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Kim Jongwon - - 2013
Abstract Background: Aerosol drug delivery to infants is a strong function of their behavior. Infants can be active during medication administration, changing head position or breathing mode. The objective was to evaluate the influence of the head direction and breathing mode on the hood drug delivery in a 7-month-old girl ...
Melkie Mulugeta - - 2013
BACKGROUND: To generate clinically applicable reference intervals (RIs) for commonly requested electrolytes in Ethiopian newborns and infants that can help in early detection, close monitoring and correction of electrolyte abnormalities. Cord blood (from newborns, n = 60) and venous blood samples (from infants, n = 57) were collected and analyzed ...
Okumura Yuko - - 2013
Infants can acquire much information by following the gaze direction of others. This type of social learning is underpinned by the ability to understand the relationship between gaze direction and a referent object (i.e., the referential nature of gaze). However, it is unknown whether human gaze is a privileged cue ...
Henrichs Ivanina - - 2013
We investigated whether 12-month-old infants rely on information about the certainty of goal selection in order to predict observed reaching actions. Infants' goal-directed gaze shifts were recorded as they observed action sequences in a multiple-goals design. We found that 12-month-old infants exhibited gaze shifts significantly earlier when the observed hand ...
Condry Kirsten - - 2013
Recent research shows that young infants are sensitive to motion parallax in visual displays but leaves open the question of whether infants use the information to perceive spatial layout. In this experiment, 6-month-old infants were translated horizontally in front of two objects that were yoked to the infant's movement. One ...
Barnes Michelle - - 2013
Within a 3-month period, two infants presented non-specifically to hospital and rapidly progressed developing flaccid paralysis. Both children were diagnosed with infant botulism. We briefly review these two cases and discuss the diagnostic and management issues involved with this rare childhood disease.
Cristia Alejandrina - - 2013
ABSTRACT Typically, the point vowels [i,ɑ,u] are acoustically more peripheral in infant-directed speech (IDS) compared to adult-directed speech (ADS). If caregivers seek to highlight lexically relevant contrasts in IDS, then two sounds that are contrastive should become more distinct, whereas two sounds that are surface realizations of the same underlying ...
Dilley Laura C - - 2013
ABSTRACT Pronunciation variation is under-studied in infant-directed speech, particularly for consonants. Regressive place assimilation involves a word-final alveolar stop taking the place of articulation of a following word-initial consonant. We investigated pronunciation variation in word-final alveolar stop consonants in storybooks read by forty-eight mothers in adult-directed or infant-directed style to ...
Lugonja Nikoleta - - 2013
Early-onset and exclusive breast-feeding provides a significant health benefit to infants compared with infant formulas. The aim of this study was to compare mature breast milk with standard infant formulas by examining their effects on non-vascular smooth muscle contraction and their antioxidative properties. The pharmacologic effects of breast milk and ...
Shin Jeong Hee - - 2013
A retropharyngeal abscess is a rare disease entity in young infants but can develop after nasopharyngeal viral infection. Group B Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus are the most common pathogens in young infants, however, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is very rare. We report the case of retropharyngeal abscess and coinfection with S. aureus ...
Bion Ricardo A H - - 2013
In Japanese, vowel duration can distinguish the meaning of words. In order for infants to learn this phonemic contrast using simple distributional analyses, there should be reliable differences in the duration of short and long vowels, and the frequency distribution of vowels must make these differences salient enough in the ...
Reddy Vasudevi - - 2013
Anticipation of the actions of others is often used as a measure of action understanding in infancy. In contrast to studies of action understanding which set infants up as observers of actions directed elsewhere, in the present study we explored anticipatory postural adjustments made by infants to one of the ...
Parise Eugenio - - 2013
Infants' sensitivity to ostensive signals, such as direct eye contact and infant-directed speech, is well documented in the literature. We investigated how infants interpret such signals by assessing common processing mechanisms devoted to them and by measuring neural responses to their compounds. In Experiment 1, we found that ostensive signals ...
Kenward Ben - - 2013
Young children can be motivated to help adults by sympathetic concern based upon empathy, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. One account of empathy-based sympathetic helping in adults states that it arises due to direct-matching mirror-system mechanisms which allow the observer to vicariously experience the situation of the individual in ...
Fernández L - - 2013
Recent work has shown that human colostrum and milk, which had been traditionally considered sterile, provides a continuous supply of commensal and potential probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. More than 200 different bacterial species, including staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, have been isolated from human milk samples so ...
Smith Nicholas A NA Perceptual Development Laboratory, Boys Town National Research Hospital Omaha, NE, - - 2013
Two experiments used eye tracking to examine how infant and adult observers distribute their eye gaze on videos of a mother producing infant- and adult-directed speech. Both groups showed greater attention to the eyes than to the nose and mouth, as well as an asymmetrical focus on the talker's right ...
Yang Yifei Y Department of Physiology, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, - - 2013
Recently, a case of newborn infant with transient hyperinsulinism has been reported. This infant was reported to be free from typical perinatal risk factors of hyperinsulinism except for the fact that the mother of the baby was receiving the antidepressant bupropion during her pregnancy. However, the mother did not experience ...
Mendive Susana - - 2012
Coordinated joint engagement (CJE) is a behavioral measure used in the infant-caregiver interaction paradigm to measure joint attention. To know how mothers scaffold infant attention to prompt joint engagement states, this study attempted to determine (a) which specific maternal attention-directing strategies facilitate CJE in mother-infant interactions and (b) how attention-directing ...
Siu Luen Yee - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the specificity of a non-draining hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) for biliary atresia (BA) in preterm and full-term babies, to verify the relationship between non-draining scan and higher levels of direct bilirubin and to find an objective criterion to guide the time in ...
Saravia Jordy J Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, - - 2013
The health impacts of airborne particulate matter (PM) are of global concern, and the direct implications to the development/exacerbation of lung disease are immediately obvious. Most studies to date have sought to understand mechanisms associated with PM exposure in adults/adult animal models; however, infants are also at significant risk for ...
Delavenne Anne - - 2012
This longitudinal study compared the temporal characteristics of maternal singing at 3 and then at 6 months. Infant-directed (ID) singing is claimed to have different functions in preverbal communication. However few studies have focused on the specific characteristics of ID singing that change across the first months of life. We ...
Tampo Akihito - - 2012
Vallecular cysts are rare but cause respiratory failure in neonates and infants by obstructing the upper airway. They may also cause problems with direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation, and there have been several reports of difficult airway management because of a vallecular cyst in infants (1, 2). We describe successful ...
Reddy Vasudevi - - 2012
Complying with directives is an important indicator of developing cooperativeness and of the awareness of others' intentions for one's own actions. Nonetheless, little is known about the early emergence of compliance. In the present longitudinal study, we explore this phenomenon in naturalistic settings in two cultural groups. Nine middle-class urban ...
Goswami Gaurav G Departments of Pediatrics, LLRM, Medical College, Meerut, UP, and *Government Medical College, Chandigarh, - - 2013
To compare analgesic effect of direct breast feeding, 25% dextrose solution and placebo as we give 1st intramuscular whole cell DPT injection to 6week - 3month old infants. Randomized, placebo controlled trial. Immunization clinic of Department of Pediatrics, LLRM Medical College. Infants coming for their 1st DPT vaccination were randomized ...
Talbott John A - - 2012
ABSTRACT: This interview, with Professor Daniel Stern conducted on February 16, 2012, by Dr. John Talbott, reviews the field of infant psychiatry, the history of which goes back more than 100 years. Sigmund Freud, then Melanie Klein, Anna Freud, Donald Winnicott, and, finally, Margaret Mahler, all psychoanalysts, influenced its development. ...
Meehan Courtney L - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: Previous research among foragers and theory suggests that nonmaternal caregivers offer essential assistance, which supports female reproduction and the costs associated with lengthy child development. Mothers' face trade-offs in energy allocation between work and childcare, particularly when mothers have an infant. These trade-offs likely have crucial impacts on the ...
Wahl Sebastian - - 2013
This study investigates the effects of attention-guiding stimuli on 4-month-old infants' object processing. In the human head condition, infants saw a person turning her head and eye gaze towards or away from objects. When presented with the objects again, infants showed increased attention in terms of longer looking time measured ...
Rossano Federico - - 2012
We investigated 1-year-old infants' ability to infer an adult's focus of attention solely on the basis of her voice direction. In Studies 1 and 2, 12- and 16-month-olds watched an adult go behind a barrier and then heard her verbally express excitement about a toy hidden in one of two ...
Sakkalou Elena - - 2012
Previous studies have reported that infants selectively reproduce observed actions and have argued that this selectivity reflects understanding of intentions and goals, or goal-directed imitation. We reasoned that if selective imitation of goal-directed actions reflects understanding of intentions, infants should demonstrate stability across perceptually and causally dissimilar imitation tasks. To ...
Montirosso Rosario - - 2012
We examined whether there are differences in the lateralization of expressive gestures in infants during normal and stressful interactions with their mothers and the relations between their gestures. Thirty full-term 6-12 month-old infants were videotaped during the Face-to-Face Still-Face paradigm. We coded the occurrence and lateralization of infant self-directed and ...
Guo Hongyan H Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, PR - - 2012
Understanding the properties of viruses preferentially establishing infection during perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is critical for the development of effective measures to prevent transmission. A previous study demonstrated that the newly transmitted viruses (in infants) of chronically infected mother-infant pairs (MIPs) were fitter in terms ...
Abiaka Clifford - - 2012
This study assessed the role of oxidative stress in parturition in Omani mothers following growing reports that late preterm neonates were at greater risk than term neonates of perinatal death. Venous blood samples were collected during labour, and cord (neonatal) blood samples were taken after childbirth in late preterm and ...
Burnum Kristin E - - 2012
Preterm birth is a global health issue impacting millions of mothers and babies. However, the etiology of preterm birth is not clearly understood. Our recent finding that premature decidual senescence with terminal differentiation is a cause of preterm birth in mice with uterine Trp53 deletion, encoding p53 protein, led us ...
Hernik Mikolaj - - 2012
Human infants readily interpret others' actions as goal-directed and their understanding of previous goals shapes their expectations about an agent's future goal-directed behavior in a changed situation. According to a recent proposal (Luo & Baillargeon, 2005), infants' goal-attributions are not sufficient to support such expectations if the situational change involves ...
Schechter T - - 2012
Background: Unfractionated heparin (UFH) is a widely used anticoagulant. Current American College of Chest Physicians guidelines for infants extrapolated from adults recommends 28U/kg/hr of UFH to achieve an anti-Xa level of 0.35-0.7 IU/ml. Objective: We assessed the profile of anti-Xa-based UFH dosing guidelines in infants. Patients/Methods: We included all infants ...
Vento Máximo - - 2012
This article describes aerobic metabolism, oxygen free radicals, antioxidant defenses, oxidative stress, inflammatory response and redox signaling, the fetal to neonatal transition, arterial oxygen saturation, oxygen administration in the delivery room, oxygen during neonatal care in the NICU, evolving oxygen needs in the first few weeks of life, and complications ...
Arslan Mehmet - - 2012
To investigate the role of erythrocyte free radical scavenging enzyme activities (FRSE), carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) in infants with myelomeningocele (MM). MATERIAL and We compared antioxidant enzyme activities and MDA level in 40 individuals (10 infants with MM, 10 healthy infants; and mothers of these two groups) ...
Sommerville Jessica A - - 2012
A critical question for developmental psychologists concerns how representations in infancy are best characterized. Past and current research provides paradoxical evidence regarding the nature of early representations: in some ways, infants appear to build concrete and specific representations that guide their online perception and understanding of different events; in other ...
Melek M - - 2012
To measure the oxidant/antioxidant status of newborn babies with oesophageal atresia and their mothers, compared with healthy control subjects. This case-control study included 40 participants: 10 newborns with oesophageal atresia and their mothers, and 10 healthy newborns and their mothers. Whole blood malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the activities of antioxidant ...
Kurepa Dalibor - - 2012
Infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) are at increased risk for metabolic complications. Type 1 and some type 2 diabetic patients have elevated levels of the ketone bodies acetoacetate (AA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). The aim of this study was to examine how hyperketonemia in diabetic mothers affects markers of inflammation and ...
Candy T Rowan TR Indiana University School of Optometry, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA. - - 2012
To determine the accommodative accuracy of infants and young children before they had had any form of clinical intervention or treatment, in an attempt to determine the difference between 'normal' and 'abnormal' visual experience for these individuals. Nott retinoscopy was performed on 111 subjects in binocular viewing conditions at a ...
Falix Farah A - - 2011
Hepatoblastoma is a malignant pediatric liver tumor. The currently used diagnostic serum marker for hepatoblastoma, α-fetoprotein (AFP), is not always reliable in infants with hepatoblastoma, due to the physiologically elevated levels of AFP in this age group. In this report, we show that Delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1), a protein highly ...
Lien Tina Y - - 2011
Many children are affected by atopic dermatitis (AD) at a very young age. I often consider whether nonpharmacologic interventions could prevent or mitigate the development of AD. Do breastfeeding or changes to the maternal diet help prevent the development of childhood AD? The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests that lactating ...
Bitar Mohamed A - - 2011
Aim:  Management of acute otitis media (AOM) in infants younger than 2 months old is controversial. It varies between treatment on an outside basis, and hospitalization for intravenous antibiotics and sepsis work-up based on variability of the reported AOM pathogens in this particular group. Our aim is to identify clinical indicators ...
Malabarey Ola T - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy in young adolescents is often understudied. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of young maternal age on adverse obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study using the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Linked Birth-Infant Death and Fetal Death data ...
Rigato Silvia - - 2013
In this study, 4-month-old infants' and adults' spontaneous preferences for emotional and neutral displays with direct and averted gaze are investigated using visual preference paradigms. Specifically, by presenting two approach-oriented emotions (happiness and anger) and two avoidance-oriented emotions (fear and sadness), we asked whether the pattern of emotion-gaze interaction suggested ...
Otsuka Yumiko - - 2011
We examined the ability of young infants (3- and 4-month-olds) to detect faces in the two-tone images often referred to as Mooney faces. In Experiment 1, this performance was examined in conditions of high and low visibility of local features and with either the presence or absence of the outer ...
Vicenik Chad J - - 2011
Previous research has shown that infants and adults can discriminate between prosodically similar languages using only prosodic cues. These experiments were designed to determine whether listeners use pitch cues or segmental duration and timing cues (i.e., rhythm cues) in language discrimination. We tested American English learning 7-month-old infants and adults ...
Gomez Borja - - 2011
We performed a 7-year registry-based retrospective study. We included 1365 infants younger than 3 months of age with fever without a source; 81 (5.9%) had <5000 leukocytes/mm. Among the 1021 well-appearing 29- to 90-day-old infants, prevalence of serious bacterial infection (SBI) was 13.8% for those with a normal white blood ...
Tréguier C - - 2011
Irreducible developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in newborns is a rare entity. The different obstacles preventing reduction have been described in the literature. A clinical form of DDH with hypertrophy of the cartilage of the acetabular roof (acetabular bulge) can be reliably identified on ultrasound and should probably be ...
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