Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 922
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Bornstein Marc H - - 2013
A developmental cascade defines a longitudinal relation in which one psychological characteristic uniquely affects another psychological characteristic later in time, separately from other intrapersonal and extrapersonal factors. Here, we report results of a large-scale (N = 374), normative, prospective, 14-year longitudinal, multivariate, multisource, controlled study of a developmental cascade from ...
du Toit-Prinsloo Lorraine - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: South Africa manifests a socio-economic dichotomy that shows features of both a developed and developing country. As a result of this, areas exist where a lack of resources and expertise prevents the implementation of a highly standardized protocol for the investigation of sudden and unexpected deaths in infants (SUDI). ...
Williams Bryan L - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:We examined the relationships among gestational age at birth, maternal characteristics, and standardized test performance in Georgia first-grade students.METHODS:Live births to Georgia-resident mothers aged 11 to 53 years from 1998 through 2003 were deterministically linked with standardized test results for first-grade attendees of Georgia public schools from 2005 through 2009. ...
Sullivan Mary C - - 2012
To examine functioning and participation in a diverse U.S. sample of 180 infants at age 17 years. The World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model framed functioning and participation domains and contextual factors. Assessment included cognition, executive functioning, academic achievement, personal functioning, community participation, and social ...
Derinoz Oksan - - 2012
Topical application of eye drops may cause mild or severe adverse ocular or systemic effects. Children, particularly infants, are more prone to systemic adverse effects of topical eye drops because of their lower body mass and blood volume, immature metabolism, and immaturity of excretory, nervous, and cardiovascular systems. Early recognition ...
Kretch Kari S KS New York - - 2013
Infants require locomotor experience to behave adaptively at a drop-off. However, different experimental paradigms (visual cliff and actual gaps and slopes) have generated conflicting findings regarding what infants learn and the specificity of their learning. An actual, adjustable drop-off apparatus was used to investigate whether learning to distinguish a step ...
Cacchione Trix - - 2012
Recent research suggests that gorillas' and orangutans' object representations survive cohesion violations (e.g., a split of a solid object into two halves), but that their processing of quantities may be affected by them. We assessed chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos' (Pan paniscus) reactions to various fission events in the same ...
Gervain Judit - - 2012
One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue ...
Kirkham Natasha Z NZ Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck College, London WC1E 7HX, UK. - - 2012
Dynamic spatial indexing is the ability to encode, remember, and track the location of complex events. For example, in a previous study, 6-month-old infants were familiarized to a toy making a particular sound in a particular location, and later they fixated that empty location when they heard the sound presented ...
Hauf Petra - - 2012
The present research used a preferential-reaching task to examine whether 9- and 11-month-olds (n=144) could infer the relative weights of two objects resting on a soft, compressible platform. Experiment 1 established that infants reached preferentially for the lighter of 2 boxes. In Experiments 2-4, infants saw 2 boxes identical except ...
Larin Hélène M - - 2012
To assess the feasibility of a robotic mobility device for infants using alternative control interfaces aimed at promoting early self-initiated mobility, and to assess the effects of a training protocol and robot experience. Observational and pre-post quantitative case studies. Standardised, research laboratory and day-care centres with toys and individuals familiar ...
Walker Caren M - - 2012
Extensive exposure to representational media is common for infants in Western culture, and previous research has shown that soon after their 1st birthday, infants can acquire and extend new information from pictures to real objects. Here we explore the extent to which lack of exposure to pictures during infancy affects ...
Sebastián-Gallés Núria - - 2012
The origins of the bilingual advantage in various cognitive tasks are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that bilinguals' early capacities to track their native languages separately and learn about the properties of each may be at the origin of such differences. Spanish-Catalan bilingual and Spanish or Catalan monolingual infants ...
Skene Caryl - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To explore how parents interact with their infants and with nurses regarding the provision of comfort care in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). DESIGN: Focused ethnography. SETTING: A regional NICU in the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven families (10 mothers, 8 fathers) with infants residing in the NICU participated ...
Rat-Fischer Lauriane - - 2012
Despite a growing interest in the question of tool-use development in infants, no study so far has systematically investigated how learning to use a tool to retrieve an out-of-reach object progresses with age. This was the first aim of this study, in which 60 infants, aged 14, 16, 18, 20, ...
Rostad Kristin - - 2012
Three experiments are reported on the development of object categorization skills during the second year of life. Experiment 1 examined whether 14- and 18-month-old infants were capable of performing categorization at the animate/inanimate (A/I) level using a sequential touching task. The 18-month-olds were significantly above chance and the 14-month-olds were ...
Rijlaarsdam Jolien - - 2012
BackgroundThis study aimed to examine prospective associations of young infants' home environments with expressive vocabulary delay and internalising and externalising problem scores independently of family socioeconomic status (SES) and national origin.MethodsProspective data from fetal life to age 3 were collected in a total of 2711 families participating in the Generation ...
Burbacher Thomas M - - 2012
The assessment of brain function and behavior in young infants is central to understanding the effects of chemical exposure on central nervous system development. One approach to infant cognitive assessment, based on the direct observation of infant eye movements, is known as the Visual Paired-Comparison task. The Visual Paired-Comparison test ...
Pueyo Victoria - - 2012
Objective: Cognitive outcomes and structural changes in the central nervous system were assessed in children born at term small-for-gestational-age (SGA) who showed a normal umbilical artery (UA) Doppler. Outcomes were assessed when the children were 5-6.5 years of age. We used a novel approach to examine changes in neuronal integrity ...
Seehagen Sabine - - 2012
Six-month-old infants' learning of a new action from two different models (mother/stranger) was assessed in two settings (home/laboratory). In the laboratory, a significant number of infants learned the action from a stranger but not from their mother. In the infants' homes, this pattern was reversed.
Melzer Anne - - 2012
The goal of the present study was to measure infants' action production and perception skills with tasks that both include goal anticipation, in a within-subject design. In the production task, the frequency of 6- and 12-month-old infants' contralateral reaching movements was examined. In the perception task, videos of contralateral movements ...
Gerhardstein Peter - - 2012
The relation between SES (socioeconomic status) and academic achievement in school-aged children is well established; children from low SES families have more difficulty in school. However, few studies have been able to establish a link between SES and learning in infancy, and thus the developmental onset of SES effects remains ...
Miquelote Audrei F - - 2012
Although information is sparse, research suggests that affordances in the home provide essential resources that promote motor and cognitive skills in young children. The present study assessed over time, the association between motor affordances in the home and infant motor and cognitive behavior. Thirty-two (32) infants were assessed for characteristics ...
Mandell Dorothy J - - 2012
There is relatively little work that has focused on how infants use a single feature to discriminate objects or flexibly group objects together. Existing research suggests that the ease with which infants learn form and color discriminations is not equal. However, which of these dimensions is easier when discriminating between ...
Parise Eugenio - - 2012
Early word learning in infants relies on statistical, prosodic, and social cues that support speech segmentation and the attachment of meaning to words. It is debated whether such early word knowledge represents mere associations between sound patterns and visual object features, or reflects referential understanding of words. By measuring an ...
Paulus Markus - - 2012
Social transmission of knowledge is one of the reasons for human evolutionary success and it has been suggested that already human infants possess eminent social learning abilities. However, nothing is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms that subserve infants' acquisition of novel action knowledge through the observation of other people's actions ...
Claxton Laura J - - 2012
The postural sway patterns of newly standing infants were compared under two conditions: standing while holding a toy and standing while not holding a toy. Infants exhibited a lower magnitude of postural sway and more complex sway patterns when holding the toy. These changes suggest that infants adapt postural sway ...
Kraebel Kimberly S - - 2012
The current study examined the functional role redundant amodal information plays in an operant learning task in 5-month-old human infants. Prior studies have suggested that both simple and complex learning processes (discrimination, associative conditioning) are facilitated when amodal information is presented redundantly across sensory modalities. These studies, however, did not ...
Suss Courtney - - 2012
Three-month-old infants were trained to move a mobile in the presence of a coconut or cherry odor (context). Six days later, a reactivation session took place. Infants were randomly assigned to 4 groups (same odor during training and reactivation, different odor during training and reactivation, no odor present during reactivation, ...
Kaplan Peter S PS Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Denver, United States. - - 2012
Infants of mothers who varied in symptoms of depression were tested at 4 and 12 months of age for their ability to associate a segment of an unfamiliar non-depressed mother's infant-directed speech (IDS) with a face. At 4 months, all infants learned the voice-face association. At 12 months, despite the ...
Tyson J E JE Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA. - - 2012
Aggressive phototherapy (AgPT) is widely used and assumed to be safe and effective for even the most immature infants. We assessed whether the benefits and hazards for the smallest and sickest infants differed from those for other extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW; ≤ 1000 g) infants in our Neonatal Research Network trial, the ...
Wilcox Teresa - - 2012
A great deal is known about the functional organization of the neural structures that mediate visual object processing in the adult observer. These findings have contributed significantly to our conceptual models of object recognition and identification and provided unique insight into the nature of object representations extracted from visual input. ...
Moher Mariko - - 2012
Although working memory has a highly constrained capacity limit of three or four items, both adults and toddlers can increase the total amount of stored information by "chunking" object representations in memory. To examine the developmental origins of chunking, we used a violation-of-expectation procedure to ask whether 7-month-old infants, whose ...
Wartella Ellen A - - 2012
Should babies be watching television and DVDs? This is a reasonable question to ask but a difficult one to answer. This article reviews the theories and related research to examine what is known about infant media use. The review provides evidence both for and against each theory. The importance of ...
Ramsdell Heather L HL East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA. - - 2012
The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of syllables--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning. In the present ...
Krüger Hanna-Sophie - - 2012
Cholinergic innervation is critically required for cytoarchitectonic maturation of the cerebral cortex as well as functional assembling of neuronal networks and their behavioral readout. Selective lesion of cortically projecting cholinergic neurons initiated immediately after birth by the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin (SAP) led to abnormal wiring of prefrontal-hippocampal networks, yet the ...
Nam Young-Ja - - 2012
Phoneme inventories are biased favoring stop over fricative consonants. A similar bias is evident in acquisition. For example, an asymmetrical pattern was observed when infant word learning was assessed using the switch task with stop-initial and fricative-initial minimal pair CVC nonsense syllables (Altvater-Mackensen & Fikkert, 2010). In this task, Dutch-learning ...
Kuhl Patricia K - - 2012
Cross-cultural studies show that infants are born with innate abilities that make them "citizens of the world." By the end of the first year of life, however, culture produces a dramatic transition. Infants' abilities to discern differences in native-language sounds increase, and their abilities to discriminate sounds from other languages ...
Li Stella - - 2012
Studies have shown that in adult animals the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a critical brain region involved in fear regulation, with the prelimbic (PL) subregion being important for fear expression. However, few studies have examined whether the PL cortex is also involved in fear expression in infant animals. Five ...
Lejeune Fleur - - 2012
This study investigated the ability of preterm infants to learn an object shape with one hand and discriminate a new shape in the opposite hand (without visual control). Twenty-four preterm infants between 33 and 34 + 6 gestational weeks received a tactile habituation task with either their right or left hand followed ...
Lee Hui-Min - - 2012
Background and Objective:Daily experiences are thought to play an important role in motor development during infancy. There are limited studies on the effect of postural and movement experiences on head control. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of postural and movement experiences on head control through ...
Curtin Suzanne - - 2012
We investigated the effect of lexical stress on 16-month-olds' ability to form associations between labels and paths of motion. Disyllabic English nouns tend to have a strong-weak (trochaic) stress pattern, and verbs tend to have a weak-strong (iambic) pattern. We explored whether infants would use word stress information to guide ...
Mather Emily - - 2012
What mechanism implements the mutual exclusivity bias to map novel labels to objects without names? Prominent theoretical accounts of mutual exclusivity (e.g., Markman, 1989, 1990) propose that infants are guided by their knowledge of object names. However, the mutual exclusivity constraint could be implemented via monitoring of object novelty (see ...
Koulaguina Elena - - 2012
This study tests the hypothesis that distributional information can guide infants in the generalization of word order movement rules at the initial stage of language acquisition. Participants were 11- and 14-month-old infants. Stimuli were sentences in Russian, a language that was unknown to our infants. During training the word order ...
Gerry David - - 2012
Previous studies suggest that musical training in children can positively affect various aspects of development. However, it remains unknown as to how early in development musical experience can have an effect, the nature of any such effects, and whether different types of music experience affect development differently. We found that ...
Loucks Jeff - - 2012
Recent evidence suggests adults and infants selectively attend to features of action, such as how a hand contacts an object. The current research investigated whether this bias stems from infants' processing of the functional consequences of grasps: understanding that different grasps afford different future actions. A habituation paradigm assessed 10-month-old ...
Pruden Shannon M - - 2012
To learn motion verbs, infants must be sensitive to the specific event features lexicalized in their language. One event feature important for the acquisition of English motion verbs is the manner of motion. This article examines when and how infants detect manners of motion across variations in the figure's path. ...
Segal Osnat - - 2012
Background The ability of infants to develop recognition of a common stress pattern (CSP) that is language specific has been tested mainly in trochaic languages with a strong-weak (SW) CSP. The goals of the present study were: (1) to test Hebrew-learning infants (HLI) on their stress pattern preference in the ...
Bergelson Elika - - 2012
It is widely accepted that infants begin learning their native language not by learning words, but by discovering features of the speech signal: consonants, vowels, and combinations of these sounds. Learning to understand words, as opposed to just perceiving their sounds, is said to come later, between 9 and 15 ...
Disselhorst-Klug Catherine C Department of Rehabilitation and Prevention Engineering, Institute of Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstr. 20, 52074, Aachen, Germany. - - 2012
Coordination between perception and action is required to interact with the environment successfully. This is already trained by very young infants who perform spontaneous movements to learn how their body interacts with the environment. The strategies used by the infants for this purpose change with age. Therefore, very early progresses ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >