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Zork Noelia - - 2013
The twin birth rate has been steadily increasing in the United States over the past 10 years attributable in large part to the increased use of reproductive technologies. Despite advancements in the prevention of preterm labor for singletons, the overall rate of preterm birth has decreased only minimally. Several interventions ...
Ersdal H L - - 2013
Intrapartum-related hypoxia leading to deaths and disabilities continues to be a global challenge, especially in resource-limited settings. Primary prevention during labour is likely to have a significant impact, but secondary prevention with focus on immediate basic stabilization at birth can effectively reduce a large proportion of these adverse outcomes as ...
Shinwell Eric S - - 2013
In this issue of the journal, Williams et al provide both good and potentially not so good news on the contribution that infections make to neonatal and infant mortality (1). The good news is that the absolute numbers of neonates and infants dying of infectious causes in the north of England ...
Poeggeler Burkhard - - 2013
Evaluation of: Merchant NM, Azzopardi DV, Hawwa AF et al. Pharmacokinetics of melatonin in preterm infants. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. doi: 10.1111/bcp.12092 (2013) (Epub ahead of print). The paper by Merchant et al. demonstrates that the pharmacokinetic profile of melatonin differs in preterm infants from that of adults. The findings ...
Kibayashi Kazuhiko - - 2013
To ascertain the characteristics of accidental deaths of elderly people in urban and rural areas, we analyzed the deaths of elderly people over the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, in three geographic areas: nationwide, in the 23 wards of the metropolis of Tokyo, and in Saga prefecture. In addition, ...
Roberts Drucilla J - - 2013
This Commentary highlights the article by Sundaram et al that described a novel use of a common organic solvent, N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) in preventing inflammation-mediated preterm birth.
Hellström Ann A Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, - - 2013
The immature retinas of preterm neonates are susceptible to insults that disrupt neurovascular growth, leading to retinopathy of prematurity. Suppression of growth factors due to hyperoxia and loss of the maternal-fetal interaction result in an arrest of retinal vascularisation (phase 1). Subsequently, the increasingly metabolically active, yet poorly vascularised, retina ...
Trembath Andrea A Department of Pediatrics, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, - - 2013
To compare effectiveness of 3 surfactant preparations (beractant, calfactant, and poractant alfa) in premature infants for preventing 3 outcomes: (1) air leak syndromes; (2) death; and (3) bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death (composite outcome). We conducted a comparative effectiveness study of premature infants admitted to 322 neonatal intensive care units ...
Vohra Sunita - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: Immediate postnatal hypothermia is an independent risk factor for death in premature newborns. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and five historical controlled trials show statistically significant differences in admission temperature between infants wrapped in occlusive skin wrap and unwrapped infants. This paper presents a study protocol for The Vermont ...
Garcia Alfredo J AJ - - 2013
It is well established that environmental and biological risk factors contribute to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). There is also growing consensus that SIDS requires the intersection of multiple risk factors that result in the failure of an infant to overcome cardio-respiratory challenges. Thus, the critical next steps in understanding ...
Limelette Anne - - 2013
The concept of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is defined as the sudden, unexpected death of an infant less than a year old which remains unexplained after in-depth investigations comprising a complete autopsy, biological analyses, and a clinical examination of the circumstances surrounding the death. This definition underlines the importance ...
Slogar Ann - - 2013
There is an increasing focus to keep newborns in the hospital safe from falls, as reports indicate that infant falls can occur in the immediate postpartum period. Previous reports have identified factors present at the time of newborn falls, yet there is little information on the prevalence of "near misses" ...
Manzoni Paolo - - 2013
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a multifactorial disease, but little is known about its relationships with neonatal nutritional policies. Human, maternal milk is the best possible nutritional option for all premature infants, including those at high risk for severe complications of prematurity, such as ROP. This is a secondary analysis ...
Clark Mary - - 2013
Breastfed infants are more likely to be jaundiced than infants who are formula fed. Community practitioners need to understand the physiology of jaundice and the issues associated with breastfeeding so that they can support parents. Visible jaundice is a result of hyperbilirubinaemia and, in most cases, is harmless and caused ...
Bernstein Paul S PS Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA. - - 2013
While the role of the macular pigment carotenoids in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration has been extensively studied in adults, comparatively little is known about the physiology and function of lutein and zeaxanthin in the developing eye. We therefore developed a protocol using a digital video fundus camera (RetCam) ...
Lin Hsiang-Yu - - 2013
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is still one of the most catastrophic intestinal emergencies in preterm very low-birth weight infants. Primary prevention of NEC should be the priority, since NEC frequently progresses from nonspecific signs, to extensive necrosis within a matter of hours with medical or surgical treatment, making successful treatment and ...
Mekonnen Yared - - 2013
BACKGROUND: The Ethiopian neonatal mortality rate constitutes 42% of under-5 deaths. We aimed to examine the trends and determinants of Ethiopian neonatal mortality. METHODS: We analyzed the birth history information of live births from the 2000, 2005 and 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). We used simple linear regression ...
Sonia Chaabane - - 2013
Background: Major congenital malformations (MCMs) are a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality and constitute an important societal and economic burden. Methods: We conducted a literature review to synthesize current evidence on MCMs. Specific objectives were to: 1) summarize internationally reported prevalence of MCMs based on registries and surveillance ...
Gibbs Nm - - 2013
This article summarises the Australian national anaesthesia mortality data from 1985-2008, previously published in eight consecutive triennial reports and covering an estimated 50 million anaesthetics. The data were obtained using consistent definitions and methodology over a 24-year period. Anaesthesia-related mortality in Australia fell from about 1:36,000 anaesthetics in the 1985-1987 ...
Agostoni Carlo - - 2013
In the last 10 years the major efforts of pediatricians (not just nutritionists) throughout the world has been aimed at two major tasks: supporting breastfeeding for as long as possible, firstly as exclusive for the first 6 months, and then adequately complemented with solids (up to 24 months and beyond ...
Chopra Mickey - - 2013
Global under-5 mortality has fallen rapidly from 12 million deaths in 1990, to 6·9 million in 2011; however, this number still falls short of the target of a two-thirds reduction or a maximum of 4 million deaths by 2015. Acceleration of reductions in deaths due to pneumonia and diarrhoea, which ...
Cantey Joseph B - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of a set of multidisciplinary interventions aimed at limiting patient-to-patient transmission of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) during a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) outbreak, and to identify risk factors associated with ESBL-KP colonization and disease in this setting. STUDY DESIGN: A 61-infant cohort present ...
Fleischman Ellen K - - 2013
Hospitalized infants often receive expressed breast milk, either from their mother or from banked milk. Breast milk provides optimal nutrition for infants but because it is a body fluid it carries the risk of disease transmission. Therefore, administering the correct breast milk to hospitalized infants is essential. Bar coding technology, ...
Nugent Richard - - 2013
Between 2003 and 2009, the infant mortality rate for Arkansas declined from 8.8 to 7.3 per thousand live births. The number of infant deaths declined from 332 in 2003 to 290 in 2009. Reductions occurred among infants born extremely prematurely, and to African American newborns. The death rates among births ...
Bhutani Vinod K VK Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatal and Developmental Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, California, - - 2013
Hemolytic conditions in preterm neonates, including Rhesus (Rh) disease, can lead to mortality and long-term impairments due to bilirubin neurotoxicity. Universal access to Rh immunoprophylaxis, coordinated perinatal-neonatal care, and effective phototherapy has virtually eliminated the risk of kernicterus in many countries. In the absence of jaundice due to isoimmunization and ...
Acosta Colleen D CD National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, UK. - - 2013
Despite global progress towards reducing maternal mortality, sepsis remains a leading cause of preventable maternal death. This review focuses on current measurement challenges, trends, causes and efforts to curb maternal death from sepsis in high and low-income countries. Under-reporting using routine registration data, compounded by misclassification and unreported deaths, results ...
Ghanta Sailaja S Division of Newborn Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2013
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most prevalent long-term morbidity in surviving extremely preterm infants and is linked to increased risk of reactive airways disease, pulmonary hypertension, post-neonatal mortality, and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. BPD affects approximately 20% of premature newborns, and up to 60% of premature infants born before completing 26 ...
Schmouder Vanessa M - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate data since 2003 on the efficacy and safety of progesterone supple mentation in the prevention of preterm labor.DATA SOURCES:A MEDLINE and Ovid database search (January 2003-September 2012) was performed using the search terms preterm, progesterone, and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate. All relevant abstracts were reviewed.STUDY SELECTION:For efficacy and safety data, ...
King Jennifer P - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to identify disparities in neonatal, post-neonatal, and overall infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm (34-36 weeks gestation) and early term (37-38 weeks gestation) by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. In analyses of 2003-2005 data from US period linked birth/infant death datasets, we compared infant ...
Swaney Paul - - 2013
Objective To assess the evidence available on the use of vitamin C supplementation greater than recommended dietary intake to reduce preterm birth rates.Study Design Systematic review of randomized controlled trials using vitamin C alone or with one other supplement other than iron. Trials must report preterm birth rates but can ...
Voltolini Chiara - - 2013
Preterm birth is defined as birth before 37 weeks' gestational age. With an incidence of 7% to 11%, it is one of the major causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Preterm birth is considered a clinical syndrome, which arises from different pathological processes that activate prematurely one or more components ...
Lathrop Sarah L - - 2013
To better understand risk factors and populations at risk of childhood fatalities, a review of all records of childhood deaths (≤19 years) between 2000 and 2010 from New Mexico's statewide medical examiner was conducted. Annually, 313-383 childhood deaths were investigated (3820 total). Males and American Indians were overrepresented (62% and 20.4% ...
Padilla Cindy - - 2013
In France, reducing social health inequalities has become an explicit goal of health policies over the past few years, one of its objectives is specifically the reduction of the perinatal mortality rate. This study investigates the association between infant mortality and social deprivation categories at a small area level in ...
Rostila Mikael - - 2013
In this issue of the Journal, Bjørngaard et al. give us new insights into the etiology of mental health by studying birth order and suicide risk (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;000(00):000-000). Although the authors provided empirical evidence that each increase in birth order (i.e., from first-born to second-born, second-born to third-born, ...
Desclaux Alice - - 2013
When, in 2010, a new PMTCT (Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission) strategy replaced the provision of infant formula to mothers living with HIV by a prophylaxis based on antiretrovirals, some Senegalese couples decided to purchase infant formula on their own, thereby risking 'medically induced poverty'. This case study analyzes the emergence ...
Schleußner Ekkehard - - 2013
The percentage of preterm births in Germany is high at 9%, but stable. 77% of cases of perinatal death are in prematurely born infants. Intensive research efforts are being directed toward the development of new means of primary and secondary prevention, diagnostic assessment, and pharmacotherapy of premature labor. We review ...
Jordan Brian K - - 2013
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in premature infants. It is caused by surfactant deficiency and lung immaturity. Lucinactant is a synthetic surfactant containing sinapultide, a bioengineered peptide mimic of surfactant-associated protein B. A meta-analysis of clinical trials demonstrates that lucinactant is as ...
Najib Khadije Sadat - - 2013
Today, Severe hyperbilirubinemia is the most common cause of neonatal readmissions. Identification of the cause of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is useful in determining whether therapeutic interventions can prevent severe hyperbilirubinemia. We conducted this study to estimate the incidence of severe hyperbilirubinemia in Fars province and to determine the underlying causes and ...
Foolad Negar N Department of Dermatology, University of California at Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA 95816, - - 2013
To identify whether nutrient supplementation with probiotics, prebiotics, formula, or fatty acids prevents the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) or reduces the severity of AD in newborns to children younger than 3 years. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science ...
Cowan Stephanie - - 2013
AIM: This paper describes the usage, impact and reach of an online education tool for preventing sudden infant death. METHODS: A 24-slide presentation was formatted for online access. Content was designed for mainstream audiences to align current knowledge, attitudes and actions for a blitz approach to preventing sudden infant death ...
Sachdev H P S - - 2013
Childhood anemia has major adverse consequences for health and development. It's prevalence in India continues to range from 70 to 90%. Although anemia is multifactorial in etiology, preventative efforts have predominantly focused on increasing iron intake, primarily through supplementation in pregnant and lactating women. Policy thrust for childhood anemia is ...
Bjornard Kari - - 2013
Knowledge of patterns in prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHDs) is important for clinical care, etiologic research, and prevention. We evaluated temporal and racial/ethnic trends in the birth prevalence of CHDs in metropolitan Atlanta from 1978 to 2005. Cases of CHDs were obtained from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program ...
Munywoki Patrick Kiio PK KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme Centre for Geographic Medicine Research–Coast, Kilifi, Kenya. - - 2013
Severe lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in infants caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been associated with later pneumonia hospitalization among children. To determine risk for pneumonia after RSV hospitalization in infancy, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 2,813 infants admitted to a hospital in Kenya and identified ...
Lunze Karsten - - 2013
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To provide evidence on the global epidemiological situation of neonatal hypothermia and to provide recommendations for future policy and research directions. METHODS: Using PubMed as our principal electronic reference library, we searched studies for prevalence and risk factor data on neonatal hypothermia in resource-limited environments globally. Studies specifying ...
Dolan Siobhan M - - 2013
Preterm birth has the highest mortality and morbidity of all pregnancy complications. The burden of preterm birth on public health worldwide is enormous, yet there are few effective means to prevent a preterm delivery. To date, much of its etiology is unexplained, but genetic predisposition is thought to play a ...
Frank Monika - - 2013
Single-dose nevirapine for mothers and newborns at delivery is the simplest prevention strategy for vertical HIV-1 transmission and hence widely used in resource-constrained settings. HIV-1-positive mothers and newborns received single-dose nevirapine in a prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (PMTCT) program in Uganda. In a pharmacokinetic investigation, breast milk and plasma ...
Camacho-Gonzalez Andres - - 2013
Neonatal sepsis remains a feared cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Maternal, neonatal, and environmental factors are associated with risk of infection, and a combination of prevention strategies, judicious neonatal evaluation, and early initiation of therapy are required to prevent adverse outcomes. This article reviews recent trends ...
Patel Ravi Mangal RM Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 2015 Uppergate Drive Northeast, 3rd Floor, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2013
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, and preventive therapies that are both effective and safe are urgently needed. Current evidence from therapeutic trials suggests that probiotics are effective in decreasing NEC in preterm infants, and probiotics are currently the most promising therapy for this ...
McClure Elizabeth M EM Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Research Triangle Institute, Durham, NC 27709, USA. - - 2013
To create a comprehensive model of the comparative impact of various interventions on maternal, fetal, and neonatal (MFN) mortality. The major conditions and sub-conditions contributing to MFN mortality in low-resource areas were identified, and the prevalence and case fatality rates documented. Available interventions were mapped to these conditions, and intervention ...
Gonzalez Juan M JM Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, - - 2013
Understanding the mechanisms of term and preterm cervical remodeling is essential to prevent prematurity. Is preterm cervical remodeling caused by the same mechanisms that cause cervical remodeling at term, and are these changes accelerated in time? This question has been pondered by obstetricians seeking strategies to prevent preterm labor for ...
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