Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 940
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >
Poston Dudley L DL - - 2002
This paper examines the effect of son preference on the hazards of having a second and a third birth. With data from the Two-per-thousand National Sample Survey on Fertility and Contraception conducted in 1988 by the State Family Planning Commission of China, the hazard of having a second birth among ...
Gokhale Medha K - - 2002
Slow reduction in infant mortality rate in the last couple of decades is a major concern in India. State-level aggregate data from the National Family Health Survey 1992 and micro-level data on rural mothers (n=317) were used for examining the influence of female literacy on reduction of infant mortality through ...
Joseph K S - - 2002
Recent increases in the frequency of multiple births and simultaneous increases in preterm birth among multiple births have focused attention on such births. However, most previous studies have examined twins rather than higher-order multiples. We carried out a study to examine rates and trends in preterm birth and in gestational ...
Grossman David C - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine geographic variation in urban American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) rates of infant mortality, low birth weight, prenatal care use, and maternal-child health care service availability. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study using data from the 1989 to 1991 birth-death linked database from the National Center ...
Modin Bitte - - 2002
The present study examines the sex-specific patterns of mortality by birth order in four stages of the life-course, using Poisson and logistic regression analysis. The main question posed is whether there is any continuing social effect of birth order when (a) biological factors at birth, (b) other social factors at ...
Gyimah Stephen Obeng - - 2002
This paper examines the conditions under which there might be a strong or weak relationship between childhood mortality and fertility at the micro level. The premise is that as a society undergoes transition during which a conscious effort is made to space and limit birth, the effect associated with infant ...
Greksa L P - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Since they are a healthy and well-nourished isolate with strong religious proscriptions against birth control, the fertility patterns of the Old Order Amish have long been studied by demographers, particularly those with an interest in natural fertility. AIM: The present report describes population growth, population structure, and fertility patterns ...
Andersson T - - 2002
In countries where most deliveries occur at home and most available information is hospital-based, accurate information on neonatal mortality is difficult to obtain. This study was conducted in a rural community in Ethiopia that has been under monthly demographic surveillance since 1987. The analysis in this paper was based on ...
Martin Joyce A - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 2000 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, tobacco and alcohol use); medical care utilization by ...
- - 2002
Since 1983, when the first infant was conceived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) in the United States, the use of IVF and related procedures (assisted reproductive technology [ART]) has increased substantially. In 1998, an estimated 0.7% of the 3.9 million births were the result of ART. ART patients are more ...
Paradies Yin - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the patterns of mortality observed among Indigenous Australians were seen in other countries or sub-populations. Previous reports have indicated that the life expectancy of Indigenous Australians compares unfavourably with that of Indigenous groups in other developed countries, and is similar to that in some developing countries. ...
Pedersen J - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of mortality differences associated with consanguineous marriage among Palestinians in the Middle East. METHODS: The data came from five surveys of Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon, conducted during the period 1995-2000. Infant ...
Rahman A - - 2002
Despite relative improvement in living conditions and availability of modern healthcare, infant mortality rates continue to be very high in many developing countries. High rates of depression have also been reported in women in these countries. The continuous care and attention of children is a demanding task, and poor physical ...
Smith Kate - - 2002
The Millennium Cohort Study is the latest in the line of British birth cohort studies. MCS resembles its predecessors which follow people born in 1946, 1958 and 1970 in the intention to become multi-purpose longitudinal data resource charting many aspects of individual's lives over time. The families of a sample ...
Hussain R - - 2002
This paper assesses the risk factors for neonatal mortality (0-28 days of life) for full-term singleton live births. The study sample comprised 1,011 ever-married women who were residents of four multi-ethnic, multi-religious low-income areas of Karachi, Pakistan during 1995. The analysis sample was restricted to 4,488 live births to 912 ...
Hoyert D L - - 2001
The birth rate in 2000 (preliminary data) was 14.8 births per 1000 population, an increase of 2% from 1999 (14.5). The fertility rate, births per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 years, increased 3% to 67.6 in 2000, compared with 65.9 in 1999. The 2000 increases in births and the ...
Suwal J V - - 2001
Infant mortality has reached a low stable rate in developed countries while it is still high and on a slow decline in developing countries. There are many factors that contribute to the incidence of a high or low level of infant mortality. Although credit for contributing to the lowering of ...
Kimani M - - 2001
This paper analyses the behavioural effects of infant and child mortality on birth intervals in Kenya. Analysing the behavioural effects of infant and child mortality on fertility independent of its biological effects has been considered a difficult task. In this paper, a procedure for analysing these effects separately is developed ...
Caldwell J C - - 2001
Demographers have for a long time adopted an empirical approach to the study of the levels and trends of mortality, fertility, and population size. They depend for their analyses on data, usually collected until recent times by government and often for other purposes. Modern demography had its origins in Britain ...
Delaunay V - - 2001
BACKGROUND: In spite of an improving trend, childhood mortality in rural sub-Saharan Africa remains high and has recently risen in some countries. The factors associated with the long-term decline in childhood mortality are poorly known, due to a lack of data. METHODS: A Senegalese rural population has been under demographic ...
Fujiwara M - - 2001
Northern right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) were formerly abundant in the northwestern Atlantic, but by 1900 they had been hunted to near extinction. After the end of commercial whaling the population was thought to be recovering slowly; however, evidence indicates that it has been declining since about 1990 (ref. 1). There ...
Hussain R - - 2001
Empirical information from studies conducted in Pakistan has indicated a high level of offspring mortality that can be attributed to parental consanguinity even when non-biological variables are controlled. However, with the exception of some small and geographically restricted studies, few comparable data are available on the influence of inbreeding in ...
Shawky S - - 2001
The infant mortality rates for 1978 and 1998 of 16 Arab countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region were studied. The data were extracted from World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund sources. The impact of demographic, social, perinatal care and economic indicators on infant mortality rates in 1998 was ...
Ross J A - - 2001
A new index is presented that measures the effort levels of national programmes to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. These indices come from a questionnaire instrument composed of 14 major headings and 81 items. Forty-nine countries including most of the population in each geographical region are covered. Data were collected ...
Carothers A D - - 2001
We have analyzed data on 3,157 cases of Down syndrome (DS) from nine South American countries in consecutive series of hospital live births over a 30-year period, with particular emphasis on possible ethnic or geographic variations in maternal age-adjusted incidence. The data constitute the largest series of DS cases assembled ...
Gurri F D - - 2001
Infant mortality rate (IMR), overall frequency of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH), sexual dimorphism in LEH, age of onset of LEH, and age at menarche were used as indicators to test the hypothesis that the origin and development of the tourist industry and increased state participation on Maya subsistence agriculturists in ...
Vitzthum V J - - 2001
Although there is substantial evidence that environmental conditions disrupt reproductive function among newcomers to hypoxic settings, it is not certain that low oxygen pressure reduces fertility among those indigenous to high altitude. Even when fertility does appear to be relatively lower, numerous behavioral and sociocultural factors may be responsible. These ...
Henry J K - - 2001
In the 20th century, infant and maternal mortality declined dramatically and the life span and quality of life for women and infants increased. At the end of the century, the rate of decline slowed and policy makers began to look for new ways to address the problem. A significant challenge ...
Shepherd J H - - 2001
The recurrence and fertility rates in 30 women undergoing radical trachelectomy for early stage invasive cervical cancer at St Bartholomew's and Royal Marsden Hospital were reviewed. There were no recurrences, and the mean follow up was 23 months (range 1-64 months). Of 13 women trying to have a baby, eight ...
Martuzzi M - - 2001
Declining trends in male proportion at birth observed in several Western countries might reflect widespread exposure to pollutants capable of interfering with human reproduction. In this study, the authors describe male live birth proportion trends in 23 European countries from 1950 to 1996 (total of 305 million live births). Overall, ...
Barnes-Boyd C - - 2001
This article describes the Resources, Education and Care in the Home program (REACH-Futures), an infant mortality reduction initiative in the inner city of Chicago built on the World Health Organization (WHO) primary health care model and over a decade of experience administering programs to reduce infant mortality through home visits. ...
Goldani M Z - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Data from municipal databases can be used to plan interventions aimed at reducing inequities in health care. The objective of the study was to determine the distribution of infant mortality according to an urban geoeconomic classification using routinely collected municipal data. METHODS: All live births (total of 42,381) and ...
Ondersma S J - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: This survey was conducted to: (1) document child protective services (CPS) agencies' actual practices regarding prenatal drug exposure; (2) examine urban and rural differences in CPS responses; (3) explore whether CPS practices varied as a function of county median income, birth rate, population size, or percent minority births; and ...
Goff D C - - 2001
PURPOSE: Mean blood pressure (BP) has declined in the U.S. for several decades. It is unknown to what extent this decline was due to treatment of persons with recognized high BP or to population-wide influences on BP. Treatment would shift only the highest values lower, whereas, population-wide influences on BP ...
Ventura S J - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 1999 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, tobacco and alcohol use); medical care utilization by ...
Alam N - - 2001
The process of divorce is usually lengthy and hazardous, and can start quarrels that can lead to the abuse of women and their children. This study examines the effects of divorce on neonatal and postneonatal mortality of babies born before and after divorce in Teknaf, a remote area of Bangladesh. ...
De Souza A C - - 2001
This ecological study examines the variations in diarrhoea-specific infant mortality rates among municipalities in the State of Ceará, north-east Brazil, using data from a community health workers' programme. Diarrhoea is the main cause of postneonatal deaths in Ceará, and diarrhoea mortality rates vary substantially among municipalities, from 7 to 50 ...
Herrera L R - - 2001
International data on health and socioeconomic factors were analyzed to understand the trends and the determinants of maternal and infant mortality in the late years. Multivariate analyses were carried out to summarize the structure of the data. Multiple regression analyses were also carried out with these two mortality rates as ...
Wahab A - - 2001
The effect of gender and sibling status on the infant mortality rate (IMR) in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia was investigated using direct estimation of IMR. A cohort of 1,948 infants born between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 1996 was followed for 1 year within a surveillance system. IMR ...
Goldenberg R L RL Department of Obstretics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, 618 S 20th St, Birmingham, AL 35233-7333, USA. - - 2001
In the last several decades there have been major improvements in the ability to control fertility, treat infertility, and reduce maternal, fetal, and infant mortality. However, neither the preterm birth rate nor the rate of long-term neurologic disabilities associated with preterm birth has declined. Increasing knowledge of the events leading ...
Kohler H P - - 2001
Bongaarts and Feeney have recently proposed an adjusted total fertility rate to disentangle tempo effects from changes in the quantum of fertility. We propose an extension to the Bongaarts and Feeney formula that includes variance effects: that is, changes in the variance of the fertility schedule over time. If these ...
Victora C G - - 2001
CONTEXT: Brazilian infant and child mortality levels are not compatible with the country's economic potential. In this paper, we provide a description of levels and trends in infant mortality due to perinatal causes and malformations and assess the likely impact of changing intermediate-level determinants, many of which are amenable to ...
Smith J B - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) by the sisterhood method in two districts of the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana, and to determine the impact of different assumptions and analytical decisions on these estimates. METHODS: Indirect estimates of the MMR were calculated from data collected in 1995 by Family ...
Davis C L - - 2001
High infant mortality rates among American Indians are disproportionate to state statistics for other races and higher than the national average. These findings prompted a community health center in a large Midwestern city to create and provide an American Indian infant mortality reduction project in the early 1990s. Strategies for ...
Barros F C - - 2001
Two studies carried out in 1982 and 1993 in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, provide a unique opportunity for assessing the impact on maternal and child health of the economic and health care changes, which took place in Brazil in this period. The cohorts of mothers and infants of ...
McElroy P D - - 2001
Although all-cause mortality has been used as an indicator of the health status of childhood populations, such data are sparse for most rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa, particularly community-based estimates of infant mortality rates. The longitudinal follow-up of more than 1,500 children enrolled at birth into the Asembo Bay Cohort ...
Pedersen J - - 2000
Infant and child mortality in the West Bank and Gaza Strip has steadily reduced since 1967, even though fertility has remained extremely high. In this paper the determinants of infant and child mortality are discussed, with particular emphasis on the role of consanguineous marriages, short birth spacing and maternal education. ...
Ryan C A - - 2000
The objective of this paper is to examine trends in infant mortality (IMR) and low-birth weight (LBW) in the Southern Health Board (SHB) area and to investigate the relationship between IMR and social and economic factors. IMR data were obtained from the Central Statistics Office (CSO) over a 10-year period ...
Polo V - - 2000
The fertility pattern, in terms of birth intervals, in a rural population not practicing contraception belonging to La Alta Alpujarra Oriental (southeast Spain) is analyzed. During the first half of the 20th century, this population experienced a considerable degree of geographical and cultural isolation. Because of this population's high variability ...
Adekunle A O - - 2000
The National Population Policy (NPP) was promulgated to improve the living standards and quality of life of Nigerians by reducing the persistently high level of fertility and population growth, and achieving an even rural-urban development. The aim of this study was to review Nigeria's demographic patterns in the last decade ...
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >