Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 946
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Arntzen Annett - - 2008
BACKGROUND: This study examined changes in the educational gradients in neonatal and postneonatal mortality over a 20-year period in the four largest Nordic countries. METHODS: The study populations were all live-born singleton infants with gestational age of at least 22 weeks from 1981 to 2000 (Finland 1987-2000). Information on births ...
Arokiasamy Perianayagam - - 2008
In India, the eight socioeconomically backward states of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh, referred to as the Empowered Action Group (EAG) states, lag behind in the demographic transition and have the highest infant mortality rates in the country. Neonatal mortality constitutes about 60% of ...
Martin Joyce A - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 2005 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco use); medical care ...
Alam Nurul - - 2007
To examine trends in incidence of multiple births (MB) and their survival in infancy, we used population-based, longitudinal data derived from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Matlab, Bangladesh, from 1975 to 2002. Logistic regression was applied to determine the impact of a number of variables on mortality among ...
Hossain Mian Bazle - - 2007
In this article, we examine the relationship between child mortality and subsequent fertility using prospective longitudinal data on births and childhood deaths occurring to nearly 8000 Bangladeshi mothers observed over the 1982-1993 period, a time of rapid fertility decline. Generalized hazard-regression analyses are employed to assess the effect of infant ...
Helle Samuli - - 2007
Our current knowledge on climate-mediated effects on human population dynamics is based on preindustrial agrarian societies where climate-induced crop failures had a major impact on fertility and mortality rates. However, because most of the human evolutionary history has been shaped by hunter-gatherer lifestyle relying on diverse plant and animal food ...
Kerkeni Emna - - 2007
To assess the association among social status, prevalence of consanguineous marriages, and the effects of consanguinity on reproductive behavior and mortality in Tunisia. The study included data on a total of 1741 live-births born from November 1989 to October 1990 in the maternity ward of the University-Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of ...
Hertel-Fernandez Alexander Warren - - 2007
To measure socioeconomic inequalities and differential risk in infant mortality on national and regional levels in Chile from 1990 to 2005, and propose new policy targets. The study analysed Chilean vital events registries from 1990 to 2005 for infant mortality by maternal education, head of household occupational status, cause, age ...
Li C Y - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the chronological trend of low-birth weight in full-term babies (TLBW) in Taiwan in the 1980s and 1990s when the nation experienced a rapid economic advancement, and assessed the association between TLBW and parental education and marital status. DESIGN: Data from liveborn singletons from Taiwan's birth registry, ...
Henretta John C - - 2007
This article examines the relationship between a woman's childbearing history and her later health and mortality, with primary focus on whether the association between them is due to early and later socioeconomic status. Data are drawn from the Health and Retirement Study birth cohort of 1931-1941. Results indicate that, conditional ...
Batty G D GD MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. - - 2007
The objectives of this overview are to describe the past and potential contributions of birth cohorts to understanding chronic disease aetiology; advance a justification for the maintenance of birth cohorts from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC); provide an audit of birth cohorts from LMIC; and, finally, offer possible future directions ...
Luna F - - 2007
We study the effects of several variables on the prereproductive mortality pattern in the isolated and rural population of La Alpujarra, located on the western Mediterranean coast (southeast Spain), in the first half of the 20th century. The study is a retrospective analysis from a total sample of 2,200 deliveries, ...
Rasheed P - - 2007
To determine perceptions towards birth spacing, actual birth interval and associated sociodemographic factors, we carried out a cross-sectional study on 436 mothers aged 15-50 years in Al-Khobar. All had had > or = 2 children within the previous 10 years. Only 5.2% preferred a birth interval of < 2 years, ...
Draper Elizabeth S - - 2007
Direct comparisons of neonatal outcomes at any level (unit, regional or international), require detailed validation and standardisation to ensure 'like for like' evaluation. Reported variation in neonatal performance may be either real or the result of one or more artefacts of the data collection. These issues need to be understood ...
Arevshatian L - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To assess the progress made towards meeting the goals of the African Regional Strategic Plan of the Expanded Programme on Immunization between 2001 and 2005. METHODS: We reviewed data from national infant immunization programmes in the 46 countries of WHOs African Region, reviewed the literature and analysed existing data ...
Li J - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Yunnan Province, located in southwest China, is one of the poorest province in China. The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is about twice the national average (56.2/100,000 live births), and in remote mountainous regions, the rate is five times higher. This study aimed to examine the progress in reduction of ...
Green K E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a country that has undergone remarkable physical, economic and social shifts in its short modern history. And while the economic and structural transformations of the society have been well documented and publicized, information about the changes and transformations of family processes is sparse. ...
Pagliaro Heloisa - - 2007
This paper analyses the demographic dynamics of the Suyá, a Jê people, inhabitants of the Xingu Indigenous Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, during the years 1970-2004. Data was gathered from medical records of the São Paulo Federal University Health Program at the Xingu Indigenous Park. The demographic characteristics addressed include ...
van der Werf Marieke J - - 2007
The targets of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes are to detect 70% of new sputum smear-positive cases of TB and to cure 85% of these. The Stop TB Partnership has set additional targets related to the Millennium Development Goals: to halve TB prevalence and mortality between 1990 and 2015. This paper ...
Heyberger Laurent - - 2007
A sample of 237,782 individual observations was obtained in four areas of France: rural Alsace, urban Alsace, Limousin, and Brie (Ile-de-France). Trends in the biological standard of living of conscripts born in these regions between 1780 and 1920 fit well with the recently estimated trends for other parts of Europe. ...
Hill Kenneth - - 2007
BACKGROUND: International targets for reducing health inequalities, such as the Millennium Development Goals, are stated in terms of national targets. However, dramatic health differentials exist within countries, even developed ones. Studies indicate that the Indigenous population of Australia suffers a life expectancy disadvantage greater than differentials found in Indigenous populations ...
Gagliardi Christine - - 2007
A retrospective analysis was performed on fertility outcomes among a colony of captive Indian rhesus monkeys. The analysis covered over 30 years and was based on 1443 females with a total of 11,453 pregnancies. Various determinants of fertility were assessed including birth rates, pregnancy loss, infant survival, interbirth intervals, and ...
Monteiro Renata Alves - - 2007
This study examined the trend in the infant mortality rate in the Federal District of Brazil (or Greater Metropolitan Brasilia, the national capital) from 1990 to 2000, analyzing the rate according to 5 administrative areas stratified by mean family income, from 1996 to 2000. An ecological time-series study was conducted ...
Singh Gopal K - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: This study examines changing patterns of inequalities in US infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates between 1969 and 2001 by area deprivation and maternal education. METHODS: A deprivation index was linked to county vital records data to derive annual infant mortality rates by deprivation quintiles from 1969 to 2000. ...
Sims Mario - - 2007
This study examined whether the relationship between high poverty and infant mortality rates (IMRs) varied across race- and ethnic-specific populations in large urban areas. Data were drawn from 1990 Census and 1992-1994 Vital Statistics for selected U.S. metropolitan areas. High-poverty areas were defined as neighborhoods in which > or = ...
Redmond Gerry - - 2007
The purpose of this comment is to counsel caution in some of the conclusions drawn in an otherwise fine article recently published in Economics and Human Biology on infant mortality in Armenia by Hakobyan, Mkrtchyan and Yepiskoposyan. These relate first, to the reliability of estimates and trends in infant mortality ...
Ningal Tine - - 2008
The relation between human population growth and land use change is much debated. Here we present a case study from Papua New Guinea where the population has increased from 2.3 million in 1975 to 5.2 million in 2000. Since 85% of the population relies on subsistence agriculture, population growth affects ...
Jiménez Jorge - - 2007
Latin America, and especially Chile, has done well in reducing infant mortality, with rates of around twenty-five per thousand live births. There are two clear phases of declining mortality: one largely influenced by poverty reduction, primary health care, and environmental and demographic factors; and a second one more sensitive to ...
Nelson Anita L - - 2007
Uncontrolled fertility results in significant infant and maternal mortality and morbidity. Contraception has the potential to reduce this disease burden. Although a rich array of reversible contraceptive methods exists, the need for more effective and user-friendly methods remains. Access to methods and affordability are major barriers in many parts of ...
Betrán Ana P - - 2007
Rates of caesarean section are of concern in both developed and developing countries. We set out to estimate the proportion of births by caesarean section (CS) at national, regional and global levels, describe regional and subregional patterns and correlate rates with other reproductive health indicators. We analysed nationally representative data ...
Xie Wen-xia WX Institute for Soil and Water Resources and Environment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, - - 2007
Field experiments were conducted in farmers' rice fields in 2001 and 2002 to study the effects of nitrogen (N) management strategies on N use efficiency in recovery (RE), agronomy (AE) and physiology (PE) and redistribution of dry matter accumulation (DMA) and nitrogen accumulation (NA) in two typical rice cultivars in ...
Strong Kathleen K Department of Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. - - 2007
Stroke caused an estimated 5.7 million deaths in 2005, and 87% of these deaths were in low-income and middle-income countries. Without intervention, the number of global deaths is projected to rise to 6.5 million in 2015 and to 7.8 million in 2030. The rising burden of stroke, especially in low-income ...
Lopriore C - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Infants aged 0-5 months are not systematically included in assessments of child nutritional status and are generally excluded from surveys conducted in emergencies. We estimated the impact of excluding 0-5-month-old infants on the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight among children under 5 years (U5) and under 3 years ...
Hong R - - 2007
Despite improvements in child survival in recent decades, levels of infant and child mortality remain unacceptably high, particularly among the poor in developing countries recovering from recent wars and civil unrests. Using information on 8498 childbirths in five years preceding the 2000 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey, this study measured ...
Balgir R S - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Haemoglobinopathies, including sickle-cell disease and thalassaemia syndrome, are a group of blood diseases mostly confined to tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The spectrum of haemoglobin variants is a group of commonly encountered genetic conditions, with an average frequency of 19.32% in Orissa, varying from region to region ...
Miriti Maria N - - 2007
Extreme events shape population and community trajectories. We report episodic mortality across common species of thousands of long-lived perennials individually tagged and monitored for 20 years in the Colorado Desert of California following severe regional drought. Demographic records from 1984 to 2004 show 15 years of virtual stasis in populations ...
De Vries Charlotte A - - 2007
Childbirth education was an important social movement in the 20th century but has lost its way in recent years. We describe the reasons for the dwindling importance of childbirth education and offer a proposal for reform that will align childbirth education with the needs of today's birthing mothers. Our plan ...
Shkolnikov Vladimir M - - 2007
Earlier studies have found large and increasing with time differences in mortality by education and marital status in post-Soviet countries. Their results are based on independent tabulations of population and deaths counts (unlinked data). The present study provides the first census-linked estimates of group-specific mortality and the first comparison between ...
Hill Kenneth - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In the late 1980s and early 1990s a generalized HIV epidemic affected Thailand which was relatively well controlled by an intensive national campaign by the mid 1990s. The extent to which the epidemic has slowed or possibly reversed the epidemiological transition in Thailand is relatively unknown. METHODS: Under-five mortality ...
Bishai David - - 2007
Some scholars have suggested that an inverse care law holds for infant mortality--that infant mortality reductions are more rapid in regions with lower infant mortality. This theory has not been subjected to proper quantitative analysis. This paper examines time series data on infant mortality from 21 countries to test whether ...
Hong Rathavuth - - 2007
Despite improvements in public health in recent decades, levels of infant and child mortality remain unacceptably high, particularly in developing countries where primary healthcare services including prenatal care services are not universally available. Using information on 7,001 childbirths in five years preceding the 2004 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, this ...
McAlister Chryssa - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: In terms of social and political development, women's human rights have not evolved in many developing countries to the same extent as they have in the developed world. We examined the relationship between women's status and human development and maternal mortality. METHODS: Using polynomial regression analysis with a sample ...
Hong Rathavuth - - 2006
AIM: Levels of infant and child mortality in many developing countries remain unacceptably high, and they are disproportionably higher among high-risk groups such as newborn and infant of multiple births, particularly in countries where advanced medical cares are available only at regional referral levels with limited access by the poor ...
Martin Joyce A - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 2004 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco use); medical care ...
Hosseinpoor Ahmad Reza - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Although measuring socioeconomic inequality in population health indicators like infant mortality is important, more interesting for policy purposes is to try to explain infant mortality inequality. The objective of this paper is to quantify for the first time the determinants' contributions of socioeconomic inequality in infant mortality in Iran. ...
Amiri M - - 2006
AIM: To assess whether secular trends in stomach cancer mortality were correlated with trends in infant mortality rate (IMR) or gross domestic product (GDP). METHODS: Data from seven European countries were analyzed. We used Poisson regression to describe mortality trends among birth cohorts of 1865-1939 and correlation coefficients to determine ...
Basu Sriparna - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Neonatal tetanus (NNT), a preventable disease, remains an important cause of infant mortality in developing countries such as India. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the demographic and clinical data of NNT in North Bengal, India and determine the risk factors for mortality. METHODS: Hospital records of all cases of NNT admitted ...
Grainger David A - - 2006
Couples with fertility problems seeking treatment with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization should receive preconception counseling on all factors that are provided when counseling patients without fertility problems. Additional counseling should address success rates and possible risks from ART therapies. Success rates from ART are improving, ...
Koupil Ilona - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Inequality in adult health increased in Estonia during the transition period after 1991. We examined inequality in infant survival from 1992 to 2002. METHODS: All 132 854 singleton live births reported to the Estonian Medical Birth Registry in 1992-2001 were linked to the Estonian Mortality Database. The effect of ...
Brannian John - - 2006
One in six couples experience infertility. New assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) have helped thousands of couples worldwide to have a family. IVF has been available in South Dakota for the past ten years. Improvements in the clinic and laboratory have led to better live birth ...
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