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Results 401 - 450 of 834
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Jeng Mei-Jy - - 2012
Air leak syndrome includes pulmonary interstitial emphysema, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, pneumoperitoneum, subcutaneous emphysema, and systemic air embolism. The most common cause of air leak syndrome in neonates is inadequate mechanical ventilation of the fragile and immature lungs. The incidence of air leaks in newborns is inversely related to the birth ...
Ho Shaun Sc - - 2012
Extrahepatic biliary atresia classically presents in the neonatal period with jaundice and pale stools. The lack of bile pigment in stool can be unrecognised, delaying diagnosis and surgical treatment. Vitamin K is given at birth to reduce the risk of haemorrhagic disease of the newborn, but this may be inadequate ...
Barr Ronald G - - 2012
Head trauma from abuse, including shaken baby syndrome, is a devastating and potentially lethal form of infant physical abuse first recognized in the early 1970s. What has been less recognized is the role of the early increase in crying in otherwise normal infants in the first few months of life ...
Matthias Braubach - - 2012
BACKGROUND: In closed environments, the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) can easily rise to health-threatening levels. CO-related incidents are often caused by poor condition or inappropriate use of indoor combustion devices as well as structure fires but are also due to suicides. OBJECTIVES/METHODS: To evaluate the incidence of CO poisoning ...
Hudgens Michael G MG University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7420, USA. - - 2013
In resource-limited settings, mothers infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) face a difficult choice: breastfeed their infants but risk transmitting HIV-1 or not breastfeed their infants and risk the infants dying of other infectious diseases or malnutrition. Recent results from observational studies and randomized clinical trials indicate daily ...
Likis Frances E - - 2012
OBJECTIVE:: We systematically reviewed the effectiveness of progestogens for prevention of preterm birth among women with prior spontaneous preterm birth, multiple gestations, preterm labor, short cervix, or other indications. DATA SOURCES:: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for English language articles published from January 1966 to October 2011. METHODS OF ...
Demirel Gamze - - 2012
Our aim was to assess trends in neonatal mortality in 2009, evaluate advances in health policy, determine new goals to preserve a higher quality health service, and to prevent neonatal deaths. Data were gathered from the system of the General Directorate of Mother and Child and Family Planning. Maternal age, ...
Greenough Anne - - 2012
Abstract Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), defined as oxygen dependency for at least 28 days after birth, is a common adverse outcome of very premature birth. Affected children require frequent readmissions to hospital in the first 2 years, and although lung growth and remodelling results in progressive improvement in lung function, airflow ...
Cagno Colleen K - - 2012
Group B streptococcus is the leading cause of early-onset neonatal sepsis in the United States. Universal screening is recommended for pregnant women at 35 to 37 weeks' gestation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated its guideline for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. The ...
Sovannarith Samreth - - 2012
To achieve the global goal of eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV, retention of HIV-positive women and their babies throughout the cascade of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services is necessary. Little evidence has been published on coverage of the cascade in resource-limited settings. Along with PMTCT service expansion ...
Lande Yechezkel - - 2012
What is the rate of spontaneous live births after successful IVF treatment in a cost-free environment, and were couples who achieved a spontaneous live birth referred prematurely? Despite unlimited IVF treatments offered free of charge, the spontaneous live birth rate following successful IVF remained unchanged compared with that cited in ...
Rancourt R C - - 2012
Do fertility treatments, including ovulation induction (OI), alter epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation at imprinted loci? We observed small but statistically significant differences in certain imprinting control regions (ICRs) based on the method of conception, however, these small changes in methylation did not correlate to the overall transcriptional levels ...
Khanal L - - 2012
The Government of Nepal has been remarkably progressive in introducing innovative community-based maternal newborn and child health interventions in an effort to address the major causes of maternal and child mortality in the country. This article describes the introduction of innovative interventions, including a review of the landmark research that ...
Agay-Shay Keren - - 2012
BACKGROUND Congenital malformations (CMs) are a leading cause of infant disability. Geophysical patterns such as 2-year, yearly, half-year, 3-month, and lunar cycles regulate much of the temporal biology of all life on Earth and may affect birth and birth outcomes in humans. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ...
Campion Nicole - - 2012
This study introduces life cycle assessment as a tool to analyze one aspect of sustainability in healthcare: the birth of a baby. The process life cycle assessment case study presented evaluates two common procedures in a hospital, a cesarean section and a vaginal birth. This case study was conducted at ...
Bharati Saswata S Department of Anaesthesiology, Midnapore Medical College, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, - - 2012
For ancient period moon has been held responsible for many biological activities. That way, lunar cycle, by activity of moon, has been held responsible for increase in number of child birth. In this retrospective, observational study, we examined a total of 9890 full-term spontaneous deliveries as well as non-elective cesarean ...
Nayeri Fatemeh F Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, - - 2012
Asphyxia is a medical condition in which placental or pulmonary gas exchange is impaired or they cease all together, typically producing a combination of progressive hypoxemia and hypercapnea. In addition to regional differences in its etiology; it is important to know its risk factors. This is a case-control study, all ...
Watt Kevin M KM Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27599, - - 2012
Treatment of Mycoplasma hominis meningitis in infants is limited by a lack of consensus regarding therapy and limited pharmacokinetic data for agents to which M. hominis is susceptible. We report the successful treatment of a premature infant suffering from M. hominis meningitis with doxycycline and moxifloxacin and provide a pharmacokinetic ...
Stone Samuel M - - 2012
Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a major cause of food-borne illness worldwide. However, a consensus regarding the role Shiga toxins play in the onset of diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis (HC) is lacking. One of the obstacles to understanding the role of Shiga toxins to STEC-mediated intestinal pathology is ...
Espey Eve - - 2012
To estimate the effect of progestin-only compared with combined hormonal contraceptive pills on rates of breastfeeding continuation in postpartum women. Secondary outcomes include infant growth parameters, contraceptive method continuation, and patient satisfaction with breastfeeding and contraceptive method. Postpartum breastfeeding women who desired oral contraceptives were randomly assigned to progestin-only and ...
Jagannath Vanitha A - - 2012
Neonatal circumcision is a fairly common surgical procedure that may be carried out for medical reasons, one of them being prevention of urinary tract infections (UTI) in male infants. Circumcision could help in reducing the incidence of UTI by reducing periurethral bacterial colonization, which is accepted as a potential risk ...
Khanprakob Thirawut - - 2012
Preventing preterm labour is the most important step in preventing preterm birth. Prostaglandins play an important role in labour and birth. Prostaglandin production can be obstructed by inhibition of the cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzyme and this may arrest uterine contraction. A Cochrane review on COX inhibitors for the treatment of preterm ...
Cutler David M DM Otto Eckstein Professor of Applied Economics at Harvard University and a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic - - 2012
We develop a model of induced innovation that applies to medical research. Our model yields three empirical predictions. First, initial death rates and subsequent research effort should be positively correlated. Second, research effort should be associated with more rapid mortality declines. Third, as a byproduct of targeting the most common ...
Erdeve Omer - - 2011
ObjectiveTo compare the efficacy and safety of oral versus intravenous ibuprofen for the pharmacological closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in less mature preterm infants.DesignProspective, randomised controlled study.SettingTertiary neonatal intensive care unit.Patients and interventionsThe study enrolled 80 preterm infants with gestational age ≤28 weeks, birth weight <1000 g, postnatal age ...
Emmanuel Roby V - - 2011
The aim of this study is to determine whether periodontitis in pregnant women could be a risk factor for pre term low birth weight. The oral hygiene status, periodontal status and periodontal treatment needs of mothers who birthed infants with normal birth weight and normal gestation period (group A) and ...
Koskimaa Hanna-Mari - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the concordance of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes between the mother and her newborn and to identify risk factors for the vertical transmission of HPV. STUDY DESIGN: HPV genotypes present in 329 pregnant women, their newborns, cord blood, and placenta samples were determined by molecular techniques, including using ...
Carlson Lucas C - - 2011
Abstract Objective: To review available published literature in order to obtain a more comprehensive assessment of the association between infant mortality and oral clefts, overall and isolated. Design: A wide-ranging search of published studies relating infant mortality rates to oral clefts and congenital malformations was conducted yielding applicable data sets. ...
Lee Jang Hoon - - 2011
We detected swallowing dysfunction by the modified barium swallow (MBS) test and determined risk factors for swallowing dysfunction in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with oral feeding desaturation near discharge. We retrospectively reviewed 41 VLBW infants referred for MBS test because of significant oral feeding desaturation at ≥35 weeks ...
Fucile Sandra S School of Physical & Occupational Therapy, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. - - 2012
Preterm infants are at high risk of encountering oral feeding difficulties. Early sensorimotor interventions may improve oral feeding skills in preterm infants. To further explore the effects of an oral (O), tactile/kinesthetic (T/K), and combined (O+T/K) sensorimotor intervention on preterm infants' nutritive sucking, swallowing and their coordination with respiration. Seventy-five ...
Schulz Elizabeth - - 2011
Cerebral palsy is often associated with spasticity. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of oral baclofen in hypertonic neonates. Retrospective chart review of patients treated with oral baclofen (identified by means of pharmacy records) during a 3-year period was undertaken. Data on muscle tone evaluated using the Modified ...
Thakur Rachna - - 2011
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2011 Objective.  It is a well-established fact that colonization of S. mutans occurs early in life. The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between mode of delivery and other associating factors with colonization of oral S. mutans in the infants. Methods.  The ...
Barzilay Bernard - - 2011
Background Oral ibuprofen has been shown to be associated with excellent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure rates and a favourable safety profile, but limited data exist regarding its pharmacokinetics in preterm infants. Objective To evaluate pharmacokinetic parameters of oral ibuprofen in preterm infants. Methods Plasma ibuprofen levels were determined at ...
Lif Holgerson P P Department of Odontology, Cariology Section, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden. - - 2011
Establishment of the microbiota of the gut has been shown to differ between infants delivered by Caesarian section (C-section) and those delivered vaginally. The aim of the present study was to compare the oral microbiota in infants delivered by these different routes. The oral biofilm was assayed by the Human ...
Khorana Meera - - 2011
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a common problem in the neonates with a high mortality rate. The prevalence ranges from 0.38-0.99 per 1,000 live births at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health. The survival rate has improved after the advent of high-frequency ventilation and inhaled nitric ...
Sables-Baus Sharon - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Achievement of adequate oral nutrition is a challenging task after early neonatal cardiac surgery. This study aims to describe predictors of oral feeding outcomes for neonates after early surgical interventions.Materials and methodsA retrospective review of neonates admitted with congenital cardiac disease over a period of 1 year. We analysed ...
Yilmaz A E - - 2011
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of lesions of the oral mucosa from birth to two years in Turkish pediatric patients . Materials and Methods: A total of 299 infants from newborn to two years of age were evaluated from the Outpatient Clinics of the ...
Nelun Barfod Mette - - 2011
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2011 Background.  Early in life, vaginally delivered infants exhibit a different composition of the gut flora compared with infants delivered by caesarean section (C-section); however, it is unclear whether this also applies to the oral cavity. Aim.  To investigate and compare the oral microbial profile ...
Fucile Sandra S School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. - - 2011
The aim of this study was to determine whether oral, tactile/kinaesthetic (T/K), or combined (oral+T/K) interventions enhance oral feeding performance and whether combined interventions have an additive/synergistic effect. Seventy-five preterm infants (mean gestational age 29 wk; standard error of the mean [SEM] 0.3 wk; mean birthweight 1340.3g; SEM 52.5 g; ...
Yildiz Aynur - - 2011
Aim and objective.  This research aimed to assess the effect of giving pacifiers to premature infants and making them listen to lullabies on the transition period to total oral feeding, their sucking success and their vital signs (peak heart rate, respiration rate and oxygen saturation). Background.  It is very important ...
Kandasamy Yogavijayan - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The ophthalmological examination of premature infants, which is essential for the detection of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), can be painful and distressing for the infant. Various researchers have investigated the benefits of topical anesthesia, oral sucrose, and nonpharmalogical intervention for pain relief. The purpose of this study is to ...
de Beavis Fleur O V - - 2011
Infant oral mutilation is a practice performed by traditional healers in many Eastern African countries. The sequelae of this practice have been recognised and reported on in many developed countries due to the migration of populations, customs and beliefs. This article describes three cases of infant oral mutilation that have ...
Morales Paola - - 2011
Perinatal asphyxia occurs still with great incidence whenever delivery is prolonged, despite improvements in perinatal care. After asphyxia, infants can suffer from short- to long-term neurological sequelae, their severity depend upon the extent of the insult, the metabolic imbalance during the re-oxygenation period and the developmental state of the affected ...
Ayede A I AI Department of Paediatrics, University College Hospital, - - 2011
Preterm deaths are responsible for the highest number of neonatal mortality in Nigeria. Preterm nutrition contributes significantly to overall outcome particularly as it relates to neurodevelopment. Recently, new guidelines for enteral feedings in premature infants were issued by the American Academy of Paediatrics and European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology ...
Giapros Vasileios - - 2011
Renal injury in early life may lead to hypertension and renal disease in adulthood. In this prospective study, we estimated renal glomerular and tubular function and kidney length (KL) during the first 2 years of life of preterm infants with nephrocalcinosis (NC) associated with prematurity. The study cohort comprised 107 preterm ...
Currie Janet J NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA - - 2011
We are the first to examine the effect of Superfund cleanups on infant health rather than focusing on proximity to a site. We study singleton births to mothers residing within 5km of a Superfund site between 1989-2003 in five large states. Our "difference in differences" approach compares birth outcomes before ...
Filiberto Amanda C AC Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI, - - 2011
Birthweight has been associated with a number of health outcomes throughout life. Crucial to proper infant growth and development is the placenta, and alterations to placental gene function may reflect differences in the intrauterine environment which functionally contribute to infant growth and may ultimately affect the child's health. To examine ...
Pillarisetti Naveen - - 2011
RATIONALE: Better understanding of evolution of lung function in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF) and its association with pulmonary inflammation and infection is crucial in informing both early intervention studies aimed at limiting lung damage and the role of lung function as outcomes in such studies. OBJECTIVES: To describe longitudinal ...
Lessen Brenda S - - 2011
Preterm infants frequently experience oral feeding difficulties due to underdeveloped oral motor skills and the lack of coordination of sucking, swallowing, and respiration. The infants' ability to consume all feedings orally while maintaining physiologic stability and weight gain is necessary for their discharge. Therefore, difficulty with oral feeding leads to ...
Masho Saba W - - 2011
Striking racial disparities in infant mortality exist in the United States, with rates of infant death among African Americans (AA) nearly twice the national average. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches have been successful in fostering collaborative relationships between communities and researchers focused on developing effective and sustainable interventions and programs ...
Miura Kenichiro - - 2011
Renal dysplasia associated with urinary tract obstruction comprises two distinct phenotypes, i.e., multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) and obstructive renal dysplasia (ORD). MCDK is a common manifestation in infants with renal dysplasia, which is characterized by multiloculated thin-walled cysts with no functional parenchyma and an atretic ureter owing to pyelocalyceal occlusion ...
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