinophilia in infancy and later wheezing/asthma until adulthood, with special attention paid to infection-induced changes in blood eosinophils. We have prospectively followed up 83 ...
Chong Neto H J - - 2007
Large international studies on asthma and allergies in childhood have found notorious variation in prevalence and temporal trend among countries. However, there is no international studies on the epidemiologic characteristics of wheezing in the first year of life. The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire to assess ...
Mallol Javier - - 2007
BACKGROUND: There are no internationally validated questionnaires to investigate the prevalence of infant wheezing. This study was undertaken to validate a questionnaire for the International Study on the Prevalence of Wheezing in Infants (Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes, EISL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Construct and criterion validity were tested for ...
Lim Robert H - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Offspring of asthmatic mothers have increased risk of developing asthma, based on human epidemiologic data and experimental animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal allergy at non-pulmonary sites can increase asthma risk in offspring. METHODS: BALB/c female mice received 2 topical applications of vehicle, ...
Shililu Josephat - - 2007
This study investigated the impact of larval management and the temporal variation in larval productivity in Eritrea, a semiarid ecosystem. Results of this study show that mosquito breeding persists throughout the year mainly in stream bed pools. Anopheles arabiensis production in the ephemeral natural aquatic habitats such the streambed pools ...
Pettigrew Melinda M - - 2007
We examined the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in loci encoding surfactant protein A (SFTPA) and risk of wheeze and persistent cough during the first year of life among a cohort of infants at risk for developing asthma. Between September 1996 and December 1998, mothers of newborn infants were ...
Sharp Brian L BL Malaria Research Lead Programme, Medical Research Council, Durban, South Africa. bsharp@mrc.ac.za - - 2007
A comprehensive malaria control intervention was initiated in February 2004 on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. This manuscript reports on the continuous entomological monitoring of the indoor residual spray (IRS) programme during the first two years of its implementation. Mosquitoes were captured daily using window traps at 16 sentinel sites and ...
Plopper Charles G CG Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. - - 2007
The recent, dramatic increase in the incidence of childhood asthma suggests a role for environmental contaminants in the promotion of interactions between allergens and the respiratory system of young children. To establish whether exposure to an environmental stressor, ozone (O3), and an allergen, house dust mite (HDMA), during early childhood ...
Dorsey Thomas F TF - - 2006
OBJECTIVE:: The objective of this study was to test the hypotheses that the post-1970 rise in asthma mortality in industrialized nations was related to introduction of catalytic converters and/or radial tires. METHODS:: Annual asthma mortality data were plotted on linear coordinates for fraction of automobile fleet with converters or radial ...
Vuilleumier Séverine - - 2007
Disturbances affect metapopulations directly through reductions in population size and indirectly through habitat modification. We consider how metapopulation persistence is affected by different disturbance regimes and the way in which disturbances spread, when metapopulations are compact or elongated, using a stochastic spatially explicit model which includes metapopulation and habitat dynamics. ...
Blockley David J - - 2007
Worldwide, urbanisation has resulted in extensive replacement of natural habitats with man-made habitats. In Sydney Harbour, Australia, approximately half of the natural foreshore has been replaced by seawalls. Many of these have wharves built over part of their length, which could affect intertidal assemblages on seawalls beneath the wharves. This ...
Prosser P J - - 2006
Poisonings of granivorous birds by cereal seed treatments have been reported in the UK, but the true frequency of poisonings is unknown. We aimed to measure the rate of mortality due to poisoning by seed treatments in woodpigeons (Columba palumbus) in an area of East Anglian farmland where the risk ...
Birnkrant David J - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine if transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) is independently associated with childhood asthma. METHODS: The sampling frame was a computerized database on 18,379 term infants born between January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2000 in an urban tertiary care hospital. This was a case-control study nested in ...
Caillaux Gaelle - - 2006
BACKGROUND: We report a case of shock, revealing a severe hypernatremia caused by salt poisoning in a 17-day-old male neonate. OBJECTIVE: We consider the physiopathology of salt overload in this context and the diagnostic strategy in neonate with hypernatremia. METHODS: We used patient history, weight, plasma, and urine osmolality to ...
Elhassan Nahed O - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of palivizumab as respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis in premature infants without chronic lung disease and to evaluate the impact on cost-effectiveness of a potential reduction in risk of asthma following respiratory syncytial virus infection among infants receiving palivizumab. DESIGN: Two decision analytic models were designed, ...
Enoch Jay M - - 2006
The purpose of this study is to consider the ancient history and early development of mirrors, because mirrors played a key role in refraction and magnification for an extended period of time before the invention of spectacles, including broad use in Roman times. The earliest known manufactured mirrors (approximately 8000 ...
Cho Seung-Hyun - - 2006
In most studies that investigate the association of mold or water damage and respiratory disorders in infants, the analysis is not adjusted for exposure to house dust mite (HDM), which is also a known cause of respiratory illnesses. To investigate the relationship between visually observable mold or water damage and ...
Solé D - - 2007
The present study is aimed to describe the changes in the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis and eczema among Brazilian adolescents (AD, 13-14 years old) between Phases 1 and 3 of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). The prevalence of self-reported symptoms of asthma, rhinitis ...
Campo Paloma - - 2006
Increased exposure to microbial products early in life may protect from development of atopic disorders in childhood. Few studies have examined the relationship of endotoxin exposure and pet ownership on atopy and wheezing during infancy. Evaluate relationships among high endotoxin exposure, pet ownership, atopy, and wheezing in high-risk infants. Infants ...
Collet T - - 2006
Mitochondrial genotypes of Africanized honeybees from Brazil and Uruguay were surveyed by DraI restriction of the COI-COII region. Eleven mitotypes were found, three of which had not previously been described (A28-A30). Out of 775 samples (725 from Brazil, 50 from Uruguay), 197 were A1 and 520 were A4. A1 frequency ...
Keil T - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN) is a consortium of 26 leading European research centres committed to establish a European research area of excellence in the field of allergy and asthma. AIM: One of the GA2LEN work packages was designed to identify and compare the existing European ...
Wu Jun - - 2006
N-(2-Bromophenyl)-2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamine is a highly active herbicide, which belongs to a novel class of chemistry. The compound is de novo synthesized in good yield, and the structure is confirmed by (1)H NMR, IR, MS, microanalysis, and X-ray. Its herbicidal activity is assessed under greenhouse conditions. It is effective against many grass ...
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