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Results 401 - 450 of 922
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Hoyert D L - - 2001
The birth rate in 2000 (preliminary data) was 14.8 births per 1000 population, an increase of 2% from 1999 (14.5). The fertility rate, births per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 years, increased 3% to 67.6 in 2000, compared with 65.9 in 1999. The 2000 increases in births and the ...
Suwal J V - - 2001
Infant mortality has reached a low stable rate in developed countries while it is still high and on a slow decline in developing countries. There are many factors that contribute to the incidence of a high or low level of infant mortality. Although credit for contributing to the lowering of ...
Kimani M - - 2001
This paper analyses the behavioural effects of infant and child mortality on birth intervals in Kenya. Analysing the behavioural effects of infant and child mortality on fertility independent of its biological effects has been considered a difficult task. In this paper, a procedure for analysing these effects separately is developed ...
Caldwell J C - - 2001
Demographers have for a long time adopted an empirical approach to the study of the levels and trends of mortality, fertility, and population size. They depend for their analyses on data, usually collected until recent times by government and often for other purposes. Modern demography had its origins in Britain ...
Delaunay V - - 2001
BACKGROUND: In spite of an improving trend, childhood mortality in rural sub-Saharan Africa remains high and has recently risen in some countries. The factors associated with the long-term decline in childhood mortality are poorly known, due to a lack of data. METHODS: A Senegalese rural population has been under demographic ...
Fujiwara M - - 2001
Northern right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) were formerly abundant in the northwestern Atlantic, but by 1900 they had been hunted to near extinction. After the end of commercial whaling the population was thought to be recovering slowly; however, evidence indicates that it has been declining since about 1990 (ref. 1). There ...
Hussain R - - 2001
Empirical information from studies conducted in Pakistan has indicated a high level of offspring mortality that can be attributed to parental consanguinity even when non-biological variables are controlled. However, with the exception of some small and geographically restricted studies, few comparable data are available on the influence of inbreeding in ...
Shawky S - - 2001
The infant mortality rates for 1978 and 1998 of 16 Arab countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region were studied. The data were extracted from World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund sources. The impact of demographic, social, perinatal care and economic indicators on infant mortality rates in 1998 was ...
Ross J A - - 2001
A new index is presented that measures the effort levels of national programmes to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. These indices come from a questionnaire instrument composed of 14 major headings and 81 items. Forty-nine countries including most of the population in each geographical region are covered. Data were collected ...
Carothers A D - - 2001
We have analyzed data on 3,157 cases of Down syndrome (DS) from nine South American countries in consecutive series of hospital live births over a 30-year period, with particular emphasis on possible ethnic or geographic variations in maternal age-adjusted incidence. The data constitute the largest series of DS cases assembled ...
Gurri F D - - 2001
Infant mortality rate (IMR), overall frequency of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH), sexual dimorphism in LEH, age of onset of LEH, and age at menarche were used as indicators to test the hypothesis that the origin and development of the tourist industry and increased state participation on Maya subsistence agriculturists in ...
Vitzthum V J - - 2001
Although there is substantial evidence that environmental conditions disrupt reproductive function among newcomers to hypoxic settings, it is not certain that low oxygen pressure reduces fertility among those indigenous to high altitude. Even when fertility does appear to be relatively lower, numerous behavioral and sociocultural factors may be responsible. These ...
Henry J K - - 2001
In the 20th century, infant and maternal mortality declined dramatically and the life span and quality of life for women and infants increased. At the end of the century, the rate of decline slowed and policy makers began to look for new ways to address the problem. A significant challenge ...
Shepherd J H - - 2001
The recurrence and fertility rates in 30 women undergoing radical trachelectomy for early stage invasive cervical cancer at St Bartholomew's and Royal Marsden Hospital were reviewed. There were no recurrences, and the mean follow up was 23 months (range 1-64 months). Of 13 women trying to have a baby, eight ...
Martuzzi M - - 2001
Declining trends in male proportion at birth observed in several Western countries might reflect widespread exposure to pollutants capable of interfering with human reproduction. In this study, the authors describe male live birth proportion trends in 23 European countries from 1950 to 1996 (total of 305 million live births). Overall, ...
Barnes-Boyd C - - 2001
This article describes the Resources, Education and Care in the Home program (REACH-Futures), an infant mortality reduction initiative in the inner city of Chicago built on the World Health Organization (WHO) primary health care model and over a decade of experience administering programs to reduce infant mortality through home visits. ...
Goldani M Z - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Data from municipal databases can be used to plan interventions aimed at reducing inequities in health care. The objective of the study was to determine the distribution of infant mortality according to an urban geoeconomic classification using routinely collected municipal data. METHODS: All live births (total of 42,381) and ...
Ondersma S J - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: This survey was conducted to: (1) document child protective services (CPS) agencies' actual practices regarding prenatal drug exposure; (2) examine urban and rural differences in CPS responses; (3) explore whether CPS practices varied as a function of county median income, birth rate, population size, or percent minority births; and ...
Goff D C - - 2001
PURPOSE: Mean blood pressure (BP) has declined in the U.S. for several decades. It is unknown to what extent this decline was due to treatment of persons with recognized high BP or to population-wide influences on BP. Treatment would shift only the highest values lower, whereas, population-wide influences on BP ...
Ventura S J - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 1999 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, tobacco and alcohol use); medical care utilization by ...
Alam N - - 2001
The process of divorce is usually lengthy and hazardous, and can start quarrels that can lead to the abuse of women and their children. This study examines the effects of divorce on neonatal and postneonatal mortality of babies born before and after divorce in Teknaf, a remote area of Bangladesh. ...
De Souza A C - - 2001
This ecological study examines the variations in diarrhoea-specific infant mortality rates among municipalities in the State of Ceará, north-east Brazil, using data from a community health workers' programme. Diarrhoea is the main cause of postneonatal deaths in Ceará, and diarrhoea mortality rates vary substantially among municipalities, from 7 to 50 ...
Herrera L R - - 2001
International data on health and socioeconomic factors were analyzed to understand the trends and the determinants of maternal and infant mortality in the late years. Multivariate analyses were carried out to summarize the structure of the data. Multiple regression analyses were also carried out with these two mortality rates as ...
Wahab A - - 2001
The effect of gender and sibling status on the infant mortality rate (IMR) in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia was investigated using direct estimation of IMR. A cohort of 1,948 infants born between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 1996 was followed for 1 year within a surveillance system. IMR ...
Goldenberg R L - - 2001
In the last several decades there have been major improvements in the ability to control fertility, treat infertility, and reduce maternal, fetal, and infant mortality. However, neither the preterm birth rate nor the rate of long-term neurologic disabilities associated with preterm birth has declined. Increasing knowledge of the events leading ...
Kohler H P - - 2001
Bongaarts and Feeney have recently proposed an adjusted total fertility rate to disentangle tempo effects from changes in the quantum of fertility. We propose an extension to the Bongaarts and Feeney formula that includes variance effects: that is, changes in the variance of the fertility schedule over time. If these ...
Victora C G - - 2001
CONTEXT: Brazilian infant and child mortality levels are not compatible with the country's economic potential. In this paper, we provide a description of levels and trends in infant mortality due to perinatal causes and malformations and assess the likely impact of changing intermediate-level determinants, many of which are amenable to ...
Smith J B - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) by the sisterhood method in two districts of the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana, and to determine the impact of different assumptions and analytical decisions on these estimates. METHODS: Indirect estimates of the MMR were calculated from data collected in 1995 by Family ...
Davis C L - - 2001
High infant mortality rates among American Indians are disproportionate to state statistics for other races and higher than the national average. These findings prompted a community health center in a large Midwestern city to create and provide an American Indian infant mortality reduction project in the early 1990s. Strategies for ...
Barros F C - - 2001
Two studies carried out in 1982 and 1993 in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, provide a unique opportunity for assessing the impact on maternal and child health of the economic and health care changes, which took place in Brazil in this period. The cohorts of mothers and infants of ...
McElroy P D - - 2001
Although all-cause mortality has been used as an indicator of the health status of childhood populations, such data are sparse for most rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa, particularly community-based estimates of infant mortality rates. The longitudinal follow-up of more than 1,500 children enrolled at birth into the Asembo Bay Cohort ...
Pedersen J - - 2000
Infant and child mortality in the West Bank and Gaza Strip has steadily reduced since 1967, even though fertility has remained extremely high. In this paper the determinants of infant and child mortality are discussed, with particular emphasis on the role of consanguineous marriages, short birth spacing and maternal education. ...
Ryan C A - - 2000
The objective of this paper is to examine trends in infant mortality (IMR) and low-birth weight (LBW) in the Southern Health Board (SHB) area and to investigate the relationship between IMR and social and economic factors. IMR data were obtained from the Central Statistics Office (CSO) over a 10-year period ...
Polo V - - 2000
The fertility pattern, in terms of birth intervals, in a rural population not practicing contraception belonging to La Alta Alpujarra Oriental (southeast Spain) is analyzed. During the first half of the 20th century, this population experienced a considerable degree of geographical and cultural isolation. Because of this population's high variability ...
Adekunle A O - - 2000
The National Population Policy (NPP) was promulgated to improve the living standards and quality of life of Nigerians by reducing the persistently high level of fertility and population growth, and achieving an even rural-urban development. The aim of this study was to review Nigeria's demographic patterns in the last decade ...
Sack D A - - 2000
Mortality and fertility rates are decreasing rapidly in many developing countries. It is argued that the indices commonly used as measures of these changes, i.e. infant mortality rate and fertility rate, ignore the interaction between mortality and fertility, and do not reflect their combined impact in lowering overall infant mortality. ...
Li N - - 2000
A decline in fertility causes an increase in the sex ratio at birth (SRB) in countries with strong son preference. What happens to the SRB if fertility is maintained at a low level depends on the evolution of son preference. In this paper, we analyze trends in son preference and ...
Agha S - - 2000
This study examines factors associated with infant survival in Pakistan. It uses data from the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey 1991, a nationally representative sample survey of the Government of Pakistan, funded by the World Bank. The infant mortality rate was still very high in Pakistan until the early 1990s, at ...
Nath D C - - 2000
Reproductive strategies are related to ecological constraints. This paper examines data on early birth spacing in a scheduled caste, Bengali-speaking, non-contracepting population of the Karimganj district of southern Assam, India, taking an evolutionary ecological perspective. It is found that on average birth intervals closed by boy-boy are longer than those ...
Yassin K M - - 2000
There is a general agreement that childhood mortality in Egypt has substantially declined during the last two decades. The decline has been traditionally attributed to the impact of the National Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases Program (NCDDP). However, a controversy still exists over the magnitude of that decline and the claimed ...
Ali M M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: In 1999 UNICEF, in cooperation with the government of Iraq and the local authorities in the "autonomous" (northern Kurdish) region, conducted two similar surveys to provide regionally representative and reliable estimates of child mortality (the subject of this paper) and maternal mortality. METHODS: In a cross-sectional household survey in ...
Maharatna A - - 2000
The present paper critically reviews the existing literature on fertility, mortality and its gender bias among India's tribal population in the post-Independence period. Despite difficulties and limitations of available literature on tribal demography--most of which has been produced by anthropologists--our review extracts several interesting and important points. First, although fertility ...
Turrell G - - 2000
This study uses small-area data for the period 1985-89 to examine the relationship between socioeconomic status and infant mortality in each of the mainland State capital cities of Australia. An unweighted OLS regression analysis based on 195 Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) that recorded five or more deaths over the reference ...
Anand K - - 2000
BACKGROUND: India aims to reduce the infant mortality rate (IMR) to below 60 per 1000 live births by 2000. IMR is higher in northern India as compared with south Indian states like Kerala. Any further reduction in IMR needs identification of new strategies. The Ballabgarh project with an IMR of ...
Alam N - - 2000
Nuptiality norms in rural Bangladesh favour birth during the teenage years. An appreciable proportion of teenage births are, in fact, second births. This study examines the relationship between teenage fertility and high infant mortality. It is hypothesized that if physiological immaturity is responsible, then the younger the mother, the higher ...
Ikamari L - - 2000
This paper examines whether infant and child mortality risks among successive siblings are closely correlated, and if so, whether the survival status of the preceding child is an important factor affecting infant and child mortality in Kenya. The data were drawn from the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. Logistic ...
Ventura S J - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 1998 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco and alcohol use); ...
Nolte E - - 2000
BACKGROUND: After unification, the gap in infant mortality rates between the two parts of Germany widened until 1996 before converging. The reasons for these changes have not, so far, been apparent. OBJECTIVES: To investigate trends in neonatal and postneonatal mortality in the eastern (the new Länder) and western (the old ...
Miller Jr R D - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a measurable health return associated with high pharmaceutical consumption in a sample of developed countries. DESIGN AND SETTING: The study focused on the production of health, disaggregating healthcare into pharmaceuticals and other healthcare. We controlled for wealth and ...
Dolk H - - 2000
With growing evidence of the adverse health effects of air pollution--especially fine particulates--investigators must concentrate on the fetus, neonate, and infant as potentially vulnerable groups. Cokeworks are a major source of smoke and sulfur dioxide. In the current study, the authors investigated whether populations residing near cokeworks had a higher ...
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