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- - 2003
One of the national health objectives for 2010 is to reduce the U.S. infant mortality rate (IMR) to </=4.5 deaths per 1,000 live births (objective no. 16-1c). Historically, Delaware's IMR exceeded the national average; however, during the early 1990s, Delaware's IMR decreased, reaching the U.S. average in 1993. During 1995--2000, ...
Victora Cesar G - - 2003
Given the growing recognition of the importance of the life course approach for the determination of chronic diseases, birth cohort studies are becoming increasingly important. This paper describes the methods used in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, one of the largest and longest studies of this type in ...
Olsen Carolyn L - - 2003
The incidence of Down syndrome (DS) at conception is highly dependent upon the maternal age distribution and age-specific pregnancy rates. Live-birth prevalence of DS reflects these factors and fetal deaths. Since the introduction of prenatal diagnosis in the early 1970s, the role of fetal deaths in the equation has increased. ...
Grech V - - 2003
CONTEXT: A previous study showed that significantly more boys were born in southern latitudes in Europe than in northern latitudes and the converse pattern was observed in North America. OBJECTIVE: This study analyses secular trends in gender ratios for live births over the second half of the 20th century. Design, ...
Elfenbein Dianne S - - 2003
Teen birth rates have decreased steadily over the past decade, but the United States still has the highest birth rates among all developed countries. Young women who give birth as adolescents are likely to have poor school performance, and come from families with low socioeconomic status, a history of teen ...
Assata ZERAI
Socioeconomic and demographic variables are examined in a multilevel framework to determine conditions influencing infant survival in Zimbabwe (1983-88) using Demographic and Health Survey data. Community level child health inputs consistently influence infant survival. The most unique finding is that childbearing-aged women's average educational levels in their community exert a ...
Poerwanto S - - 2003
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of family welfare index (FWI) and maternal education on the probability of infant death. DESIGN: A population based multistage stratified clustered survey. SETTING: Women of reproductive age in Indonesia between 1983-1997. DATA SOURCES: The 1997 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey. Main results: Infant mortality ...
Macassa Gloria - - 2003
This study describes urban and rural trends of infant, child and under-five mortality in Mozambique (1973-1997) by mother's place of residence. A direct method of estimation was applied to the 1997 Mozambican Demographic and Health Survey data. The levels of infant, child and under-five mortality were considerably higher in rural ...
Wuhib Tadesse - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Kazakhstan's live-birth definition--that dates from the former Soviet Union (FSU) era--differs from that used by the World Health Organization (WHO). We studied the impacts of both live-birth definitions on the computations of the infant mortality rate (IMR) and maternal and child health (MCH) planning in Zhambyl Oblast, Kazakhstan. METHODS: ...
Hawkes Kristen - - 2003
Great apes, our closest living relatives, live longer and mature later than most other mammals and modern humans are even later-maturing and potentially longer-lived. Evolutionary life-history theory seeks to explain cross-species differences in these variables and the covariation between them. That provides the foundation for a hypothesis that a novel ...
Al-Hosani H A - - 2003
We investigated the association of biological, sociocultural and economic risk factors with child mortality in Abu Dhabi from 1 January-31 December 1997. With McNemar chi-squared test, most selected biological risk factors were statistically associated with child mortality, although maternal age older than 40 years and history of fetal death were ...
Rao Malla R - - 2003
Demographic indicators such as fertility rates and infant mortality rates are often measured in census surveys by interviewing mothers to obtain their pregnancy histories and child deaths. The validity of such surveys depends upon accurate recall of histories, truthful reporting of events and understanding of the questions posed. To measure ...
Bengtsson Tommy - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The importance of early life conditions and current conditions for mortality in later life was assessed using historical data from four rural parishes in southern Sweden. Both demographic and economic data are valid. METHODS: Longitudinal demographic and socioeconomic data for individuals and household socioeconomic data from parish registers were ...
Comino E J - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate access of resident immigrant families from a non-English speaking background to Maternal and Infant Services operated by Community Health Services in south-western Sydney. METHODS: An ecological study compared the demographic characteristics of mothers with an infant aged less than 12 months ...
Madise Nyovani Janet - - 2003
Trends in infant mortality in Zambia suggest a reversal of the decline experienced between the 1960s and the late 1970s. From a high of about 140, infant mortality rate declined to about 90 in the late 1970s only to rise again to 100 by 1996. Data on 5,600 births born ...
Draak, Maaike den
Risk factors and processes during prenatal life, birth, and the neonatal period are becoming increasingly important predictors of morbidity and mortality patterns in populations. In developed countries, and even in many developing regions, they have already become the most important predictors of infant mortality. Nevertheless, within demography and population forecasting, ...
Byass Peter - - 2003
AIMS: Demographic data including detailed mortality patterns for Vietnam are relatively sparse, mainly coming from national census data. This paper describes detailed mortality findings from a sample drawn from the population of one district of northern Vietnam, over the three-year period 1999-2001. METHODS: These data were based on quarterly household ...
Navarro Vicente - - 2003
This article analyzes (within the conceptual frame defined in the previous article) the impact of political variables such as time of government by political parties (social democratic, Christian democratic or conservative, liberal, and ex-dictatorial that have governed the OECD countries during the 1950-1998 period) and their electoral support on (1) ...
Mswia Robert - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To examine the progress made towards the Safe Motherhood Initiative goals in three areas of the United Republic of Tanzania during the 1990s. METHODS: Maternal mortality in the United Republic of Tanzania was monitored by sentinel demographic surveillance of more than 77,000 women of reproductive age, and by prospective ...
Rendall Michael S - - 2003
Teenage fertility has fallen substantially in every Western European country except the United Kingdom. This article examines the hypothesis that repetition of teenage motherhood from mother to daughter is a major cause of the UK being the exception. A simple demographic model of fertility across generations is estimated with comparable ...
Blacker John - - 2003
Data from two parallel household surveys conducted in Iraq by UNICEF in 1999 show that under-5 mortality declined steadily from 1974 to 1990, reaching about 63 per 1,000 live births in the period 1986-90. It then rose dramatically to 118 per 1,000 in 1991, the year of the Gulf War. ...
Burström Bo - - 2003
This article describes some of the policies behind the decline of infant mortality in Sweden during the 20th century, from very high levels and large social differentials at the turn of the 19th century to one of the lowest levels in the world by 1950. Political commitment to reducing infant ...
Fuster Vicente - - 2003
The present paper is based on information on marital patterns and reproductive performance (reconstituted families) in the rural community of Los Nogales, Galicia, Spain. Biodemographic data were used to analyse temporal changes and structure of consanguinity in the population, as well as consanguinity versus reproductive success. Of 2347 marriages celebrated ...
Martin Joyce A - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 2001 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, tobacco, and alcohol use); medical care utilization by ...
Watkins R E - - 2002
In industrialized countries migrants remain a high-risk group for tuberculosis (TB). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the ability of indicators of TB incidence in the country of birth to predict the incidence of TB among migrants in Australia during 1997. World Health Organization total case notifications, new ...
Szwarcwald Célia Landmann - - 2002
In this paper, we propose an approach to investigate the hypothesis that the residential concentration of poverty affects health status more deeply than when poverty is randomly scattered in a given geographical area. To characterize the geographic pattern of poverty in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an index ...
Whitworth Alison - - 2002
The detrimental impact of short preceding birth intervals on infant and early childhood mortality is well documented in demographic literature, although the pathways of influence within the relationship remain an area of debate. This paper examines the impact of the length of the preceding birth interval on under-two mortality in ...
Bhuiya Abbas - - 2002
This paper reports results from a prospective study of the impact of a woman-focused development programme on child survival in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh. The programme was targeted to households owning less than 50 decimals of land and members selling more than 100 days of labour for living ...
Peña J A - - 2002
Inbreeding in the Orozco Valley (Basque Country, Spain) between the 18th and 20th centuries was investigated on the basis of ecclesiastical dispensations and surname lists. The variations over time are very similar to those observed elsewhere in Europe, with a major increase in the coefficient of inbreeding in the late ...
Yip Paul S F - - 2002
The annual total of births in Hong Kong SAR fell substantially in the past 20 years; hence the total fertility rate (TFR) followed the downward trend and dropped to a low of 0.9 below replacement level in 2000. Despite the long-term downward trend, short-run increases in the annual total of ...
Martens Patricia J - - 2002
To determine the fertility and child mortality rates for Manitoba. Fertility and mortality rates were derived from the Population Health Research Data Repository and Vital Statistics, for 1994 through 1998. Data are presented by 12 Regional Health Authorities (RHAs), 12 Winnipeg Community Areas (CAs) and by income quintile. Each indicator ...
Alfonso Sánchez Miguel A - - 2002
In this work, the evolution of demographic and health patterns in a Basque rural population from Spain is analysed, as they relate to progress in demographic and epidemiological transition. For this purpose, parochial record data on 13,298 births and 9,215 deaths, registered during the 19th and 20th centuries (1800-1990), were ...
Lock Karen - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The OECD countries and the United Nations have agreed to co-ordinate their work around a series of International Development Targets. The targets for health are based on improvements in infant, child and maternal mortality. Progress towards these goals will be used to assess the effectiveness of development policies. OBJECTIVES: ...
Goldani Marcelo Zubaran - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine the trends of infant mortality from 1995 to 1999 according to a geographic area-based measure of maternal education in Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHODS: A registry-based study was carried out and a municipal database created in 1994 was used. All live births (n=119,170) and infant deaths (n=1,934) were ...
Schneider M C - - 2002
STUDY OBJECTIVE:s: To describe overall and income related trends in infant mortality inequalities in the Region of the Americas from 1955 to 1995. DESIGN: Infant mortality rates (IMRs) were computed and their trends assessed by ordinary least squares. Overall trends in IMR inequalities among countries were analysed by comparing 10 ...
Poston Dudley L DL - - 2002
This paper examines the effect of son preference on the hazards of having a second and a third birth. With data from the Two-per-thousand National Sample Survey on Fertility and Contraception conducted in 1988 by the State Family Planning Commission of China, the hazard of having a second birth among ...
Gokhale Medha K - - 2002
Slow reduction in infant mortality rate in the last couple of decades is a major concern in India. State-level aggregate data from the National Family Health Survey 1992 and micro-level data on rural mothers (n=317) were used for examining the influence of female literacy on reduction of infant mortality through ...
Joseph K S - - 2002
Recent increases in the frequency of multiple births and simultaneous increases in preterm birth among multiple births have focused attention on such births. However, most previous studies have examined twins rather than higher-order multiples. We carried out a study to examine rates and trends in preterm birth and in gestational ...
Grossman David C - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine geographic variation in urban American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) rates of infant mortality, low birth weight, prenatal care use, and maternal-child health care service availability. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study using data from the 1989 to 1991 birth-death linked database from the National Center ...
Modin Bitte - - 2002
The present study examines the sex-specific patterns of mortality by birth order in four stages of the life-course, using Poisson and logistic regression analysis. The main question posed is whether there is any continuing social effect of birth order when (a) biological factors at birth, (b) other social factors at ...
Gyimah Stephen Obeng - - 2002
This paper examines the conditions under which there might be a strong or weak relationship between childhood mortality and fertility at the micro level. The premise is that as a society undergoes transition during which a conscious effort is made to space and limit birth, the effect associated with infant ...
Greksa L P - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Since they are a healthy and well-nourished isolate with strong religious proscriptions against birth control, the fertility patterns of the Old Order Amish have long been studied by demographers, particularly those with an interest in natural fertility. AIM: The present report describes population growth, population structure, and fertility patterns ...
Andersson T - - 2002
In countries where most deliveries occur at home and most available information is hospital-based, accurate information on neonatal mortality is difficult to obtain. This study was conducted in a rural community in Ethiopia that has been under monthly demographic surveillance since 1987. The analysis in this paper was based on ...
Martin Joyce A - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 2000 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, tobacco and alcohol use); medical care utilization by ...
- - 2002
Since 1983, when the first infant was conceived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) in the United States, the use of IVF and related procedures (assisted reproductive technology [ART]) has increased substantially. In 1998, an estimated 0.7% of the 3.9 million births were the result of ART. ART patients are more ...
Paradies Yin - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the patterns of mortality observed among Indigenous Australians were seen in other countries or sub-populations. Previous reports have indicated that the life expectancy of Indigenous Australians compares unfavourably with that of Indigenous groups in other developed countries, and is similar to that in some developing countries. ...
Pedersen J - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of mortality differences associated with consanguineous marriage among Palestinians in the Middle East. METHODS: The data came from five surveys of Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon, conducted during the period 1995-2000. Infant ...
Rahman A - - 2002
Despite relative improvement in living conditions and availability of modern healthcare, infant mortality rates continue to be very high in many developing countries. High rates of depression have also been reported in women in these countries. The continuous care and attention of children is a demanding task, and poor physical ...
Smith Kate - - 2002
The Millennium Cohort Study is the latest in the line of British birth cohort studies. MCS resembles its predecessors which follow people born in 1946, 1958 and 1970 in the intention to become multi-purpose longitudinal data resource charting many aspects of individual's lives over time. The families of a sample ...
Hussain R - - 2002
This paper assesses the risk factors for neonatal mortality (0-28 days of life) for full-term singleton live births. The study sample comprised 1,011 ever-married women who were residents of four multi-ethnic, multi-religious low-income areas of Karachi, Pakistan during 1995. The analysis sample was restricted to 4,488 live births to 912 ...
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