Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 946
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Hakobyan Mihran - - 2006
Health system reforms have been taken in Armenia during a time of dramatic economic and fiscal distress. It is important to assess trends in health indicators and ascertain if the changes in socio-economic systems affected the health status of infants as the most vulnerable part of the population. We find ...
Waldhoer Thomas - - 2006
Over the last 20 years in Austria infant mortality has declined from 11.2/1,000 life births (1985) to 4.7/100,000 (1997) but has remained constant since then. This stagnation is in contrast to the trend in Finland, where the infant mortality rate is both lower than in Austria and continues to decline. ...
Landale Nancy S - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the implications of migration to the United States for infant mortality among Puerto Rican mothers born in Puerto Rico. The roles of selective migration and duration of US residence are assessed. METHOD: Using survey data collected from mothers of infants sampled from computerized birth and infant ...
Yadava R C - - 2007
Most studies of closed birth intervals are regarding their variation at specific orders among females. This paper attempts to study the nature of the distributions of consecutive closed birth intervals. Data from the Uttar Pradesh National Family Health Survey 1998-99 (NFHS-2) were analysed. It was found that, under certain assumptions, ...
Gyimah Stephen Obeng - - 2006
This study is premised on the hypothesis that ethnic specific socio-cultural practices such as dietary taboos and food avoidances on mothers and infants, as well as perceptions of disease aetiology and treatment patterns may be salient to understanding infant mortality differentials in Ghana. To inform policy, the paper explores if ...
Hambidge Simon J - - 2006
To define a clinical prediction rule for underimmunization in children of low socioeconomic status. We assessed a cohort of 1160 infants born from July 1998 through June 1999 at an urban safety net hospital that received primary care at 4 community health centers. The main outcome measure was up-to-date status ...
Sutton Paul D - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: This report presents U.S. and State-level data on births, birth rates, and fertility rates for Hispanic origin subgroups for 1990 and 2000. Data for non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks are provided for comparison. METHODS: Data are presented in detailed tables, graphs, and maps. RESULTS: Between 1990 and 2000, the ...
Blanco Villegas M J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Among determinants of the structure of human populations, consanguineous marriages can be useful in determining to what extent they influence the genetic structure of the population. This knowledge may be gained by comparing the reproductive performance of related and non-related couples. The population studied, La Cabrera, is a mountainous ...
Lee Jungmin - - 2006
Since antiquity, people in several East Asian countries, such as China, Japan, and South Korea, have believed that a person is destined to possess specific characteristics according to the sign of the zodiac under which he or she was born. South Koreans, in particular, have traditionally considered that the year ...
Mielniczuk Lisa M - - 2006
Reports from case series have estimated the incidence of peripartum cardiomyopathy (PC) at 1 case/1,485 live births to 1 case/15,000 live births and probable mortality rates of 7% to 60%. The objective of this study was to produce the first population-based study of the incidence, mortality, and risk factors for ...
Gonzalez Rogelio - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Our objective with this article was to describe the declining trend in neonatal mortality in Chile between 1990 and 2000 and examine potential causal factors. METHODS: Descriptive analysis of data that were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health on all approximately 2,900,000 births occurred in Chile between 1990 ...
Fantini Maria Pia - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Infant mortality rate (IMR) is used as a population health indicator. We provide an updated description of temporal and geographical trends of IMR in Italy. METHODS: Regional data on infant deaths and live births were available for France, Germany, England, Portugal (1999-2000), and Italy (1990-2001). Mortality rates including 95% ...
Bongaarts John - - 2006
An examination of fertility trends in countries with multiple DHS surveys found that in the 1990s fertility stalled in midtransition in seven countries: Bangladesh, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ghana, Kenya, Peru, and Turkey. In each of these countries fertility was high (more than six births per woman) in the 1950s and ...
Hurt L S - - 2006
Mortality in women who have completed their childbearing may increase with the number of births experienced because of maternal depletion or a trade-off between reproduction and mortality. We report a systematic review of the evidence on this association. We searched Medline, Embase, Popline, and the Science Citation Index for published ...
Gibson Mhairi A - - 2006
Evolutionary life history theory predicts that, in the absence of contraception, any enhancement of maternal condition can increase human fertility. Energetic trade-offs are likely to be resolved in favour of maximizing reproductive success rather than health or longevity. Here we find support for the hypothesis that development initiatives designed to ...
Rao V G - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted among the Onge tribe of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands with the objectives of identifying demographic factors responsible for the decline in their population and assessing their nutritional status, which is an important determinant of child survival. STUDY DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: The study included estimation ...
Paterson Janis - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper is to describe maternal reports of various health problems experienced by their Pacific infants in the first six weeks of their lives and to examine the infant, maternal and socio-demographic factors associated with infant health problems. MATERIAL/METHODS: The data were gathered as part of ...
Mazahir Samia - - 2006
Head and neck cancers are a major cancer burden in Pakistan. They share a common risk factor profile including regular consumption of products of betel, areca and tobacco. Use of paan, chaalia, gutka, niswar and tumbaku is acceptable in Pakistan and is considered a normal cultural practice. This cross-sectional study ...
Kotelchuck Milton - - 2006
The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) was established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1987 in five states, and today 32 states participate. Using states' vital statistics (birth certificates) as its population-based sampling frame, PRAMS "follows back" a stratified sample of women several months post-partum, ...
Nhacolo Ariel Q - - 2006
In Mozambique most of demographic data are obtained using census or sample survey including indirect estimations. A method of collecting longitudinal demographic data was introduced in southern Mozambique since 1996 (DSS -Demographic Surveillance System in Manhiça district, Maputo province), but the extent to which it yields demographic measures that are ...
Paul Vinod K - - 2006
Of the 4 million neonatal deaths that occur worldwide each year 99% of these occur in developing countries. South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa regions account for two thirds of the global burden. Skilled professionals attend only 35% deliveries in South Asia and 41% in sub-Saharan Africa. Known, affordable interventions delivered ...
Menezes Ana Maria Baptista - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To compare two population-based birth cohorts to assess trends in infant mortality rates and the distribution of relevant risk factors, and how these changed after an 11-year period. METHODS: Data from two population-based prospective birth cohorts (1982 and 1993) were analyzed. Both studies included all children born in a ...
Adazu Kubaje - - 2005
We established a health and demographic surveillance system in a rural area of western Kenya to measure the burden of infectious diseases and evaluate public health interventions. After a baseline census, all 33,990 households were visited every four months. We collected data on educational attainment, socioeconomic status, pediatric outpatient visits, ...
Lin Shin-Jong - - 2006
This paper uses a panel data set comprising 23 cities for the years 1979-2002 in Taiwan and a fixed-effects model to find evidence of the effect of economic instability on infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates. In addition, the effects of income, demographic factors, and the availability of medical resources ...
Gorrette Nalwadda - - 2005
Both fertility and maternal mortality indices are high among Ugandan mothers. The expected benefits in fertility and maternal mortality reduction from a rising contraceptive uptake in the country (from 5% in 1991 to 23% by the year 2000) have not been forthcoming because the increase in contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) ...
Edvinsson Sören - - 2005
An analysis of infant mortality (based on 133,448 births) in two regions, Sundsvall and Skellefteå, in north-eastern Sweden during the nineteenth century shows that infant mortality was highly clustered with a relatively small number of families accounting for a large proportion of all infant deaths. Using logistic regression, two important ...
Guillot Michel - - 2005
Mortality change is not usually assigned much importance as a source of population growth when future population trends are discussed. Yet it can make a significant contribution to population momentum. In populations that have experienced mortality change, cohort survivorship will continue varying for some time even if period mortality rates ...
Alfonso-Sánchez Miguel A - - 2005
The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an increase on premature deaths due to genetically determined factors at the beginning of a demographic transition. We also analyzed the effects of parental consanguinity on offspring mortality from an epidemiological viewpoint, using parish records for family reconstitution in ...
Martin Joyce A - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 2003 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco and alcohol use); medical care utilization ...
Burgard Sarah A - - 2006
Racial differences in infant mortality in South Africa are studied using household-level data from 1987 to 1989 and 1998. Logistic regression models are estimated to explore the determinants of the overall trend in infant mortality and racial disparities in infants' survival chances. We do not find evidence for reduced overall ...
Waldhör Thomas - - 2005
Infant mortality rate is an important medical indicator and is often used for comparing countries with respect to welfare and public health. Among other factors, effective medical technology, better access to pre- and postnatal care for all socioeconomic groups and better nutrition have decreased infant mortality in Austria from about ...
Pallikadavath Saseendran - - 2005
This study estimated birth order-specific miscarriage rates and characterized the influence of maternal age using the complete birth history of 90,303 ever-married women from the 1998-2000 Indian National Family Health Survey. Rates of miscarriage in India were low in association with early childbearing, whereas birth order as well as age ...
Ram Rati - - 2006
Several scholars have put forward the view that the estimates by Rodgers [(1979). Income and inequality as determinants of mortality: An international cross-section analysis. Population Studies, 33 (2), 343-351], Flegg [(1982). Inequality of income, illiteracy and medical care as determinants of infant mortality in underdeveloped countries. Population Studies, 36 (3), ...
Gombos Dan S - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to estimate the number of retinoblastoma cases anticipated each year in various urban and rural areas in Texas. We obtained the most recent data on the number of live births in Texas from the Texas Department of Health. Using those data and the retinoblastoma ...
- - 2005
A national health objective for the year 2000 was to reduce the infant mortality rate (IMR) in the United States to 7.0 deaths per 1,000 live births among infants aged <1 year. The national health objective for 2010 targets a rate of 4.5 infant deaths per 1,000 live births; an ...
Norton M - - 2005
This editorial summarizes new evidence, some of which is published in this supplement, on birth spacing and newborn, infant, child and maternal health, as well as the demand for birth spacing services in the developing world. The article points to the high number of annual infant, child and maternal deaths, ...
Pollard Irina - - 2005
The demand for equality of recognition or respect is the dominant passion of modernity. The 20th century experienced a giant leap in technological inventiveness and ruthless use of technological power. In the 21st century, human welfare and environmental wellbeing demand fundamental political appraisal. We have the means, if we choose, ...
Bang Abhay T - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect on neonatal and infant mortality during 10 years (1993 to 2003) in the field trial of home-based neonatal care (HBNC) in Gadchiroli. To estimate the contribution of the individual components in the intervention package on the observed effect. STUDY DESIGN: The field trial of HBNC ...
Amitai Yona - - 2005
We evaluated the trends and risk factors in infant mortality in Israel over five decades (1950-2000), based on data obtained from the official notifications of live births, and death certificates. Until the 1960s the main cause of infant mortality was infectious disease; this was replaced by congenital anomalies in Moslems ...
Aleshina Nadezhda - - 2005
This paper examines the measurement of infant mortality in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). There are worrying indications that official infant mortality counts, based on administrative data, may understate the true gravity of the problem in 15 countries in the region, ...
Cutler David - - 2005
Mortality rates in the United States fell more rapidly during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries than in any other period in American history. This decline coincided with an epidemiological transition and the disappearance of a mortality "penalty" associated with living in urban areas. There is little empirical evidence ...
Hammel E A - - 2005
Changes in fertility and mortality affect the size of surviving sibling sets and thus numbers of surviving kin. Because the genealogical generations specifying kinship relations are not temporal cohorts and most plausible demographic changes in anthropological populations are period shocks, the effect of such shocks on kin counts are complex. ...
Rutstein S O - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: This paper examines the association between birth intervals and infant and child mortality and nutritional status. METHODS: Repeated analysis of retrospective survey data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program from 17 developing countries collected between 1990 and 1997 were used to examine these relationships. The key independent ...
Burns Paulette G - - 2005
Despite decreases in the last 50 years, infant mortality rates in the United States remain higher than in other industrialized countries. Using overall infant mortality rates to determine the effectiveness of interventions does not help communities focus on particular underlying factors contributing to static, and sometimes increasing, community rates. This ...
Carpio A - - 2005
During the last two decades, there has been a renewed interest in studying epidemiology of epilepsy in developing countries. While there are data on prevalence of epilepsy from many developing countries, there is very little information on the mortality of epilepsy in these same populations. This is because incidence studies ...
Spencer N - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To carry out a preliminary systematic review of literature to address the question - among rich nations (or states within nations) what is the evidence that income inequality and differences in macro-level social policy affect rates of infant mortality and low birthweight (LBW)? STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature review. ...
Luo Zhong-Cheng - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Increasingly more First Nations (FN) people have moved from rural to urban areas. It is unknown how disparities in infant mortality among FN versus non-FN women have changed over time in urban versus rural areas. METHODS: We conducted a birth cohort-based study of all 877 925 live births (56 ...
Leung C C - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the impact of socio-economic factors on tuberculosis in a metropolitan city with high disease incidence. METHOD: District-specific tuberculosis notification rates for 1995--1997 and 2000--2002 were indirectly sex- and age-adjusted and compared with the socio-economic characteristics in the 1996 by-census and 2001 census. RESULTS: The ...
Thind Amardeep - - 2004
Indonesia has set an ambitious target of reducing its maternal mortality rate to 125 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births by the year 2010. This poses formidable challenges in a geographically diverse country where the majority of births occur at home. One option for the Indonesian government in order to ...
Mercer Alec - - 2004
This paper considers evidence of the effectiveness of a non-governmental organization (NGO) primary health care programme in rural Bangladesh. It is based on data from the programme's management information system reported by 27 partner NGOs from 1996-2002. The data indicate relatively high coverage has been achieved for reproductive and child ...
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