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Nowakowski Amy L - - 2008
We documented valley and channel characteristics and wood loads in 19 reaches of forested headwater mountain streams in the Bighorn National Forest of northern Wyoming. Ten of these reaches were in the Upper Tongue River watershed, which has a history of management including timber harvest, tie floating, and road construction. ...
Fernandes Rochelle - - 2008
Atopy is characterized by eosinophilic inflammation associated with recruitment of eosinophil/basophil (Eo/B) progenitors. We have previously shown that Eo/B progenitor phenotypes are altered in cord blood (CB) in infants at high risk of atopy/asthma, and respond to maternal dietary intervention during pregnancy. As respiratory tract viral infections have been shown ...
Sandilands Euan A - - 2008
To determine what effect the withdrawal of co-proxamol from the UK market has had on mortality from poisoning in Scotland. This was a retrospective, observational study of mortality relating to poisoning by single agents in Scotland for the period 2000-2006. Mortality data were obtained from the General Register Office Scotland, ...
Litonjua Augusto A - - 2008
The respective prevalences of both asthma and obesity have seen a significant rise in the past few decades. Although the association between these 2 conditions has been found in many studies from different areas around the world, the exact mechanisms for how this association arises remains unresolved. Because both asthma ...
Martínez-Navarrete Juan - - 2008
We present a 1.5-year old, 11 kg, female infant with a history of bronchial hyper-responsiveness who accidentally ingested half of a "Chinese chalk". A day later, the infant showed vomiting, cough, fever, drowsiness, and irritability and her clinical conditions progressively worsened. She was admitted to the emergency department with cough, ...
Alm Bernt - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The use of antibiotics in infancy and subsequent changes in the intestinal bacterial flora have been discussed as risk factors for the development of asthma. However, it has been difficult to exclude the possibility that antibiotics have been given in early episodes of wheezing. As a result, there has ...
van Beijsterveldt Toos C E M - - 2008
A consistent finding from twin studies is that the environment shared by family members does not contribute to the variation in susceptibility to asthma. At the same time, it is known that environmental risk factors that are shared by family members are associated with the liability for asthma. We hypothesize ...
Just J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Early wheezing in infants is a potential risk factor for persistence of asthma into adulthood. Moreover, a personal or familial history of atopy are risk factors associated with persistence of pre-existing wheezing during childhood. However, their relative importance remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: Firstly to determine the critical thresholds of common ...
Mansfield Lyndon E - - 2008
The combination of long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) bronchodilators with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) has been shown to be an extremely effective treatment for asthma. Use of LABA as monotherapy for asthma is associated with increased adverse events including exacerbations and asthma deaths. However, intensive evaluation of the combined LABA-ICS therapy provided no ...
Uzuner Nevin - - 2008
Lower respiratory tract infections are the most important factors among various causes which trigger wheezing in the first year of life. The factors associated with episodic wheezing in children with acute bronchiolitis are still subjects of research. Infections, environmental factors, immunologic mechanisms are sorted as etiologic risk factors of episodic ...
Miyake Y - - 2008
Epidemiological evidence for an effect of breastfeeding on asthma continues to be inconclusive. The present prospective study examined the relationship between breastfeeding and the risk of wheeze and asthma in Japanese infants. A birth cohort of 763 infants was followed. The first survey during pregnancy and the second survey between ...
Shamovsky Igor - - 2008
The inhibition of the hERG channel by noncardiovascular drugs is a side effect that severely impedes the development of new medications. To increase hERG selectivity of preclinical compounds, we recommend the study of nondesolvation related interactions with the intended target and hERG using a baseline lipophilicity relationship approach. While this ...
Smith L M LM - - 2008
German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), catch by five types of traps and modifications of each, were tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Cockroach catch differed significantly among traps. Lo-line trap caught the greatest number of cockroaches in the test arena for each size class (23% small nymphs, 39% of ...
van Hennekeler K - - 2008
The ability to monitor the abundance and diversity of tabanid flies over wide areas requires effective and low-cost surveillance methods. Such monitoring activities help to quantify the risk of transmission of pathogens by tabanids. Here we examine the effectiveness and practicality of two types of trap (canopy traps and Nzi ...
Flanagan Robert J - - 2008
Certified deaths from fatal poisoning (accidents, suicides and open verdicts) in England and Wales have declined steadily (from 3952 in 1979 to 2565 in 2004). There was also a small annual reduction in suicides in males and in females over this period. In 2004, self-poisoning accounted for 25% of suicides ...
Yang Kun - - 2008
Forest ecosystems play a significant role in maintaining climate stability at the regional and global scales as an important carbon sink. Regional forest carbon storage and its dynamic changes in the Pearl River Delta have been estimated using the continuous biomass expansion factor (BEF) method based on field measurements of ...
Bakshi Rashmi - - 2008
Histopathologic analysis of 73 cases of mycetoma occurring in western Rajasthan was done from January 2001 to December 2005. Maduromycotic mycetoma remains commonest in this region as compared to actinomycotic mycetoma, which is more common in the southern part of Rajasthan. The incidence of actinomycotic mycetoma has increased during the ...
Pamer Carol - - 2008
Our study is a cross-sectional analysis of Maryland poisoning deaths for years 2003 and 2004. We used Classification and Regression Tree (CART) methodology to classify undetermined intent Maryland poisoning deaths as either unintentional or suicidal poisonings. The predictive ability of the selected set of variables (i.e., poisoned in the home ...
Bonier Frances - - 2007
Urbanization dramatically changes the composition and diversity of biotic communities. The characteristics distinguishing species that persist in urban environments, however, are poorly understood. Here we test the hypothesis that broadly adapted organisms are better able to tolerate urbanization, using a phylogenetically controlled, global comparison of birds. We compared elevational and ...
Accordino Rosalba - - 2008
Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is being used increasingly to sample airway fluid. EBC pH may be a biomarker of airway inflammation in asthma. In this study, we assessed the long-term reproducibility of EBC pH in asthma. We examined 31 asthmatic patients and eight healthy subjects three times over a 1-year ...
Cabana Michael D - - 2007
The hygiene hypothesis suggests that the absence of infectious exposure at a critical point in immune system development leads to a greater risk for the later development of atopic disease. As a result, it may be possible to devise strategies that can block the onset of atopic diseases such as ...
Kassa Jiri - - 2007
The neuroprotective effects of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in combination with atropine in rats poisoned with cyclosarin were studied. The cyclosarin-induced neurotoxicity was monitored using a functional observational battery at 24 h and 7 days following cyclosarin challenge. The results indicate that the ...
Pole Jason D - - 2008
This paper presents a hypothesis that fetal exposure to corticosteroids is an independent risk factor for the development of asthma in childhood. The prevalence of childhood asthma saw a dramatic rise from the 1980s up until the early 2000s. Among the explanations for the increase in asthma prevalence included interest ...
Saengkerdsub S - - 2007
AIMS: To detect the presence of methanogens in the faeces of broiler chicks during the first 2 weeks of age. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chicken faecal samples from 120 broiler chicks were incubated for methane gas formation and methanogenic archaea were analysed using real-time PCR. The copy number of the order ...
Joad Jesse P - - 2008
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are recommended to treat infants with asthma, some with intermittent asthma. We previously showed that exposing infant monkeys to allergen/ozone resulted in asthma-like characteristics of their airways. We evaluated the effects of ICS on histology and intrinsic responsiveness of allergen/ozone-exposed and normal infant primate airways. Infant monkeys ...
Cheng Sen-Sung - - 2008
Mosquito larvicidal activities of methanolic extracts from different plant parts of red heartwood-type Cryptomeria japonica D. Don against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were examined. Results of mosquito larvicidal tests demonstrated that the n-hexane fraction of C. japonica sapwood methanolic extract had an excellent inhibitory effect ...
Parchman Thomas L - - 2007
Crossbills (Aves: Loxia) and several conifers have coevolved in predator-prey arms races over the last 10,000 years. However, the extent to which coevolutionary arms races have contributed to the adaptive radiation of crossbills or to any other adaptive radiation is largely unknown. Here we extend our previous studies of geographically ...
Chong Neto Herberto J - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of recurrent wheezing in infants in the city of Curitiba, PR, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study carried out by means of administering questionnaires to the parents of infants aged 12 to 15 months attending health centers for immunization during the period between August 2005 and ...
Parisi Alfio V - - 2007
The aims of this paper were to investigate how glass-filtered UV irradiances vary with glass thickness, lamination of the glass and the effect of solar zenith angle (SZA), and to measure the glass-filtered UV exposures to different receiving planes with a newly developed UVA dosimeter. Spectroradiometric and dosimetric techniques were ...
Thavara Usavadee - - 2007
Seven commercial essential oils extracted from the plant species Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf., Citrus hystrix DC., Curcuma longa L., Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers., Piper nigrum L., Psidium guajava L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and naphthalene as a control, were evaluated for repellent activity against the three cockroach species Periplaneta americana ...
Yoo Jennifer - - 2007
The "hygiene hypothesis" proposes that the increase in allergic diseases in developing countries reflects a decrease in infections during childhood. Cohort studies suggest, however, that the risks of asthma are increased in children who suffer severe illness from a viral respiratory infection in infancy. This apparent inconsistency can be reconciled ...
Bianchini Adalto - - 2007
The present study was carried out to examine possible differential silver distribution among several tissues of three marine invertebrate species: the shrimp Penaeus duorarum, the sea hare Aplysia californica, and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum. Animals were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of silver (1 or 10 microg/L) in seawater for ...
Bernard Alfred - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Irritant gases and aerosols contaminating the air of indoor swimming pools can affect the lung epithelium and increase asthma risk in children. We evaluated the impact of infant swimming practice on allergic status and respiratory health later in childhood. METHODS: Clara cell protein, surfactant-associated protein D, and total and ...
O'Connor C E - - 2007
AIM: To investigate the behavioural, biochemical and pathological responses of possums following poisoning with phosphorus paste, in order to assess the implications for the welfare of possums. METHODS: After ingestion of phosphorus paste by wild-caught possums (18 high dose, nine low dose, and 12 non-poisoned controls), behavioural observations were made ...
Carroll Kecia N - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to determine whether maternal asthma and maternal smoking during pregnancy are associated with the incidence and severity of clinically significant bronchiolitis in term, otherwise healthy infants without the confounding factors of small lung size or underlying cardiac or pulmonary disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a ...
van Mastrigt Esther - - 2007
In adults and older children the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) has been shown to be useful as a tool to diagnose and monitor eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, the recommended method to measure FENO in school-age children is not suited for use in preschool children and infants. This ...
Ayala Ignacio - - 2007
Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony is described; this condition has not previously been reported in ponies. Discussion of what factors in the pony's history and treatment may have predisposed to the severity and ultimate death is provided.
Llewellyn Smith Chris - - 2007
Fusion is potentially an environmentally responsible and intrinsically safe source of essentially limitless power. It should be possible to build viable fusion power stations, and it looks as if the cost of fusion power will be reasonable. But time is needed to further develop the technology and to test in ...
Piippo-Savolainen Eija - - 2007
Although eosinophilia in wheezing infants predicts subsequent wheezing, it is not known how long the association persists. Our aim was to evaluate the connection between blood eosinophilia in infancy and later wheezing/asthma until adulthood, with special attention paid to infection-induced changes in blood eosinophils. We have prospectively followed up 83 ...
Chong Neto H J - - 2007
Large international studies on asthma and allergies in childhood have found notorious variation in prevalence and temporal trend among countries. However, there is no international studies on the epidemiologic characteristics of wheezing in the first year of life. The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire to assess ...
Mallol Javier - - 2007
BACKGROUND: There are no internationally validated questionnaires to investigate the prevalence of infant wheezing. This study was undertaken to validate a questionnaire for the International Study on the Prevalence of Wheezing in Infants (Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes, EISL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Construct and criterion validity were tested for ...
Lim Robert H - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Offspring of asthmatic mothers have increased risk of developing asthma, based on human epidemiologic data and experimental animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal allergy at non-pulmonary sites can increase asthma risk in offspring. METHODS: BALB/c female mice received 2 topical applications of vehicle, ...
Shililu Josephat - - 2007
This study investigated the impact of larval management and the temporal variation in larval productivity in Eritrea, a semiarid ecosystem. Results of this study show that mosquito breeding persists throughout the year mainly in stream bed pools. Anopheles arabiensis production in the ephemeral natural aquatic habitats such the streambed pools ...
Pettigrew Melinda M - - 2007
We examined the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in loci encoding surfactant protein A (SFTPA) and risk of wheeze and persistent cough during the first year of life among a cohort of infants at risk for developing asthma. Between September 1996 and December 1998, mothers of newborn infants were ...
Sharp Brian L BL Malaria Research Lead Programme, Medical Research Council, Durban, South Africa. bsharp@mrc.ac.za - - 2007
A comprehensive malaria control intervention was initiated in February 2004 on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. This manuscript reports on the continuous entomological monitoring of the indoor residual spray (IRS) programme during the first two years of its implementation. Mosquitoes were captured daily using window traps at 16 sentinel sites and ...
Plopper Charles G CG Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. - - 2007
The recent, dramatic increase in the incidence of childhood asthma suggests a role for environmental contaminants in the promotion of interactions between allergens and the respiratory system of young children. To establish whether exposure to an environmental stressor, ozone (O3), and an allergen, house dust mite (HDMA), during early childhood ...
Dorsey Thomas F TF - - 2006
OBJECTIVE:: The objective of this study was to test the hypotheses that the post-1970 rise in asthma mortality in industrialized nations was related to introduction of catalytic converters and/or radial tires. METHODS:: Annual asthma mortality data were plotted on linear coordinates for fraction of automobile fleet with converters or radial ...
Vuilleumier Séverine - - 2007
Disturbances affect metapopulations directly through reductions in population size and indirectly through habitat modification. We consider how metapopulation persistence is affected by different disturbance regimes and the way in which disturbances spread, when metapopulations are compact or elongated, using a stochastic spatially explicit model which includes metapopulation and habitat dynamics. ...
Blockley David J - - 2007
Worldwide, urbanisation has resulted in extensive replacement of natural habitats with man-made habitats. In Sydney Harbour, Australia, approximately half of the natural foreshore has been replaced by seawalls. Many of these have wharves built over part of their length, which could affect intertidal assemblages on seawalls beneath the wharves. This ...
Prosser P J - - 2006
Poisonings of granivorous birds by cereal seed treatments have been reported in the UK, but the true frequency of poisonings is unknown. We aimed to measure the rate of mortality due to poisoning by seed treatments in woodpigeons (Columba palumbus) in an area of East Anglian farmland where the risk ...
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