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Gipson Tanjala T TT Tuberous Sclerosis Clinic, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Neurology and Developmental Medicine, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland; Clinical Trials Unit, Hugo W. Moser Research Institute, Inc., Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Infants born with tuberous sclerosis complex, a genetic condition resulting from a mutation in TSC1 or TSC2, are at increased risk for intellectual disability and/or autism. Features of epilepsy, neuropathology, genetics, as well as timing and type of mechanism-based medications have been proposed as risk factors. Neurodevelopmental outcomes have been ...
O'Keeffe Gerard W GW Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT), Cork University Maternity Hospital, Cork, Ireland; Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Identifying those infants most at risk for poor neurodevelopmental outcomes is crucial to allow for targeted surveillance or preventative interventions to be instigated from birth. One intriguing possibility is to use the molecular characteristics of the placenta at birth as a 'molecular barometer' of the in utero experience to predict ...
Fanni Daniela D Department of Pathology, University Hospital San Giovanni di Dio, AOU Cagliari and University of Cagliari, Cagliari, - - 2014
During the last years, human newborns have been overexposed to biologically reactive aluminum, with possible relevant consequences on their future health and on their susceptibility to a variety of diseases. Children, newborns and particularly preterm neonates are at an increased risk of aluminum toxicity because of their relative immaturity. Based ...
Rifai Rami Al RA Graduate School of Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Division of Public Health, Department of International Health and Medicine , Tokyo , - - 2014
Cesarean delivery conducted without medical indication places mothers and infants at risk for adverse outcomes. This study assessed changes in trends of, and factors associated with, cesarean deliveries in Jordan, from 2002 to 2012. Data for ever-married women ages 15-49 years from the 2002, 2007, and 2012 Jordan Population and ...
Torres Victorio V a Vihda Association , Nairobi , - - 2014
Although the attainment of Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4), reducing under-five mortality by two-thirds by the year 2015, depends on optimizing breast-feeding practices in resource-limited settings, there are some conditions in which breast-feeding is impossible, contraindicated, or not recommended. The overall impact of involuntary nonbreast-feeding on the attainment of ...
Baker Christopher D CD aSection of Pulmonary Medicine and Pediatric Heart Lung Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA bDepartment of Pediatrics, Center for Excellence in Pulmonary Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, - - 2014
Advances in medical therapy have increased survival of extremely premature infants and changed the pathology of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) from one of acute lung injury to a disease of disrupted lung development. With this evolution, new questions emerge regarding the molecular mechanisms that control postnatal lung development, the effect of ...
Murki Srinivas S Department of Pediatrics, Fernandez Hospital, Hyderabad, - - 2014
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a major disease burden in the developing countries. Current evidence supports early continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use and early selective surfactant administration as the most efficacious interventions in the management of RDS, both in developed and developing countries. In developing countries, it is recommended ...
Alfaleh Khalid K Department of Pediatrics (Division of Neonatology), King Saud University, King Khalid University Hospital and College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (39), P.O. Box 2925, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, - - 2014
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and nosocomial sepsis are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Through prevention of bacterial migration across the mucosa, competitive exclusion of pathogenic bacteria, and enhancing the immune responses of the host, prophylactic enteral probiotics (live microbial supplements) may play a role in reducing NEC ...
Illanes Sebastián E SE Universidad de Los Andes, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Faculty of Medicine , Santiago , - - 2014
Introduction: In developed countries, preterm birth is the major cause of perinatal morbidity, mortality and the most important public health problem in the obstetric field. In the past decades, an increasing trend has been observed regardless of the great efforts focussed on the improvement of our understanding of the physiopathological ...
van Teeffelen Augustinus S - - 2014
Babies born after midtrimester preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) are at risk to develop neonatal pulmonary hypoplasia. Perinatal mortality and morbidity after this complication is high. Oligohydramnios in the midtrimester following PPROM is considered to cause a delay in lung development. Repeated transabdominal amnioinfusion with the objective to alleviate ...
Levison Judy - - 2014
The overarching goal of this study was to qualitatively assess baseline knowledge and perceptions regarding preterm birth (PTB) and oral health in an at-risk, low resource setting surrounding Lilongwe, Malawi. The aims were to determine what is understood regarding normal length of gestation and how gestational age is estimated, to ...
McEvoy Cindy T CT 1 Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, - - 2014
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication of extreme preterm birth. Infants who develop BPD manifest aberrant or arrested pulmonary development and can experience lifelong alterations in cardiopulmonary function. Despite decades of promising research, primary prevention of BPD has proven elusive. This workshop report identifies current barriers to the ...
Mohammed Eman S ES Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, El-Minia University, University Street, El-Minia, - - 2014
Was to describe the knowledge, attitude, and actual practices of mothers in a rural area in Egypt regarding breastfeeding, complementary feeding and weaning and to explore the effect of educational background and age on these views. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 307 rural mothers who have a youngest ...
Kasivajjula Himabindu H Division of Neonatology and the Center for Neonatal and Pediatric Gastrointestinal Disease, Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, - - 2014
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), an inflammatory bowel necrosis of preterm infants, is the most common gastrointestinal emergency and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these infants. In this article, the authors review the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of NEC and provide a critical appraisal of the evidence supporting various ...
Vandenplas Y Y UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, - - 2014
Experts reviewed the literature to determine if partial whey hydrolysed formulas (HF) offers benefits in the dietary management of frequent gastro-intestinal symptoms and allergy prevention. Compared to standard cow's milk-based formulas, partial whey HF confers a limited protective effect against allergic disease in high-risk infants, particularly atopic dermatitis, but not ...
Carl Mike A MA Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, - - 2014
Background. Late-onset sepsis is a major problem in neonatology, but the habitat of the pathogens before bloodstream invasion occurs is not well established. Methods. We examined prospectively collected stools from premature infants with sepsis to find pathogens that subsequently invaded their bloodstreams, and sought the same organisms in stools of infants without ...
Ditekemena John J Elizabeth Glaser Paediatric AIDS Foundation, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of - - 2014
Effective follow-up of mother-infant pairs is critical for ensuring the success of preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with health outcomes of exposed infants in a PMTCT program in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Data were collected from January 2005 ...
Clark Steven L SL From the Hospital Corporation of America, Nashville, Tennessee. Electronic address: - - 2014
To examine the efficacy of specific protocols developed in response to a previous analysis of maternal deaths in a large hospital system. We also analyzed the theoretical impact of an ideal system of maternal triage and transport on maternal deaths and the relative performance of cause of death determination from ...
Micek Mark A MA University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, - - 2014
Acquisition of nevirapine (NVP)-resistant-HIV-1 by breastfeeding infants, following single-dose-NVP to prevent mother-to-child-transmission, is not well defined. A prospective observational study of 307 infants evaluated the rate of breast milk transmission of NVP-resistant-HIV-1, and the concentrations of mutants over time. NVP-resistance was detected in 9/24 breast milk-infected infants (37.5%, 95% CI ...
Panigrahi Pinaki P Department of Epidemiology and Pediatrics, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, United States; Center for Global Health and Development, College of Public Health, Omaha, NE, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature infants has been recognized as a defined disease entity for at least four decades. Although survival has increased due to the advent of more sophisticated intensive care, incidence and long term health impacts due to NEC remain unchanged and no preventive therapy is currently ...
Griffin Russell L RL Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, - - 2014
The distribution of time from acute traumatic injury to death has three peaks: immediate (less than or equal to one hour), early (6 to 24 hours), and late (days to weeks). It has been suggested that coordinated trauma care dampens the late peak; however, this research may be more reflective ...
Horne Rosemary Sc RS The Ritchie Centre, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Melbourne, - - 2014
The large decline in deaths due to the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in the last 20 years in many countries is largely due to risk-reduction advice resulting from observational studies that examined the relationship between infant care practices and SIDS. Most of this advice remains largely uncontroversial and educators ...
Tzialla Chryssoula C Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
The incidence of neonatal early-onset group B streptococcus (GBS EOS) sepsis has declined during the last decade since the implementation of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis endorsed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines. All the CDC guidelines versions provide recommendations for neonatal management. The neonatal algorithm of CDC has ...
Dessì Angelica A Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Puericulture Institute and Neonatal Section, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, - - 2014
Systemic neonatal infection is a serious complication in preterm and term infants and is defined as a complex clinical syndrome caused by bacteria, fungi and virus. Sepsis remains among the leading causes of death in both developed and underdeveloped countries above all in the neonatal period. Earlier diagnosis may offer ...
Forae Gerald Dafe GD Department of Pathology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, - - 2014
The 4(th) millennium development goals (2002) reported that sub-Saharan Africa countries including Nigeria have a persistently high childhood mortality rates in-spite of all the preventive and interventional measures to reduce this ugly trend. Childhood mortality data was obtained from the medical records department and post-mortem records of the pathology departments ...
Schulte Rachael R Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, - - 2014
Newborns are at risk for vitamin K deficiency and subsequent bleeding unless supplemented at birth. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding is an acquired coagulopathy in newborn infants because of accumulation of inactive vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors, which leads to an increased bleeding tendency. Supplementation of vitamin K at birth has been ...
Barrett Helen L HL Internal Medicine, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Butterfield Street, Herston, Queensland, Australia, - - 2014
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes for mother and infant. The prevention of GDM using lifestyle interventions has proven difficult. The gut microbiome (the composite of bacteria present in the intestines) influences host inflammatory pathways, glucose and lipid metabolism and, in other settings, ...
Jain Deepak D University of Miami, Miami, - - 2014
Since Northway's original description of BPD almost 45 years ago, the clinical presentation of BPD has evolved into a disease process, which mostly involves extremely premature infants. This new form of BPD is the result of multiple antenatal and postnatal factors that can cause injury to the developing lung leading ...
Biran Valérie V Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Hôpital Robert Debré, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, INSERM, Paris, France; PremUP Foundation, Paris, - - 2014
The prevention of neurological disabilities following preterm birth remains a major public health challenge and efforts are still needed to test the neuroprotective properties of candidate molecules. Melatonin serves as a neuroprotectant in adult models of cerebral ischemia through its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. An increasing number of preclinical ...
Uberos J J Unidad Neonatal, Servicio de Pediatría, Hospital Clínico San Cecilio, Avenida del Doctor Oloriz, 16, 18012 Granada, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
To assess the effectiveness of vitamin A supplementation in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants to prevent complications of prematurity. A retrospective cohort study to determine the effectiveness of vitamin A in preventing complications of prematurity in VLBW infants. Vitamin A was delivered intramuscularly at a dose of 5000 IU, three ...
van Vliet Elvira Og EO UMC Utrecht, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology , WKZ, PO Box 85090, 3508 AB Utrecht , Netherlands - - 2014
Introduction: In the developed world, preterm birth is in quantity and in severity the most important issue in obstetric care. Adverse neonatal outcome is strongly related to gestational age at delivery. Since the pathophysiological mechanism of preterm birth is not yet completely unraveled, the development of successful preventive strategies is ...
Joseph Christine L M CL Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA; Center for Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Research, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, - - 2014
The infant gut's ability to suppress immunologic reactions to food proteins could be influenced by levels of TGFβ in breast milk. We hypothesized that lower levels of TGFβ1 in the breast milk (BM) of mothers in the WHEALS birth cohort are associated with atopy at infant age 2-3 yrs. We used ...
Mitchell Caroline C University of Washington, Seattle, - - 2014
Among HIV-1-exposed infants, detection of viral infection at birth was increased by 39% (95% CI 19-47%) by increasing DNA input from dried blood spots into PCR. Infants with low concentrations of HIV-1 at birth may be the best target population to evaluate whether immediate antiretroviral therapy can prevent long-term infection.
Gilley Meghan M BC Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Room K4-226, Ambulatory Care Bldg, 4480 Oak St, Vancouver, BC V6H 3V4. - - 2014
With the increased rate of pertussis in children, several families have asked me about ways to protect their young infants from pertussis infection. What should I recommend to these families? Pertussis is a preventable disease that is endemic worldwide. In adults pertussis causes a mild coldlike illness followed by a ...
Murray Joanna J Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, , London, - - 2014
In most high-income countries palivizumab prophylaxis is considered safe, efficacious and cost-effective for preventing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospital admissions among specific subgroups of infants born preterm, with chronic lung disease or with congenital heart disease. Virtually all babies acquire RSV during infancy and previously healthy babies are not eligible ...
Foolad N N Department of Dermatology, University of California at Davis School of Medicine, 3301 C Street, Suite 1400, Sacramento, CA 95816, - - 2014
The purpose of this review was to identify whether supplementation with prebiotics and/or probiotics help prevent the development or reduce the severity of atopic dermatitis in children less than three years of age. Since 1997, immunostimulatory supplements, such as prebiotics and probiotics, have been investigated. Various supplementations include probiotics (single ...
Tomlinson Mark M Department of Psychology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South - - 2014
Progress towards MDG4 for child survival in South Africa requires effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV including increasing exclusive breastfeeding, as well as a new focus on reducing neonatal deaths. This necessitates increased focus on the pregnancy and early post-natal periods, developing and scaling up appropriate models of ...
Jakaitis Brett M BM Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Atlanta, GA, United - - 2014
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease of prematurity with significant morbidity and mortality. Immaturity of intestinal host defenses predisposes the premature infant gut to injury. An abnormal bacterial colonization pattern with a deficiency of commensal bacteria may lead to a further breakdown of these host defense mechanisms, predisposing the ...
Rehan Virender K VK Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA MEDICAL CENTER, Pediatrics, Torrance, California, United States ; - - 2014
Significance: Oxygen, the main mode of support for premature infants with immature lungs, can cause toxicity by producing Radical Oxygen Species (ROS) that disrupt homeostasis, yet these same molecules were entrained to promote vertebrate lung phylogeny. By providing deeper understanding of this paradox, we propose physiologically rationale strategies to prevent ...
Bartlett Jessica Dym JD Brazelton Touchpoints Center, Division of Developmental Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, - - 2014
To inform efforts to prevent child neglect, we investigated a wide range of risk factors that have been largely unexamined in relation to infant neglect, the most commonly occurring form of child maltreatment. Using an ecological model of child neglect, we assessed the influence of characteristics at the level of ...
Chen An-Chyi AC *Department of Pediatrics and School of Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung †Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung ‡Department of Pediatrics and School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University Hospital §China Medical University School of Chinese Medicine, Taichung, - - 2014
Recent reports show that the incidence of and deaths caused by necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm very-low-birth-weight (PVLBW) infants are on the rise. Unfortunately, NEC often rapidly progresses from early signs of intestinal inflammation to extensive necrosis within a matter of hours, making treatment and secondary prevention extremely difficult to ...
van den Broek Nynke R NR Centre for Maternal and Newborn Health, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, United - - 2014
Assessment of risk factors for preterm birth in a population with high incidence of preterm birth and HIV infection. Secondary analysis of data for 2,149 women included in a community based randomized placebo controlled trial for the prevention of preterm birth (APPLe trial (ISRCTN84023116) with gestational age at birth determined ...
Duse M M Department of Pediatrics, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy, Rome, - - 2014
After birth various bacterial species, mainly streptococci, colonize the oral cavity and are frequently isolated from carious lesions in children. Previous studies suggest that an earlier colonization of a child’s mouth by cariogenic organisms might be related to a higher risk of caries. The aim of this study is to ...
Walsh Paul P University of California Davis, Department of Emergency Medicine , Sacramento, CA , United States ; Kern Medical Center , Bakersfield, CA , United - - 2014
Background. Pacifier use decreases the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). An emergency department (ED) visit may provide an opportunistic 'teachable moment' for parents. Objectives. To test the hypotheses (1) that caregivers were less familiar with the role of pacifiers in sudden infant death (SIDS) prevention than other recommendations, ...
Lawani Lucky O LO School of Postgraduate Studies, Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu State, - - 2014
Global and national efforts in the 21st century are directed toward the elimination of new pediatric HIV infections through evidence-based infant feeding interventions for the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission, with patient preference, motivation, and adherence identified as key factors for success. This study assessed the challenges faced by HIV-infected parturients in ...
Neu Josef J Department of Pediatrics/Neonatology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla., - - 2014
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common severe neonatal gastrointestinal emergency that predominantly affects premature infants. Its morbidity and mortality is similar to other severe childhood diseases such as meningitis and leukemia, and is becoming increasingly recognized as a major cause of neurodevelopmental delays. The etiology of NEC remains obscure ...
Björkenstam Charlotte C Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden ; National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm, - - 2014
Several studies have concluded that some deaths classified as undetermined intent are in fact suicides, and it is common in suicide research in Europe to include these deaths. Our aim was to investigate if information on background variables would be helpful in assessing if deaths classified as undetermined intent should ...
Owen Leah A LA Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, - - 2014
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a potentially blinding disorder in premature infants. The underlying pathophysiology is incompletely understood, limiting the prevention and treatment of this devastating condition. Current therapies are directed toward management of aberrant neovascularization thought to result from retinal ischemia in the developing preterm retina. The molecular mediators ...
Ghaemi Sadigheh S Departments of Pediatrics, Child Growth and Development Research Center, and Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, - - 2014
Neonatal conjunctivitis leads to several ocular consequences in the affected neonates such as blindness. Currently available therapeutic options include NaNO3, Gentamicin, Neomycin and so on, in which each of them has their own limitations. Regarding the immunologic content of colostrum and its safety and easy accessibility, we aimed to evaluate ...
Kacenelenbogen Nadine N http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8602-3574 Département de Médecine Générale, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, - - 2014
Analyse the parental behaviours that are recognised as influencing the health of very young children based on family structure (parents separated or not). Cross-sectional study. Free preventive medicine consultations in the French Community of Belgium. Examination of 79 701 infants aged 7-11 months as part of a free preventive medicine consultation. The ...
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