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Racine Andrew D - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Income has long been identified as a potent determinant of infant mortality, yet little is known about the stability of its influence over time in defined populations. The objective of this study was to characterize trends in the income gradient in infant mortality in New York City from 1988 ...
Tarabeia Jalal - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The infant mortality rate is a health status indicator. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the differences in infant mortality rates between Jews and Arabs in Israel between 1975 and 2000. METHODS: Data were used from the Central Bureau of Statistics and the Department of Mother, Child and Adolescent Health in the ...
Sutton Paul D - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: This report presents U.S. and State-level data on births, birth rates, fertility rates, sex ratio, marital status, and educational attainment by race and Hispanic origin for 1990, 1995, and 2000-2002. METHODS: Data are presented in detailed tables, summary tables, maps, and graphs. RESULTS: In 2002 there were 4,021,726 live ...
Blanco Villegas María José - - 2004
Marital structure and inbreeding coefficients were analyzed in La Cabrera, an isolated mountain region in northwestern Spain. A total of 5,714 marriages were celebrated from 1880 to 1989 in the 37 parishes of the area. The total frequency of consanguineous marriages (up to the fourth degree) is 23.05%; multiple consanguineous ...
Becher Heiko - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to quantify the effect of risk factors for childhood mortality in a typical rural setting in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We performed a survival analysis of births within a population under demographic surveillance from 1992 to 1999 based on data from a demographic surveillance ...
Lachaud Jean-Pierre - - 2004
Based on the Demographic and Health Survey of the Comoros of 1996, the analysis of the determinants of child mortality reaches three conclusions. Firstly, differentiated analytical options generate partially convergent results and provide different dimensions of child mortality. Secondly, the study shows that the low standard of living of households ...
Barber Nigel - - 2004
The sex ratio at birth may reflect frequency of intercourse that affects the timing of conception. If so, cross-national variation in polygyny and fertility might account for country differences in secondary sex ratios. Consistent with the timing of intercourse hypothesis, the birth sex ratios of 148 countries declined with total ...
Goldani Marcelo Zubaran - - 2004
This study investigates the possible effects of pre-term births and low birth weight on infant mortality rates (IMRs) over a 15-year period in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, based on surveys carried out in 1978/79 and 1994. The 1978/79 survey included 6750 births over a 12-month period and the 1994 survey 2846 ...
Poerwanto, Siswo
[Truncated abstract] The aims of the study were twofold; firstly, to describe the inequality in infant mortality in Indonesia namely, to look at the extent and magnitude of the problem in terms of the estimated number of infant deaths, the differentials in infant mortality rates, the probability of infant deaths ...
Vaktskjold Arild - - 2004
BACKGROUND: A population-based birth registry has been set up for the Arctic town of Moncegorsk in north-western Russia. In this investigation, the quality and the content of the registry are assessed and the perinatal mortality (PM) rates in the period 1973-97 estimated. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Enrollment in the Kola Birth ...
Chamberlain Jessica - - 2004
Over the last three decades fertility in Scotland, as measured by the total fertility rate (TFR), has moved from being higher than in England and Wales, to being lower. The annual number of births in Scotland has declined so that in the mid-1990s low fertility became the main driver of ...
Rahman A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies in Pakistan show high rates of depression in women, while rates of malnutrition in children are also high. This study aimed to determine whether poor maternal mental health is associated with an increased risk of infant undernutrition. METHODS: Clinic-based case-control study. A total of 172 consecutive infants ...
Arntzen Annett - - 2004
AIM: Social equity in health is an important goal of public health policies in the Nordic countries. Infant mortality is often used as an indicator of the health of societies, and has decreased substantially in the Nordic welfare states over the past 20 years. To identify social patterns in infant ...
Gemperli A - - 2004
A spatial analysis was carried out to identify factors related to geographic differences in infant mortality risk in Mali by linking data from two spatially structured databases: the Demographic and Health Surveys of 1995-1996 and the Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa database for Mali. Socioeconomic factors measured directly at the ...
Martin Joyce A - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 2002 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, tobacco, and alcohol use); medical care utilization by ...
Khoshnood B - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown socioeconomic disparities in the use of prenatal diagnosis in several countries, including France and the United States. Few studies however, have examined the impact of socioeconomic differences in prenatal testing on disparities in the live birth prevalence of congenital anomalies. In this article, we first ...
Kemkes-Grottenthaler Ariane - - 2003
Marked denominational mortality differentials have been documented for various time periods and geographic locations. From a historical perspective, death rates among Catholics are often found to be higher than those among Protestants or Jews. Using a conceptual model based on the life history approach, biomedical and sociocultural factors of causation ...
Coory Michael - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Trends in the median age at death (MAAD) are now being reported in some official government publications. Because trends in MAAD are being published and are being used to support discussions about policy, information is needed about its strengths and limitations. METHODS: We conducted a simulation study based on ...
Lummaa Virpi - - 2003
Conditions experienced during early development affect human health and survival in adulthood, but whether such effects have consequences for fitness is not known. One surrogate for early conditions is month of birth, which is known to influence health and survival in many human populations. We show that in nineteenth century ...
Gissler Mika - - 2003
Several studies have reported poorer infant outcome among immigrants, but contrary evidence also exists. Between 1940 and 1999 more than a half million Finns emigrated to Sweden, which made Finns the largest minority group in Sweden. Our aim was to investigate fertility trends, parturients' background and pregnancy outcomes among Finns ...
Hyder Adnan A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess the burden of neonatal mortality in two developing regions. DESIGN: Review of secondary data collated through literature review. SETTING: Community and facility based studies and national health surveys. POPULATION: Neonatal (<28 days) population of South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Data on neonatal mortality were gathered from ...
- - 2003
One of the national health objectives for 2010 is to reduce the U.S. infant mortality rate (IMR) to </=4.5 deaths per 1,000 live births (objective no. 16-1c). Historically, Delaware's IMR exceeded the national average; however, during the early 1990s, Delaware's IMR decreased, reaching the U.S. average in 1993. During 1995--2000, ...
Victora Cesar G - - 2003
Given the growing recognition of the importance of the life course approach for the determination of chronic diseases, birth cohort studies are becoming increasingly important. This paper describes the methods used in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, one of the largest and longest studies of this type in ...
Olsen Carolyn L - - 2003
The incidence of Down syndrome (DS) at conception is highly dependent upon the maternal age distribution and age-specific pregnancy rates. Live-birth prevalence of DS reflects these factors and fetal deaths. Since the introduction of prenatal diagnosis in the early 1970s, the role of fetal deaths in the equation has increased. ...
Elfenbein Dianne S - - 2003
Teen birth rates have decreased steadily over the past decade, but the United States still has the highest birth rates among all developed countries. Young women who give birth as adolescents are likely to have poor school performance, and come from families with low socioeconomic status, a history of teen ...
Grech V V Paediatric Department, St Luke's Hospital, Guardamangia, Malta. - - 2003
A previous study showed that significantly more boys were born in southern latitudes in Europe than in northern latitudes and the converse pattern was observed in North America. This study analyses secular trends in gender ratios for live births over the second half of the 20th century. Analysis was carried ...
Assata ZERAI
Socioeconomic and demographic variables are examined in a multilevel framework to determine conditions influencing infant survival in Zimbabwe (1983-88) using Demographic and Health Survey data. Community level child health inputs consistently influence infant survival. The most unique finding is that childbearing-aged women's average educational levels in their community exert a ...
Macassa Gloria - - 2003
This study describes urban and rural trends of infant, child and under-five mortality in Mozambique (1973-1997) by mother's place of residence. A direct method of estimation was applied to the 1997 Mozambican Demographic and Health Survey data. The levels of infant, child and under-five mortality were considerably higher in rural ...
Poerwanto S S School of Population Health, The University of Western Australia, Australia. TVW Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia. - - 2003
To examine the effect of family welfare index (FWI) and maternal education on the probability of infant death. A population based multistage stratified clustered survey. Women of reproductive age in Indonesia between 1983-1997. The 1997 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey. Infant mortality was associated with FWI and maternal education. Relative ...
Wuhib Tadesse - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Kazakhstan's live-birth definition--that dates from the former Soviet Union (FSU) era--differs from that used by the World Health Organization (WHO). We studied the impacts of both live-birth definitions on the computations of the infant mortality rate (IMR) and maternal and child health (MCH) planning in Zhambyl Oblast, Kazakhstan. METHODS: ...
Hawkes Kristen - - 2003
Great apes, our closest living relatives, live longer and mature later than most other mammals and modern humans are even later-maturing and potentially longer-lived. Evolutionary life-history theory seeks to explain cross-species differences in these variables and the covariation between them. That provides the foundation for a hypothesis that a novel ...
Al-Hosani H A - - 2003
We investigated the association of biological, sociocultural and economic risk factors with child mortality in Abu Dhabi from 1 January-31 December 1997. With McNemar chi-squared test, most selected biological risk factors were statistically associated with child mortality, although maternal age older than 40 years and history of fetal death were ...
Rao Malla R - - 2003
Demographic indicators such as fertility rates and infant mortality rates are often measured in census surveys by interviewing mothers to obtain their pregnancy histories and child deaths. The validity of such surveys depends upon accurate recall of histories, truthful reporting of events and understanding of the questions posed. To measure ...
Bengtsson Tommy - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The importance of early life conditions and current conditions for mortality in later life was assessed using historical data from four rural parishes in southern Sweden. Both demographic and economic data are valid. METHODS: Longitudinal demographic and socioeconomic data for individuals and household socioeconomic data from parish registers were ...
Comino E J - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate access of resident immigrant families from a non-English speaking background to Maternal and Infant Services operated by Community Health Services in south-western Sydney. METHODS: An ecological study compared the demographic characteristics of mothers with an infant aged less than 12 months ...
Madise Nyovani Janet - - 2003
Trends in infant mortality in Zambia suggest a reversal of the decline experienced between the 1960s and the late 1970s. From a high of about 140, infant mortality rate declined to about 90 in the late 1970s only to rise again to 100 by 1996. Data on 5,600 births born ...
Draak, Maaike den
Risk factors and processes during prenatal life, birth, and the neonatal period are becoming increasingly important predictors of morbidity and mortality patterns in populations. In developed countries, and even in many developing regions, they have already become the most important predictors of infant mortality. Nevertheless, within demography and population forecasting, ...
Byass Peter - - 2003
AIMS: Demographic data including detailed mortality patterns for Vietnam are relatively sparse, mainly coming from national census data. This paper describes detailed mortality findings from a sample drawn from the population of one district of northern Vietnam, over the three-year period 1999-2001. METHODS: These data were based on quarterly household ...
Navarro Vicente - - 2003
This article analyzes (within the conceptual frame defined in the previous article) the impact of political variables such as time of government by political parties (social democratic, Christian democratic or conservative, liberal, and ex-dictatorial that have governed the OECD countries during the 1950-1998 period) and their electoral support on (1) ...
Mswia Robert - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To examine the progress made towards the Safe Motherhood Initiative goals in three areas of the United Republic of Tanzania during the 1990s. METHODS: Maternal mortality in the United Republic of Tanzania was monitored by sentinel demographic surveillance of more than 77,000 women of reproductive age, and by prospective ...
Rendall Michael S - - 2003
Teenage fertility has fallen substantially in every Western European country except the United Kingdom. This article examines the hypothesis that repetition of teenage motherhood from mother to daughter is a major cause of the UK being the exception. A simple demographic model of fertility across generations is estimated with comparable ...
Blacker John - - 2003
Data from two parallel household surveys conducted in Iraq by UNICEF in 1999 show that under-5 mortality declined steadily from 1974 to 1990, reaching about 63 per 1,000 live births in the period 1986-90. It then rose dramatically to 118 per 1,000 in 1991, the year of the Gulf War. ...
Burström Bo - - 2003
This article describes some of the policies behind the decline of infant mortality in Sweden during the 20th century, from very high levels and large social differentials at the turn of the 19th century to one of the lowest levels in the world by 1950. Political commitment to reducing infant ...
Fuster Vicente - - 2003
The present paper is based on information on marital patterns and reproductive performance (reconstituted families) in the rural community of Los Nogales, Galicia, Spain. Biodemographic data were used to analyse temporal changes and structure of consanguinity in the population, as well as consanguinity versus reproductive success. Of 2347 marriages celebrated ...
Martin Joyce A - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 2001 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, tobacco, and alcohol use); medical care utilization by ...
Watkins R E - - 2002
In industrialized countries migrants remain a high-risk group for tuberculosis (TB). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the ability of indicators of TB incidence in the country of birth to predict the incidence of TB among migrants in Australia during 1997. World Health Organization total case notifications, new ...
Szwarcwald Célia Landmann - - 2002
In this paper, we propose an approach to investigate the hypothesis that the residential concentration of poverty affects health status more deeply than when poverty is randomly scattered in a given geographical area. To characterize the geographic pattern of poverty in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an index ...
Whitworth Alison - - 2002
The detrimental impact of short preceding birth intervals on infant and early childhood mortality is well documented in demographic literature, although the pathways of influence within the relationship remain an area of debate. This paper examines the impact of the length of the preceding birth interval on under-two mortality in ...
Bhuiya Abbas - - 2002
This paper reports results from a prospective study of the impact of a woman-focused development programme on child survival in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh. The programme was targeted to households owning less than 50 decimals of land and members selling more than 100 days of labour for living ...
Peña J A - - 2002
Inbreeding in the Orozco Valley (Basque Country, Spain) between the 18th and 20th centuries was investigated on the basis of ecclesiastical dispensations and surname lists. The variations over time are very similar to those observed elsewhere in Europe, with a major increase in the coefficient of inbreeding in the late ...
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