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Brecht Marcus M Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, Australia Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, - - 2014
Most deaths in severely brain-injured newborns in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) follow discussions and explicit decisions to limit life-sustaining treatment. There is little published information on such discussions. To describe the prevalence, nature and outcome of treatment limitation discussions (TLDs) in critically ill newborns with severe brain injury. A ...
Andrisani Giovanni - - 2014
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a major cause of infant mortality throughout the world, yet its cause and mechanism of action remain poorly understood. Here, we discuss a novel model of the etiology of SIDS which ties together what is known about the brain regions thought to be affected ...
Kinney Hannah C HC Department of Pathology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, - - 2014
Sudden unexplained death in infants, including the sudden infant death syndrome, is likely due to heterogeneous causes that involve different intrinsic vulnerabilities and/or environmental factors. Neuropathologic research focuses upon the role of brain regions, particularly the brainstem, that regulate or modulate autonomic and respiratory control during sleep or transitions to ...
Filippetti M L ML Centre for Brain and Cognitive - - 2014
The ability to differentiate one's body from others is a fundamental aspect of social perception and has been shown to involve the integration of sense modalities attributable to the self. Though behavioral studies in infancy have investigated infants' discrimination of body-related multisensory stimuli, whether they attribute this information as belonging ...
Korraa Afaf A - - 2014
BackgroundKangaroo mother care (KMC) has been widely used to improve the care of preterms and low birth weight infants. However, very little is known about cerebral hemodynamics responses in preterm infants during KMC intervention. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in ...
Weeke Lauren C LC Department of Neonatology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the - - 2014
The aim of this study was to delineate aetiologies and explore the diagnostic value of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in addition to cranial ultrasonography (cUS) in infants presenting with neonatal seizures. This retrospective cohort study comprised infants (gestational age 35.0-42.6wks) with seizures, confirmed by either continuous amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) ...
Thing Mira M Department of Paediatrics, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre Kettegård Allé 30, 2650, Hvidovre, - - 2014
Even short periods of hyperoxia may induce prolonged cerebral vasoconstriction in newborn infants and this could theoretically lead to cerebral ischaemia even once normoxia is re-established. This study aimed to investigate the effect of brief hyperoxic exposures on regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rStO2 ) and to evaluate whether any ...
Williams Gemma G UCL Department of Neuroscience, Physiology & Pharmacology, University College London, London, - - 2014
Despite the importance of neonatal skin stimulation, little is known about activation of the newborn human infant brain by sensory stimulation of the skin. We carried out functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the feasibility of measuring brain activation to a range of mechanical stimuli applied to the skin ...
Setänen Sirkku S Department of Pediatric Neurology, University of Turku, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. Electronic address: - - 2014
The predictive value of the combination of neurological examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or cranial ultrasound (cUS) in preterm infants is not known. To study the prognostic value of the combination of neurological examination and brain MRI at term equivalent age (TEA) or serial neonatal cUS in very ...
Binder-Heschl Corinna C Research Unit for Cerebral Development and Oximetry, Medical University of Graz, Austria; Research Unit for Neonatal Micro- and Macrocirculation, Medical University of Graz, Austria; Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Medical University, Graz, - - 2014
This prospective observational studyinvestigated if N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide(NT-proBNP), a cardiac biomarker,correlatedwithcerebral tissue oxygen saturation (crSO2) in preterm infants on their first day of life. Using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), crSO2was measured on the right forehead of preterm infants for 24 hours. We alsorecordedarterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and calculated fractional ...
Keunen Kristin K 1.Department of Neonatology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the - - 2014
The impact of nutrition on brain development in preterm infants has been increasingly appreciated. Early postnatal growth and nutrient intake have been demonstrated to influence brain growth and maturation with subsequent effects on neurodevelopment that persist into childhood and adolescence. Nutrition could also potentially protect against injury. Inflammation and perinatal ...
Pisani Francesco F Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Neuroscience Department, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43126 Parma, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Acute neonatal seizures are the most frequent neurological complication in the neonatal intensive care units and the seizing newborns have an increased risk of long-term morbidity. However, the relationship between neonatal seizures and the development of epilepsy later in life is still unclear. We performed a literature review using the ...
Sherman Michael P MP Department of Child Health, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO - - 2014
The conceptual framework for a Gut-Brain-Axis (GBA) has existed for decades. The Human Microbiome Project is responsible for establishing intestinal dysbiosis as a mediator of inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and neurodevelopmental disorders in adults. Recent advances in metagenomics implicate gut microbiota and diet as key modulators of the bidirectional signaling ...
Mercer Judith S - - 2014
A newborn who receives a placental transfusion at birth, either from cord milking or delayed cord clamping, obtains about 30% more blood volume than the newborn whose cord is cut immediately. Receiving an adequate blood volume from placental transfusion at birth may be protective for the distressed neonate as it ...
Lee Kyung Yeon KY Department of Pediatrics, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, Republic of - - 2014
Brain stem encephalitis is a cardinal presentation of central nervous system involvement in enterovirus 71 infection, and manifests as myoclonus, ataxia, tremor, and autonomic dysfunction. A 2-month-old infant with enterovirus 71 brain stem encephalitis demonstrated continuous myocloni and tonic spasms. On admission, the patient's myoclonus, which mainly involved the shoulders ...
Kolsuz Leyla Daban LD Zeynep Kamil Maternity and Children's Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey - - 2014
Amplitude-integrated encephalography (EEG) is frequently used in neonatal intensive care units to monitor brain functions. Its bedside application and easy interpretation are the most important features. Brain development of small for gestational age infants can be affected by intrauterine chronic hypoxia. The current study aimed to evaluate cerebral functions of ...
Bowe A C AC Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of - - 2014
We report the case of a 37-week male infant born via spontaneous vaginal delivery who developed Salmonella berta sepsis and meningitis. The infant was born to a mother with active diarrhea and stool cultures growing S. berta. On day 3, the infant developed poor feeding, lethargy, apnea and bradycardia prompting a ...
Head Lauren M - - 2014
Preterm birth is associated with long-term deficits in executive functioning and cognitive performance. Using the model of brain plasticity as a theoretical framework, it is possible that preterm infants' neurodevelopmental sequelae can be altered. Evidence suggests that bilingualism confers cognitive advantages on executive functioning, so it is possible that bilingualism ...
Eriksen Vibeke R VR Department of Neonatology, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, - - 2014
Hypotension is a common problem in newborn infants and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Dopamine is the most commonly used anti-hypotensive drug therapy, but has never been shown to improve neurological outcomes.This study tested our hypothesis that dopamine affects cerebral autoregulation (CA). Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure ...
Saji Ryoya R Brain Science Institute, Tamagawa University, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
To determine the stationary characteristics of electroencephalogram (EEG) envelopes for prematurely born (preterm) infants and investigate the intrinsic characteristics of early brain development in preterm infants. Twenty neurologically normal sets of EEGs recorded in infants with a post-conceptional age (PCA) range of 26-44weeks (mean 37.5±5.0weeks) were analyzed. Hilbert transform was ...
Baldoli Cristina C Department of Neuroradiology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, - - 2014
To evaluate brain development longitudinally in premature infants without abnormalities as compared to healthy full-term newborns, we assessed fMRI brain activity patterns in response to linguistic stimuli and white matter structural development focusing on language-related fibres. A total sample of 29 preterm newborns and 26 at term control newborns underwent ...
Kersbergen Karina J KJ Department of Perinatology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital / University Medical Center Utrecht, KE 04.123.1; P.O. box 85090; 3508 AB Utrecht; the Netherlands; Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is frequently used to assess brain development in preterm infants. This study investigates maturational changes in diffusivity measures in 122 regions of the brain between 30 and 40weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) using the neonatal atlas of Oishi and colleagues (Oishi et al., 2011). Forty infants without ...
Aslin Richard N RN Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627; email: - - 2014
Over the past 20 years, the field of cognitive neuroscience has relied heavily on hemodynamic measures of blood oxygenation in local regions of the brain to make inferences about underlying cognitive processes. These same functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) techniques have recently been adapted for ...
Esposito G G Department of Psychology and Cognitive Sciences, University of Trento, Rovereto (TN), Italy; Division of Psychology, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Electronic address: - - 2014
Infant faces elicit caregiving in adults. In previous research on brain responses to images of infant faces, the faces were unknown to participants. This study investigated EEG in primiparous mothers of 3- to 6-month-old infants viewing their own infant's face compared to an unfamiliar but appearance-matched infant's face. Spectral power ...
Asano Michiko M Department of Psychology, College of Contemporary Psychology, Rikkyo University, Niiza, Saitama, Japan; Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan; Tamagawa University Brain Science Institute, Machida, Tokyo, - - 2014
A fundamental question in language development is how infants start to assign meaning to words. Here, using three Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based measures of brain activity, we establish that preverbal 11-month-old infants are sensitive to the non-arbitrary correspondences between language sounds and concepts, that is, to sound symbolism. In each trial, infant ...
Morel Alexandra Almanzar - - 2014
Abstract Aims: It remains unclear if mode of delivery can have any impact on the neonatal brain. Our aim was to determine in term newborns any differences based on mode of delivery in either neuronal injury biomarkers, phosphorylated axonal neurofilament heavy chain (pNF-H) and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCHL1), or brain ...
Raets Marlou M Department of Neonatology, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the - - 2014
The brain veins of infants are in a complex phase of remodelling in the perinatal period. Magnetic resonance venography and susceptibility-weighted imaging, together with high-resolution Doppler ultrasound, have provided new tools to aid study of venous developmental anatomy and disease. This review aims to provide a comprehensive background of vein ...
Torres Larissa H LH Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Av Prof Lineu Prestes, 580 Bl 13B, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05508-000, - - 2014
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, mainly in children. However, few studies focus on the brain development effects of ETS exposure. Myelination mainly occurs in the early years of life in humans and the first three postnatal weeks in rodents and is sensitive to xenobiotics ...
Bader Lisa - - 2014
With the advances of technology and treatment in the field of neonatal care, researchers can now study how the brains of preterm infants are different from full-term infants. The differences are significant, and the outcomes are poor overall for premature infants as a whole. Caregivers at the bedside must know ...
Gliga T T Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck College, University of London, United - - 2014
A fast growing field, the study of infants at risk because of having an older sibling with autism (i.e. infant sibs) aims to identify the earliest signs of this disorder, which would allow for earlier diagnosis and intervention. More importantly, we argue, these studies offer the opportunity to validate existing ...
Spann Marisa N MN Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 74, New York, NY, 10032, United - - 2014
Recent animal and human epidemiological studies suggest that early childhood exposure to anesthesia may have adverse effects on brain development. As more than 50% of pregnant women in the United States and one-third in the United Kingdom receive regional anesthesia during labor and delivery, understanding the effects of perinatal anesthesia ...
Lobo Michele A MA E. Kokkoni, MSc, Department of Physical Therapy, University of - - 2014
Object exploration behaviors form the foundation for future global development but we know little about how these behaviors are performed by infants born preterm. To longitudinally compare a comprehensive set of object exploration behaviors in preterm and full-term infants from infancy into toddlerhood. We followed 22 full-term and 28 preterm ...
Jaekel Julia J Department of Developmental Psychology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany; Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, - - 2014
Preterm children have problems with mathematics but knowledge about the predictors of specific mathematic abilities in preterm populations is scarce. This study investigated neurodevelopmental pathways to children's general and specific mathematic abilities across the full gestational age range. Prospective geographically defined longitudinal investigation in Germany. 947 children across the full ...
Leuchter Russia Ha-Vinh RH Division of Development and Growth, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, - - 2014
Premature infants are at risk of developing encephalopathy of prematurity, which is associated with long-term neurodevelopmental delay. Erythropoietin was shown to be neuroprotective in experimental and retrospective clinical studies. To determine if there is an association between early high-dose recombinant human erythropoietin treatment in preterm infants and biomarkers of encephalopathy ...
Rogers Elizabeth E EE Department of Neonatology, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital, San Francisco, - - 2014
Erythropoietin is neuroprotective in animal models of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We previously reported a phase I safety and pharmacokinetic study of erythropoietin in neonates. This article presents the neurodevelopmental follow-up of infants who were enrolled in the phase I clinical trial. We enrolled 24 newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in a ...
Meijer E J EJ Clinical Physics, Máxima Medical Center, Veldhoven, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
To quantify the neuronal connectivity in preterm infants between homologous channels of both hemispheres. EEG coherence analysis was performed on serial EEG recordings collected from preterm infants with normal neurological follow-up. The coherence spectrum was divided in frequency bands: δnewborn(0-2 Hz), θnewborn(2-6 Hz), αnewborn(6-13 Hz), βnewborn(13-30 Hz). Coherence values were evaluated as a function ...
Lagercrantz Hugo H Karolinska Institute and Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital X5:01, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: - - 2014
The newborn human infant is conscious at a minimal level. It is aware of its body, itself and to some extent of the outside world. It recognizes faces and vowels to which it has been exposed. It expresses emotions like joy. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the newborn brain shows ...
Rilling James K JK Silvio O. Conte Center for Oxytocin and Social Cognition, Center for Translational Social Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. Department of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, - - 2014
Parents know the transformative nature of having and caring for a child. Among many mammals, giving birth leads from an aversion to infant stimuli to irresistible attraction. Here, we review the biological mechanisms governing this shift in parental motivation in mammals. Estrogen and progesterone prepare the uterus for embryo implantation ...
Lewin Amy A Department of Family Science, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 301-405-4008, USA, - - 2014
The purpose of this study is to examine the role of father involvement on infant distress among children born to teen mothers, particularly those who are depressed. 119 teen mothers (<20 years) and their infants (<6 months) enrolled in a quasi-experimental trial of a comprehensive pediatric primary care program. Data were drawn ...
Nögel Stephanie Christine SC Department of Pediatrics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
The aim of the study was to compare the cognitive development of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm SGA children and preterm AGA children at the age of 2years. The hypothesis was that SGA children are at an additional risk for deficits in cognitive function. Additionally, the impact of neonatal ...
Héon Marjolaine M Faculté des sciences infirmières, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada (Drs Héon and Goulet); Quebec Nursing Intervention Research Network, Montréal, Canada (Dr Héon); Faculté de biologie et de médecine, Université de Lausanne, Switzerland (Dr Goulet); Research Centre, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montréal, Québec, Canada (Ms Garofalo and Drs Nuyt and Levy); Department of Nutrition, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada (Ms Garofalo and Dr Levy); Department of Pediatrics, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada (Dr - - 2014
A pilot study was conducted to assess the acceptability and feasibility of a breast milk expression education and support intervention in mothers of preterm infants and study procedures. Forty mothers of preterm infants born at less than 30 weeks of gestation. Pilot randomized controlled trial. Mothers of preterm infants were ...
Doherty Tanya T Health Systems Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South - - 2014
To report on risk factors for severe events (hospitalisation or infant death) within the first half of infancy amongst HIV-unexposed infants in South Africa. South African data from the multisite community-based cluster-randomised trial PROMISE EBF promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three sub-Saharan countries from 2006 to 2008 were used. The South ...
Mireault Gina C GC Johnson State College, Johnson, VT, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Social referencing refers to infants' use of caregivers as emotional referents in ambiguous situations (Walden, 1993). Studies of social referencing typically require ambulation, thereby over-looking younger, non-ambulatory infants (i.e., ≤8-months) and resulting in a widespread assumption that young infants do not employ this strategy. Using a novel approach that does ...
Stacks Ann M AM a Merrill-Palmer Skillman Institute , Wayne State University , Detroit , - - 2014
This study examined relationships among maternal reflective functioning, parenting, infant attachment, and demographic risk in a relatively large (N = 83) socioeconomically diverse sample of women with and without a history of childhood maltreatment and their infants. Most prior research on parental reflective functioning has utilized small homogenous samples. Reflective functioning was ...
MacLean Peggy C PC Department of Pediatrics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, United - - 2014
This study was designed to examine the sequential relationship between mother-infant synchrony and infant affect using multilevel modeling during the Still Face paradigm. We also examined self-regulatory behaviors that infants use during the Still-Face paradigm to modulate their affect, particularly during stressors where their mothers are not available to help ...
Koplin Jennifer J Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Australia; Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, - - 2014
Asian infants appear to be overrepresented among patients with clinical food allergy in Australia but this has not been formally examined at the population level. Any difference in prevalence according to parental country of birth may be secondary to modifiable lifestyle factors. We aimed to quantify (1) differences in the ...
Grundy Emily E Department of Social Policy, London School of Economics, London, - - 2014
Short and very long interbirth intervals are associated with worse perinatal, infant and immediate maternal outcomes. Accumulated physiological, mental, social and economic stresses arising from raising children close in age may also mean that interbirth intervals have longer term implications for the health of mothers and fathers, but few previous ...
Al-Zahrani Ali M AM Ali M Al-Zahrani, MSc, Security Forces Health Center, Makkah - - 2014
To determine knowledge and attitude of Saudi mothers towards their preschool children's oral health. One hundred and one mothers (of children aged 16 to 40 months) attending well-baby clinics at Security Forces Hospital Polyclinics in Makkah Al-Mukarrama participated in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect the required information. ...
Chung Jaeah J Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, USA - - 2014
Background. The extent to which pediatricians inform parents about gestation-adjusted age growth plotting is unclear. Uninformed parents may have decreased satisfaction of infant growth. Subsequent early introduction of solid foods may lead to avoidant feeding behaviors and poor parental perception of infant feeding patterns. Methods. Questionnaires regarding infant growth and ...
Tang Li L School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, - - 2014
Early introduction of complementary foods prior to 6 months of age may shorten breastfeeding duration and expose the infant to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to document the ages of complementary foods introduction and to identify the determinants associated with early introduction of ...
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