Search Results
Results 151 - 200 of 693
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Larijani Faezeh Javadi FJ Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, Children Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, - - 2013
The most common cause of neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NBD) in newborn infants is myelomeningocele. The pathophysiology almost always involves the bladder detrusor sphincter dyssynergy (DSD), which if untreated can cause severe and irreversible damage to the upper and lower urinary tracts. Early diagnosis and adequate management of NBD is critical ...
Di Gioia Diana - - 2013
This review is aimed at describing the most recent advances in the gut microbiota composition of newborns and infants with a particular emphasis on bifidobacteria. The newborn gut microbiota is quite unstable, whereas after weaning, it becomes more stable and gets closer to the typical adult microbiota. The newborn and ...
Crowther Caroline A - - 2013
Thyrotropin-releasing hormones (TRH) added to prenatal corticosteroids has been suggested as a way to further reduce breathing problems and neonatal lung disease in infants born preterm. To assess the effects of giving prenatal TRH in addition to corticosteroids to women at risk of preterm birth for the prevention of neonatal ...
Lawn Joy E - - 2013
This article is part of a supplement jointly funded by Save the Children's Saving Newborn Lives programme through a grant from The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and March of Dimes Foundation and published in collaboration with the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and the World Health Organization ...
Ghadrshenas Anisa A aClinton Health Access Initiative, Boston, Massachusetts bThe Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York, New York cCenters for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA dNational Health Laboratory Services, Johannesburg, South Africa eAnn & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, - - 2013
Prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) programs have made it possible to achieve dramatic reductions in the rate of vertical HIV transmission. However, high attrition, particularly after delivery, has limited the impact of these interventions for HIV-exposed infants who remain at risk through the end of breastfeeding. A review of current literature on early ...
Omranikhoo Habib H Department of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ; Department of Health Promotion, School of Health, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, - - 2013
Avoidable mortality as an indicator for assessing the health system performance has caught the attention of researchers for a long time. In this study we aimed to compare the health system performance using this indicator in rural and urban areas of one of Iran's southern provinces. All deaths (29916) which ...
Järvinen Kirsi M - - 2013
The role of maternal avoidance diets in the prevention of food allergies is currently under debate. Little is known regarding the effects of such diets on human milk (HM) composition or induction of infant humoral responses. To assess the association of maternal cow's milk (CM) avoidance during breastfeeding with specific ...
Papatsonis Dimitri Nm - - 2013
In some women, an episode of preterm labour settles and does not result in immediate preterm birth. Subsequent treatment with tocolytic agents such as oxytocin receptor antagonists may then have the potential to prevent the recurrence of preterm labour, prolonging gestation, and preventing the adverse consequences of prematurity for the ...
Sania Ayesha - - 2013
Our objectives were to examine the associations of neonatal and infant mortality with preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and to estimate the partial population attributable risk per cent (pPAR%) of neonatal and infant mortality due to preterm birth and IUGR. Participants were HIV-negative pregnant women and their infants ...
Maayan-Metzger Ayala - - 2013
Objective: To evaluate the effect of duration of early breastfeeding in the delivery room on blood glucose levels among term neonates of diabetic mothers. Methods: Mothers with gestational diabetes were encouraged to breastfeed their infants immediately after birth in the delivery room. The breastfeeding duration was recorded by the midwife. ...
Sung Valerie - - 2013
IMPORTANCE Excessive infant crying is common, distressing, but without proven effective prevention or management options. Probiotics may be a promising solution. OBJECTIVE To examine whether probiotics are effective in the prevention/management of crying ("colic") in infants 3 months or younger. DATA SOURCES A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ...
Aydin Mustafa - - 2013
We read with great interest the article by Barois and Tourneux (1) that evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of administering immediate ketamine analgesia, plus atrophine, to preterm newborn babies at birth, so that tracheal intubation could be carried out in the delivery room. The authors suggest that this practice is ...
Tinker Sarah C - - 2013
Hispanics in the US have a higher prevalence of neural tube defect (NTD) -affected pregnancies than non-Hispanic whites, and lower median total folic acid (FA) intake. FA fortification of corn masa flour (CMF) is a policy-level intervention for NTD prevention; however, the impact on NTD prevalence has not been estimated. ...
Duzinski Sarah V - - 2013
Accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed is a leading cause of preventable infant death. Bed sharing, teen motherhood, and Hispanic ethnicity have been associated with infant sleep suffocation death. Fifty-five Hispanic teen mothers were surveyed regarding acculturation/demographic characteristics and their infants' sleep behaviors. Most participants had 2 foreign-born parents from ...
Bukar M M Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, - - 2013
The North Eastern region of Nigeria has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) in the world, and most of these deaths are preventable. Culture, religion and customs that prevent access to care contribute immensely to these deaths. To review and document the MMR. This was a retrospective study ...
Glidewell Jill - - 2013
Purpose:As epidemiological studies expand to examine gene-environment interaction effects, it is important to identify factors associated with participation in genetic studies. The National Birth Defects Prevention Study is a multisite case-control study designed to investigate environmental and genetic risk factors for major birth defects. The National Birth Defects Prevention Study ...
Bergmann Renate L - - 2013
Abstract Natural processes do not always function perfectly. In breastfeeding, problems are encountered in up to 80% of mother-infant dyads. Altogether, in Western societies, the difficulties reduce the breastfeeding rate within the first months drastically. To deal with the problems of breastfeeding efficiently requires a profound understanding of its physiology, ...
Sibanda Euphemia - - 2013
Although prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs are widely implemented, many children do not benefit from them because of loss to follow-up (LTFU). We conducted a systematic review to determine the magnitude of infant/baby LTFU along the PMTCT cascade. Eligible publications reported infant LTFU outcomes from standard care PMTCT ...
Castoldi Francesca - - 2013
Preterm birth is a significant problem in the world regarding perinatal mortality and morbidity in the long term, especially bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Premature delivery is often associated to failure in transition to create an early functional residual capacity (FRC), since many preterm babies need frequently respiratory support. The first and ...
Matteson Tara - - 2013
Inhospital newborn falls are arguably one of the most underresearched and underreported issues for organizations that care for newborn patients. From the few published statistics of inhospital fall rates, we know that perhaps 600 to 1,600 newborn falls occur annually. Many of these falls can result in injury or even ...
Browne Marilyn L - - 2013
Butalbital is a barbiturate contained in combination products with caffeine and an analgesic prescribed for the treatment of migraine and tension-type headaches. Controversy exists as to whether butalbital should continue to be prescribed in the United States because of the potential for abuse, overuse headache, and withdrawal syndromes. Butalbital crosses ...
Qureshi Mosarrat J - - 2013
The rate of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in moderately premature infants has decreased dramatically with improved care in the neonatal intensive care unit. A low rate of this disorder was unexpectedly observed among infants treated with intravenous D-penicillamine to prevent hyperbilirubinaemia. This observation led to the investigation of its use, ...
Ahmed Saeed S Baylor College of Medicine International Pediatric AIDS Initiative at Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, - - 2013
Considerable debate has emerged on whether Option B+ (B+), initiation of lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women, is the best approach to achieving elimination of mother-to-child-transmission. However, direct evidence and experience with B+ is limited. We review the current evidence informing the proposed benefits and potential ...
Schuler-Faccini Lavinia L INAGEMP (Instituto Nacional de Genética Médica Populacional) at Teratogen Information Service, Medical Genetics Service, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil, - - 2014
Recent economic improvement in Brazil has been reflected in better maternal-child health indicators, with decreases in infant and perinatal mortality. However, under-five mortality due to congenital disorders remained unchanged, and congenital disorders have become the second leading cause of infant mortality. In the present study, we used the PHG Foundation ...
Ahlers-Schmidt Carolyn R - - 2013
Safe sleep practices reduce an infant's risk for sudden infant death syndrome and sleep-related death. While rates of infants placed on their back to sleep are high, other safe sleep practices are less widely implemented. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility of using cosmetologists as health promoters for infant ...
Kurvers Roel A J - - 2013
Bordetella pertussis or whooping cough is a vaccine-preventable disease that still remains a serious infection in neonates and young infants. We describe two young infants, monozygotic twins, with a severe B. pertussis pneumonia of whom one needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Diagnostic work-up of unexplained hematuria and proteinuria during the illness ...
Zork Noelia - - 2013
The twin birth rate has been steadily increasing in the United States over the past 10 years attributable in large part to the increased use of reproductive technologies. Despite advancements in the prevention of preterm labor for singletons, the overall rate of preterm birth has decreased only minimally. Several interventions ...
Plank Rebeca M RM Division of Infectious Disease, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. - - 2013
Early infant (1-60 days of life) male circumcision is being trialed in Africa as a human immunodeficiency virus prevention strategy. Postcircumcision bleeding is particularly concerning where most infants are breastfed, and thus these infants are at increased risk of vitamin K deficiency bleeding. During a circumcision trial, one infant bled ...
Ersdal H L - - 2013
Intrapartum-related hypoxia leading to deaths and disabilities continues to be a global challenge, especially in resource-limited settings. Primary prevention during labour is likely to have a significant impact, but secondary prevention with focus on immediate basic stabilization at birth can effectively reduce a large proportion of these adverse outcomes as ...
Shinwell Eric S - - 2013
In this issue of the journal, Williams et al provide both good and potentially not so good news on the contribution that infections make to neonatal and infant mortality (1). The good news is that the absolute numbers of neonates and infants dying of infectious causes in the north of England ...
Poeggeler Burkhard - - 2013
Evaluation of: Merchant NM, Azzopardi DV, Hawwa AF et al. Pharmacokinetics of melatonin in preterm infants. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. doi: 10.1111/bcp.12092 (2013) (Epub ahead of print). The paper by Merchant et al. demonstrates that the pharmacokinetic profile of melatonin differs in preterm infants from that of adults. The findings ...
Kibayashi Kazuhiko - - 2013
To ascertain the characteristics of accidental deaths of elderly people in urban and rural areas, we analyzed the deaths of elderly people over the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, in three geographic areas: nationwide, in the 23 wards of the metropolis of Tokyo, and in Saga prefecture. In addition, ...
Roberts Drucilla J - - 2013
This Commentary highlights the article by Sundaram et al that described a novel use of a common organic solvent, N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) in preventing inflammation-mediated preterm birth.
Hellström Ann A Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, - - 2013
The immature retinas of preterm neonates are susceptible to insults that disrupt neurovascular growth, leading to retinopathy of prematurity. Suppression of growth factors due to hyperoxia and loss of the maternal-fetal interaction result in an arrest of retinal vascularisation (phase 1). Subsequently, the increasingly metabolically active, yet poorly vascularised, retina ...
Trembath Andrea A Department of Pediatrics, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, - - 2013
To compare effectiveness of 3 surfactant preparations (beractant, calfactant, and poractant alfa) in premature infants for preventing 3 outcomes: (1) air leak syndromes; (2) death; and (3) bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death (composite outcome). We conducted a comparative effectiveness study of premature infants admitted to 322 neonatal intensive care units ...
Vohra Sunita - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: Immediate postnatal hypothermia is an independent risk factor for death in premature newborns. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and five historical controlled trials show statistically significant differences in admission temperature between infants wrapped in occlusive skin wrap and unwrapped infants. This paper presents a study protocol for The Vermont ...
Garcia Alfredo J AJ - - 2013
It is well established that environmental and biological risk factors contribute to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). There is also growing consensus that SIDS requires the intersection of multiple risk factors that result in the failure of an infant to overcome cardio-respiratory challenges. Thus, the critical next steps in understanding ...
Limelette Anne - - 2013
The concept of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is defined as the sudden, unexpected death of an infant less than a year old which remains unexplained after in-depth investigations comprising a complete autopsy, biological analyses, and a clinical examination of the circumstances surrounding the death. This definition underlines the importance ...
Slogar Ann - - 2013
There is an increasing focus to keep newborns in the hospital safe from falls, as reports indicate that infant falls can occur in the immediate postpartum period. Previous reports have identified factors present at the time of newborn falls, yet there is little information on the prevalence of "near misses" ...
Manzoni Paolo - - 2013
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a multifactorial disease, but little is known about its relationships with neonatal nutritional policies. Human, maternal milk is the best possible nutritional option for all premature infants, including those at high risk for severe complications of prematurity, such as ROP. This is a secondary analysis ...
Clark Mary - - 2013
Breastfed infants are more likely to be jaundiced than infants who are formula fed. Community practitioners need to understand the physiology of jaundice and the issues associated with breastfeeding so that they can support parents. Visible jaundice is a result of hyperbilirubinaemia and, in most cases, is harmless and caused ...
Bernstein Paul S PS Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA. - - 2013
While the role of the macular pigment carotenoids in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration has been extensively studied in adults, comparatively little is known about the physiology and function of lutein and zeaxanthin in the developing eye. We therefore developed a protocol using a digital video fundus camera (RetCam) ...
Jibril Murtala M Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Bayero University Kano, Kano State, Nigeria and Alnoury Hospital, Kano, Kano State, - - 2013
The Truvada(®) (tenofovir/emtricitabine) and nevirapine combination is increasingly being prescribed for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission. There is presently no documented evidence of teratogenicity of either tenofovir/emtricitabine or nevirapine. We report two cases of spina bifida in infants of mothers on this drug combination.
Lin Hsiang-Yu - - 2013
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is still one of the most catastrophic intestinal emergencies in preterm very low-birth weight infants. Primary prevention of NEC should be the priority, since NEC frequently progresses from nonspecific signs, to extensive necrosis within a matter of hours with medical or surgical treatment, making successful treatment and ...
Mekonnen Yared - - 2013
BACKGROUND: The Ethiopian neonatal mortality rate constitutes 42% of under-5 deaths. We aimed to examine the trends and determinants of Ethiopian neonatal mortality. METHODS: We analyzed the birth history information of live births from the 2000, 2005 and 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). We used simple linear regression ...
Sonia Chaabane - - 2013
Background: Major congenital malformations (MCMs) are a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality and constitute an important societal and economic burden. Methods: We conducted a literature review to synthesize current evidence on MCMs. Specific objectives were to: 1) summarize internationally reported prevalence of MCMs based on registries and surveillance ...
Gibbs Nm - - 2013
This article summarises the Australian national anaesthesia mortality data from 1985-2008, previously published in eight consecutive triennial reports and covering an estimated 50 million anaesthetics. The data were obtained using consistent definitions and methodology over a 24-year period. Anaesthesia-related mortality in Australia fell from about 1:36,000 anaesthetics in the 1985-1987 ...
Agostoni Carlo - - 2013
In the last 10 years the major efforts of pediatricians (not just nutritionists) throughout the world has been aimed at two major tasks: supporting breastfeeding for as long as possible, firstly as exclusive for the first 6 months, and then adequately complemented with solids (up to 24 months and beyond ...
Chopra Mickey - - 2013
Global under-5 mortality has fallen rapidly from 12 million deaths in 1990, to 6·9 million in 2011; however, this number still falls short of the target of a two-thirds reduction or a maximum of 4 million deaths by 2015. Acceleration of reductions in deaths due to pneumonia and diarrhoea, which ...
Cantey Joseph B - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of a set of multidisciplinary interventions aimed at limiting patient-to-patient transmission of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) during a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) outbreak, and to identify risk factors associated with ESBL-KP colonization and disease in this setting. STUDY DESIGN: A 61-infant cohort present ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >