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Results 101 - 150 of 578
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Voltolini Chiara - - 2013
Preterm birth is defined as birth before 37 weeks' gestational age. With an incidence of 7% to 11%, it is one of the major causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Preterm birth is considered a clinical syndrome, which arises from different pathological processes that activate prematurely one or more components ...
Lathrop Sarah L - - 2013
To better understand risk factors and populations at risk of childhood fatalities, a review of all records of childhood deaths (≤19 years) between 2000 and 2010 from New Mexico's statewide medical examiner was conducted. Annually, 313-383 childhood deaths were investigated (3820 total). Males and American Indians were overrepresented (62% and 20.4% ...
Padilla Cindy - - 2013
In France, reducing social health inequalities has become an explicit goal of health policies over the past few years, one of its objectives is specifically the reduction of the perinatal mortality rate. This study investigates the association between infant mortality and social deprivation categories at a small area level in ...
Rostila Mikael - - 2013
In this issue of the Journal, Bjørngaard et al. give us new insights into the etiology of mental health by studying birth order and suicide risk (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;000(00):000-000). Although the authors provided empirical evidence that each increase in birth order (i.e., from first-born to second-born, second-born to third-born, ...
Desclaux Alice - - 2013
When, in 2010, a new PMTCT (Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission) strategy replaced the provision of infant formula to mothers living with HIV by a prophylaxis based on antiretrovirals, some Senegalese couples decided to purchase infant formula on their own, thereby risking 'medically induced poverty'. This case study analyzes the emergence ...
Schleußner Ekkehard - - 2013
The percentage of preterm births in Germany is high at 9%, but stable. 77% of cases of perinatal death are in prematurely born infants. Intensive research efforts are being directed toward the development of new means of primary and secondary prevention, diagnostic assessment, and pharmacotherapy of premature labor. We review ...
Jordan Brian K - - 2013
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in premature infants. It is caused by surfactant deficiency and lung immaturity. Lucinactant is a synthetic surfactant containing sinapultide, a bioengineered peptide mimic of surfactant-associated protein B. A meta-analysis of clinical trials demonstrates that lucinactant is as ...
Najib Khadije Sadat - - 2013
Today, Severe hyperbilirubinemia is the most common cause of neonatal readmissions. Identification of the cause of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is useful in determining whether therapeutic interventions can prevent severe hyperbilirubinemia. We conducted this study to estimate the incidence of severe hyperbilirubinemia in Fars province and to determine the underlying causes and ...
Foolad Negar N Department of Dermatology, University of California at Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA 95816, - - 2013
To identify whether nutrient supplementation with probiotics, prebiotics, formula, or fatty acids prevents the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) or reduces the severity of AD in newborns to children younger than 3 years. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science ...
Cowan Stephanie - - 2013
AIM: This paper describes the usage, impact and reach of an online education tool for preventing sudden infant death. METHODS: A 24-slide presentation was formatted for online access. Content was designed for mainstream audiences to align current knowledge, attitudes and actions for a blitz approach to preventing sudden infant death ...
Sachdev H P S - - 2013
Childhood anemia has major adverse consequences for health and development. It's prevalence in India continues to range from 70 to 90%. Although anemia is multifactorial in etiology, preventative efforts have predominantly focused on increasing iron intake, primarily through supplementation in pregnant and lactating women. Policy thrust for childhood anemia is ...
Bjornard Kari - - 2013
Knowledge of patterns in prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHDs) is important for clinical care, etiologic research, and prevention. We evaluated temporal and racial/ethnic trends in the birth prevalence of CHDs in metropolitan Atlanta from 1978 to 2005. Cases of CHDs were obtained from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program ...
Munywoki Patrick Kiio PK KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme Centre for Geographic Medicine Research–Coast, Kilifi, Kenya. - - 2013
Severe lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in infants caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been associated with later pneumonia hospitalization among children. To determine risk for pneumonia after RSV hospitalization in infancy, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 2,813 infants admitted to a hospital in Kenya and identified ...
Lunze Karsten - - 2013
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To provide evidence on the global epidemiological situation of neonatal hypothermia and to provide recommendations for future policy and research directions. METHODS: Using PubMed as our principal electronic reference library, we searched studies for prevalence and risk factor data on neonatal hypothermia in resource-limited environments globally. Studies specifying ...
Dolan Siobhan M - - 2013
Preterm birth has the highest mortality and morbidity of all pregnancy complications. The burden of preterm birth on public health worldwide is enormous, yet there are few effective means to prevent a preterm delivery. To date, much of its etiology is unexplained, but genetic predisposition is thought to play a ...
Frank Monika - - 2013
Single-dose nevirapine for mothers and newborns at delivery is the simplest prevention strategy for vertical HIV-1 transmission and hence widely used in resource-constrained settings. HIV-1-positive mothers and newborns received single-dose nevirapine in a prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (PMTCT) program in Uganda. In a pharmacokinetic investigation, breast milk and plasma ...
Camacho-Gonzalez Andres - - 2013
Neonatal sepsis remains a feared cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Maternal, neonatal, and environmental factors are associated with risk of infection, and a combination of prevention strategies, judicious neonatal evaluation, and early initiation of therapy are required to prevent adverse outcomes. This article reviews recent trends ...
Patel Ravi Mangal RM Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 2015 Uppergate Drive Northeast, 3rd Floor, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2013
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, and preventive therapies that are both effective and safe are urgently needed. Current evidence from therapeutic trials suggests that probiotics are effective in decreasing NEC in preterm infants, and probiotics are currently the most promising therapy for this ...
McClure Elizabeth M EM Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Research Triangle Institute, Durham, NC 27709, USA. - - 2013
To create a comprehensive model of the comparative impact of various interventions on maternal, fetal, and neonatal (MFN) mortality. The major conditions and sub-conditions contributing to MFN mortality in low-resource areas were identified, and the prevalence and case fatality rates documented. Available interventions were mapped to these conditions, and intervention ...
Gonzalez Juan M JM Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, - - 2013
Understanding the mechanisms of term and preterm cervical remodeling is essential to prevent prematurity. Is preterm cervical remodeling caused by the same mechanisms that cause cervical remodeling at term, and are these changes accelerated in time? This question has been pondered by obstetricians seeking strategies to prevent preterm labor for ...
Natale Fabio - - 2013
The updated Guidelines on Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease, issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, actually represent the mainstay in the prevention of neonatal early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis. According to these guidelines, patients with possible preterm delivery are screened for GBS colonization and ...
Jasinovic Tin - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: To develop (1) a practical and comprehensive algorithm of instruments and techniques available to treat neonates with tracheobronchial foreign bodies, based on the patient's subglottic diameter and (2) primary and secondary prevention strategies for neonatal tracheobronchial foreign bodies. METHODS: (1) Analysis of the case of a severely premature infant ...
Stabell Niklas - - 2013
We describe for the first time a case of an infant with rotavirus gastroenteritis complicated by a duodenal perforation. Awareness of the perforation risk may prevent severe or lethal outcomes in this common infection among infants and children.
Liem Sophie M S - - 2013
Introduction. Reduction of preterm birth is a major goal in obstetric care. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and cohort studies on the effectiveness of the cervical pessary to prevent preterm birth. Methods. We searched the electronic databases of MEDLINE and Embase from inception until April 2012 ...
Nair Vrinda - - 2013
Nosocomial sepsis is associated with increased mortality and morbidity including neurodevelopmental impairment and prolonged hospital stay. Prevention of sepsis especially in the preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit remains a major challenge. The gastrointestinal tract is an important source of potential pathogens causing nosocomial sepsis as the immature ...
Gross Melissa L - - 2013
Rickets was first described in the 17th century and vitamin D deficiency was recognized as the underlying cause in the early 1900s. Despite this long history, vitamin D deficiency remains a significant health concern. Currently, vitamin D supplementation is recommended in Canada for breast fed infants. There are no recommendations ...
Singhal Atul - - 2013
The concept that early growth has long-term biological effects is based on extensive studies in animals dating from the 1930s. More recently, compelling evidence for a long-term influence of early growth on later health has also emerged in humans. Substantial data now support the hypothesis that 'accelerated', or too fast ...
De Carolis Maria Pia - - 2013
This study was conducted to determine whether or not simultaneous use of additional measures to prevent heat loss and efficient training of caregivers influenced the incidence of hypothermia at birth. Two cohorts of term/late-preterm and preterm infants were compared before (Group IA and IB) and after (Group IIA and IIB) ...
Lazarus Ray - - 2013
There has been significant progress towards the goal of eliminating vertical transmission of HIV by 2015. However, a question that remains is how we can most effectively prevent late postnatal transmission of HIV through infant feeding. Guidelines published by the World Health Organization in 2010 have been widely adopted. These ...
Uauy Ricardo - - 2013
The need to prevent low birthweight (LBW) defined as a birthweight ≤2,500 g is presently well recognized, not only because of the immediate consequences increasing the risk of neonatal death and burden of disease but also in terms of the impact of being LBW on lifelong health and well-being. Children ...
Kramer Michael S - - 2013
In this paper, I review the epidemiology of low birthweight (LBW). I begin by defining LBW and emphasizing the distinction between infants who are born early (preterm) and those who are born small for their gestational age (SGA). I then review data on the global burden of preterm birth and ...
Tobin Jacinta M - - 2013
Colonization of the intestine with some microorganisms has been shown to have beneficial health effects. The association of bacteria with its human host starts soon after birth; however in infants born prematurely establishment of normal intestinal flora is interrupted with colonization with potential pathogenic organisms Probiotic supplementation may therefore be ...
Lanari Marcello - - 2013
Monoclonal antibodies are widely used both in infants and in adults for several indications. Humanized monoclonal antibodies (palivizumab) have been used for many years for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in pediatric populations (preterm infants, infants with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease) at high risk of ...
Vyas Vibhuti - - 2013
Preterm birth is defined as any delivery before 37 complete weeks of gestation. It is a universal challenge in the field of obstetrics owing to its high rate of mortality, long-term morbidity, associated human suffering and economic burden. In the United States, about 12.18% deliveries in 2009 were preterm, producing ...
Vidaeff Alex C - - 2013
Prevention of preterm delivery is a major desiderate in contemporary obstetrics and a societal necessity. The means to achieve this goal remain elusive. Progesterone has been used in an attempt to prevent preterm delivery since the 1970s, but the evidence initially accumulated was fraught by mixed results and was based ...
Schroeder L - - 2013
Background: Serious cardiac valve disease and left ventricular hypertrophy occur in most untreated older children with severe mucopolysaccharidosis type I. Although it is assumed that early intervention prevents these processes, evaluation of cardiac findings in these infants has not yet been reported. Methods: We reviewed echocardiograms of 13 untreated infants ...
Artym Jolanta - - 2013
Clinical trials are reviewed, involving proteins and peptides derived from milk (predominantly bovine), with the exception of lactoferrin, which will be the subject of another article. The most explored milk fraction is α-lactalbumin (LA), which is often applied with glycomacropeptide (GMP) - a casein degradation product. These milk constituents are ...
Borghesi Alessandro - - 2013
In the last decades, the prevention and treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome with antenatal steroids and surfactant replacement allowed the survival of infants born at extremely low gestational ages. These extremely preterm infants are highly vulnerable to the detrimental effects of oxidative stress and infection, and are prone to ...
Abel Sally - - 2013
Recent research and policy around sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) have emphasised the place of safe sleeping practices within SUDI prevention strategies. Maori SUDI prevention workers have focussed on innovations around the safe sleep environment for some time now, as they have grappled with difficult to change and disproportionately ...
Shamir Raanan - - 2013
Human milk contains a substantial number of hormones and growth factors. Studies in animal models show that some of these peptides (e.g. insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, IGF-1, epidermal growth factors) have an effect on the small intestine after orogastric administration. Recently, two efforts were made to incorporate growth factors ...
Coen Ronald W RW Department of Pediatrics, St. Luke's Regional Medical Center , Boise, ID , - - 2013
The etiology of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in extremely low birth weight preterm infants is multifactorial with circulatory instability and hemostasis being preeminent. This study sought to determine if the germinal matrix layer remained intact when platelets were above 200 × 10(9)/L, a near normal level, and fell below that when IVH occurred. ...
Jones Christine C Academic Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, London, - - 2013
To determine maternal and neonatal specific antibody levels to selected vaccine-preventable infections (pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), tetanus and pneumococcus). Prospective cohort study. A UK secondary care maternity unit (March 2011-January 2012). Mothers and infants within 72 h of delivery were eligible. Unwell individuals, mothers less than 18 years ...
Yin Yuzhu - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To determine the potential risk factors associated with the immunoprophylaxis failure to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) vertical transmission. METHODS: A total of 1360 newborn infants from HBsAg(+) women were included. Some pregnant women were vaccinated with anti-HBs immunoglobulins (HBIG) monthly for three months beginning at 7 months post ...
Uetake Katsuji - - 2013
Calf mortality control is vitally important for farmers, not only to improve animal welfare, but also to increase productivity. High calf mortality rates can be related to larger numbers of calves in a herd, employee performance, severe weather, and the neonatal period covering the first 4 weeks of life. Although ...
Foolad Negar - - 2012
OBJECTIVE To identify whether nutrient supplementation with probiotics, prebiotics, formula, or fatty acids prevents the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) or reduces the severity of AD in newborns to children younger than 3 years. DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and LILACS (Latin American and ...
Zhang Zhi-Qun - - 2012
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of antenatal ambroxol as a preventive therapeutic of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants.Methods Randomized controlled trials of antenatal ambroxol treatment for RDS in preterm infants published up to March 2012 were downloaded from the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and Google ...
Elidrissy Abdelwahab T H - - 2013
Hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy in infants is characterized by heart failure in a previously normal infant with hypocalcemia without organic cardiac lesion. Vitamin D deficiency rickets is increasing in Middle East. In a six month study 136 cases of rickets were diagnosed in the main Children's Hospital in Almadinah but none of ...
Nelson Melissa U MU Division of Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8064, - - 2012
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequent source of infections affecting premature and critically ill infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Neonates are particularly vulnerable to colonization and infection with MRSA, and many studies have attempted to identify risk factors that predispose certain infants to its acquisition to discover ...
Cherpes Thomas L TL Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. - - 2012
Neonatal herpes, seen roughly in 1 of 3000 live births in the United States, is the most serious manifestation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the perinatal period. Although acyclovir therapy decreases infant mortality associated with perinatal HSV transmission, development of permanent neurological disabilities is not uncommon. Mother-to-neonate HSV ...
Jefferies Ann L - - 2012
Postnatal corticosteroids have been used for prevention and treatment of neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD) (also know as bronchopulmonary dysplasia), a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. As both dexamethasone and hydrocortisone administration within the first seven days of life is associated with an increased risk of ...
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