Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 885
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Cowan Stephanie - - 2013
AIM: This paper describes the usage, impact and reach of an online education tool for preventing sudden infant death. METHODS: A 24-slide presentation was formatted for online access. Content was designed for mainstream audiences to align current knowledge, attitudes and actions for a blitz approach to preventing sudden infant death ...
Zamanzadeh Vahid V Department of Medical and surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, - - 2013
Discharge rate of surviving infants from neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has recently increased dramatically. It is deemed to have a discharge plan with the aim of decreasing rehospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the professionals' efforts toward discharging the infants and ...
Sachdev H P S - - 2013
Childhood anemia has major adverse consequences for health and development. It's prevalence in India continues to range from 70 to 90%. Although anemia is multifactorial in etiology, preventative efforts have predominantly focused on increasing iron intake, primarily through supplementation in pregnant and lactating women. Policy thrust for childhood anemia is ...
Bjornard Kari - - 2013
Knowledge of patterns in prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHDs) is important for clinical care, etiologic research, and prevention. We evaluated temporal and racial/ethnic trends in the birth prevalence of CHDs in metropolitan Atlanta from 1978 to 2005. Cases of CHDs were obtained from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program ...
Munywoki Patrick Kiio PK KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme Centre for Geographic Medicine Research–Coast, Kilifi, Kenya. - - 2013
Severe lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in infants caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been associated with later pneumonia hospitalization among children. To determine risk for pneumonia after RSV hospitalization in infancy, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 2,813 infants admitted to a hospital in Kenya and identified ...
Lunze Karsten - - 2013
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To provide evidence on the global epidemiological situation of neonatal hypothermia and to provide recommendations for future policy and research directions. METHODS: Using PubMed as our principal electronic reference library, we searched studies for prevalence and risk factor data on neonatal hypothermia in resource-limited environments globally. Studies specifying ...
Dolan Siobhan M - - 2013
Preterm birth has the highest mortality and morbidity of all pregnancy complications. The burden of preterm birth on public health worldwide is enormous, yet there are few effective means to prevent a preterm delivery. To date, much of its etiology is unexplained, but genetic predisposition is thought to play a ...
Frank Monika - - 2013
Single-dose nevirapine for mothers and newborns at delivery is the simplest prevention strategy for vertical HIV-1 transmission and hence widely used in resource-constrained settings. HIV-1-positive mothers and newborns received single-dose nevirapine in a prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (PMTCT) program in Uganda. In a pharmacokinetic investigation, breast milk and plasma ...
Camacho-Gonzalez Andres - - 2013
Neonatal sepsis remains a feared cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Maternal, neonatal, and environmental factors are associated with risk of infection, and a combination of prevention strategies, judicious neonatal evaluation, and early initiation of therapy are required to prevent adverse outcomes. This article reviews recent trends ...
Patel Ravi Mangal RM Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 2015 Uppergate Drive Northeast, 3rd Floor, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2013
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, and preventive therapies that are both effective and safe are urgently needed. Current evidence from therapeutic trials suggests that probiotics are effective in decreasing NEC in preterm infants, and probiotics are currently the most promising therapy for this ...
McClure Elizabeth M EM Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Research Triangle Institute, Durham, NC 27709, USA. - - 2013
To create a comprehensive model of the comparative impact of various interventions on maternal, fetal, and neonatal (MFN) mortality. The major conditions and sub-conditions contributing to MFN mortality in low-resource areas were identified, and the prevalence and case fatality rates documented. Available interventions were mapped to these conditions, and intervention ...
Gonzalez Juan M JM Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, - - 2013
Understanding the mechanisms of term and preterm cervical remodeling is essential to prevent prematurity. Is preterm cervical remodeling caused by the same mechanisms that cause cervical remodeling at term, and are these changes accelerated in time? This question has been pondered by obstetricians seeking strategies to prevent preterm labor for ...
Natale Fabio - - 2013
The updated Guidelines on Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease, issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, actually represent the mainstay in the prevention of neonatal early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis. According to these guidelines, patients with possible preterm delivery are screened for GBS colonization and ...
Jasinovic Tin - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: To develop (1) a practical and comprehensive algorithm of instruments and techniques available to treat neonates with tracheobronchial foreign bodies, based on the patient's subglottic diameter and (2) primary and secondary prevention strategies for neonatal tracheobronchial foreign bodies. METHODS: (1) Analysis of the case of a severely premature infant ...
Stabell Niklas - - 2013
We describe for the first time a case of an infant with rotavirus gastroenteritis complicated by a duodenal perforation. Awareness of the perforation risk may prevent severe or lethal outcomes in this common infection among infants and children.
Liem Sophie M S - - 2013
Introduction. Reduction of preterm birth is a major goal in obstetric care. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and cohort studies on the effectiveness of the cervical pessary to prevent preterm birth. Methods. We searched the electronic databases of MEDLINE and Embase from inception until April 2012 ...
Nair Vrinda - - 2013
Nosocomial sepsis is associated with increased mortality and morbidity including neurodevelopmental impairment and prolonged hospital stay. Prevention of sepsis especially in the preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit remains a major challenge. The gastrointestinal tract is an important source of potential pathogens causing nosocomial sepsis as the immature ...
Gross Melissa L - - 2013
Rickets was first described in the 17th century and vitamin D deficiency was recognized as the underlying cause in the early 1900s. Despite this long history, vitamin D deficiency remains a significant health concern. Currently, vitamin D supplementation is recommended in Canada for breast fed infants. There are no recommendations ...
Singhal Atul - - 2013
The concept that early growth has long-term biological effects is based on extensive studies in animals dating from the 1930s. More recently, compelling evidence for a long-term influence of early growth on later health has also emerged in humans. Substantial data now support the hypothesis that 'accelerated', or too fast ...
De Carolis Maria Pia - - 2013
This study was conducted to determine whether or not simultaneous use of additional measures to prevent heat loss and efficient training of caregivers influenced the incidence of hypothermia at birth. Two cohorts of term/late-preterm and preterm infants were compared before (Group IA and IB) and after (Group IIA and IIB) ...
Lazarus Ray - - 2013
There has been significant progress towards the goal of eliminating vertical transmission of HIV by 2015. However, a question that remains is how we can most effectively prevent late postnatal transmission of HIV through infant feeding. Guidelines published by the World Health Organization in 2010 have been widely adopted. These ...
Uauy Ricardo - - 2013
The need to prevent low birthweight (LBW) defined as a birthweight ≤2,500 g is presently well recognized, not only because of the immediate consequences increasing the risk of neonatal death and burden of disease but also in terms of the impact of being LBW on lifelong health and well-being. Children ...
Kramer Michael S - - 2013
In this paper, I review the epidemiology of low birthweight (LBW). I begin by defining LBW and emphasizing the distinction between infants who are born early (preterm) and those who are born small for their gestational age (SGA). I then review data on the global burden of preterm birth and ...
Tobin Jacinta M - - 2013
Colonization of the intestine with some microorganisms has been shown to have beneficial health effects. The association of bacteria with its human host starts soon after birth; however in infants born prematurely establishment of normal intestinal flora is interrupted with colonization with potential pathogenic organisms Probiotic supplementation may therefore be ...
Lanari Marcello - - 2013
Monoclonal antibodies are widely used both in infants and in adults for several indications. Humanized monoclonal antibodies (palivizumab) have been used for many years for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in pediatric populations (preterm infants, infants with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease) at high risk of ...
Vyas Vibhuti - - 2013
Preterm birth is defined as any delivery before 37 complete weeks of gestation. It is a universal challenge in the field of obstetrics owing to its high rate of mortality, long-term morbidity, associated human suffering and economic burden. In the United States, about 12.18% deliveries in 2009 were preterm, producing ...
Vidaeff Alex C - - 2013
Prevention of preterm delivery is a major desiderate in contemporary obstetrics and a societal necessity. The means to achieve this goal remain elusive. Progesterone has been used in an attempt to prevent preterm delivery since the 1970s, but the evidence initially accumulated was fraught by mixed results and was based ...
Artym Jolanta - - 2013
Clinical trials are reviewed, involving proteins and peptides derived from milk (predominantly bovine), with the exception of lactoferrin, which will be the subject of another article. The most explored milk fraction is α-lactalbumin (LA), which is often applied with glycomacropeptide (GMP) - a casein degradation product. These milk constituents are ...
Abel Sally - - 2013
Recent research and policy around sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) have emphasised the place of safe sleeping practices within SUDI prevention strategies. Maori SUDI prevention workers have focussed on innovations around the safe sleep environment for some time now, as they have grappled with difficult to change and disproportionately ...
Shamir Raanan - - 2013
Human milk contains a substantial number of hormones and growth factors. Studies in animal models show that some of these peptides (e.g. insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, IGF-1, epidermal growth factors) have an effect on the small intestine after orogastric administration. Recently, two efforts were made to incorporate growth factors ...
Jones Christine C Academic Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, London, - - 2013
To determine maternal and neonatal specific antibody levels to selected vaccine-preventable infections (pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), tetanus and pneumococcus). Prospective cohort study. A UK secondary care maternity unit (March 2011-January 2012). Mothers and infants within 72 h of delivery were eligible. Unwell individuals, mothers less than 18 years ...
Borghesi Alessandro A Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Laboratory of Neonatal Immunology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, - - 2013
In the last decades, the prevention and treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome with antenatal steroids and surfactant replacement allowed the survival of infants born at extremely low gestational ages. These extremely preterm infants are highly vulnerable to the detrimental effects of oxidative stress and infection, and are prone to ...
Coen Ronald W RW Department of Pediatrics, St. Luke's Regional Medical Center , Boise, ID , - - 2013
The etiology of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in extremely low birth weight preterm infants is multifactorial with circulatory instability and hemostasis being preeminent. This study sought to determine if the germinal matrix layer remained intact when platelets were above 200 × 10(9)/L, a near normal level, and fell below that when IVH occurred. ...
Schroeder L L Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, - - 2013
Serious cardiac valve disease and left ventricular hypertrophy occur in most untreated older children with severe mucopolysaccharidosis type I. Although it is assumed that early intervention prevents these processes, evaluation of cardiac findings in these infants has not yet been reported. We reviewed echocardiograms of 13 untreated infants < 1 ...
Acosta Alessandro M - - 2013
Fungal infections are a common cause of late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight infants and can impact mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of systemic fluconazole prophylaxis in the prevalence of fungemia. Subjects included 402 very low birth weight premature infants with ...
Anzman-Frasca Stephanie S The Center for Childhood Obesity Research, The Pennsylvania State - - 2013
Currently, about 10% of infants have a weight for length greater than the 95th percentile for their age and sex, which puts them at risk for obesity as they grow. In a pilot obesity prevention study, primiparous mothers and their newborn infants were randomly assigned to a control group or ...
Yin Yuzhu - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To determine the potential risk factors associated with the immunoprophylaxis failure to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) vertical transmission. METHODS: A total of 1360 newborn infants from HBsAg(+) women were included. Some pregnant women were vaccinated with anti-HBs immunoglobulins (HBIG) monthly for three months beginning at 7 months post ...
Uetake Katsuji - - 2013
Calf mortality control is vitally important for farmers, not only to improve animal welfare, but also to increase productivity. High calf mortality rates can be related to larger numbers of calves in a herd, employee performance, severe weather, and the neonatal period covering the first 4 weeks of life. Although ...
Foolad Negar - - 2012
OBJECTIVE To identify whether nutrient supplementation with probiotics, prebiotics, formula, or fatty acids prevents the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) or reduces the severity of AD in newborns to children younger than 3 years. DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and LILACS (Latin American and ...
Zhang Zhi-Qun - - 2012
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of antenatal ambroxol as a preventive therapeutic of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants.Methods Randomized controlled trials of antenatal ambroxol treatment for RDS in preterm infants published up to March 2012 were downloaded from the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and Google ...
Elidrissy Abdelwahab T H AT Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Saudi - - 2013
Hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy in infants is characterized by heart failure in a previously normal infant with hypocalcemia without organic cardiac lesion. Vitamin D deficiency rickets is increasing in Middle East. In a six month study 136 cases of rickets were diagnosed in the main Children's Hospital in Almadinah but none of ...
Nelson Melissa U MU Division of Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8064, - - 2012
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequent source of infections affecting premature and critically ill infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Neonates are particularly vulnerable to colonization and infection with MRSA, and many studies have attempted to identify risk factors that predispose certain infants to its acquisition to discover ...
Cherpes Thomas L TL Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. - - 2012
Neonatal herpes, seen roughly in 1 of 3000 live births in the United States, is the most serious manifestation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the perinatal period. Although acyclovir therapy decreases infant mortality associated with perinatal HSV transmission, development of permanent neurological disabilities is not uncommon. Mother-to-neonate HSV ...
Jefferies Ann L - - 2012
Postnatal corticosteroids have been used for prevention and treatment of neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD) (also know as bronchopulmonary dysplasia), a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. As both dexamethasone and hydrocortisone administration within the first seven days of life is associated with an increased risk of ...
Wiley K E KE The National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, 2145 Australia. - - 2013
The relative contribution of different categories of contact in transmitting pertussis to very young infants, who experience the most severe morbidity, is the most important single factor determining the likely benefit of pertussis vaccination of their close contacts (the "cocooning" strategy). To identify, evaluate the quality of and summarise existing ...
Conde-Agudelo Agustin - - 2013
No randomized controlled trial has compared vaginal progesterone and cervical cerclage directly for the prevention of preterm birth in women with a sonographic short cervix in the mid trimester, singleton gestation, and previous spontaneous preterm birth. We performed an indirect comparison of vaginal progesterone vs cerclage using placebo/no cerclage as ...
Janvier Annie - - 2012
There have been over twenty prospective, randomized trials of the use of probiotics to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature babies. A Cochrane meta-analysis of 16 of the studies by Khalid Al Faleh and colleagues, enrolling 2842 preterm infants, reported that "enteral probiotics supplementation significantly reduced the incidence of severe ...
Young Sera - - 2012
Abstract Background: For the past decade, heat-treating breastmilk has been an infant feeding option recommended by the World Health Organization as a strategy to reduce vertical transmission. However, little is known about field experiences with it. Our primary objective was to explore the barriers and promoters of the implementation of ...
Rogosch Tobias T Department of Pediatrics, Philipps University Marburg, 35033 Marburg, - - 2012
After birth, contact to environmental Ags induces the production of IgA, which represents a first line of defense for the neonate. We sought to characterize the maturation of the repertoire of IgA H chain transcripts in circulating blood B cells during human ontogeny. We found that IgA H chain transcripts ...
Murcia Laura - - 2012
Background. In this longitudinal cohort study we evaluated the congenital transmission of Chagas disease (CD) in a non-endemic area. The aim of this work was to analyse the predictive value of a T. cruzi PCR-positive result in pregnant women for the diagnosis of vertical transmission and to evaluate the use of ...
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