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Results 251 - 300 of 922
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Gagliardi Christine - - 2007
A retrospective analysis was performed on fertility outcomes among a colony of captive Indian rhesus monkeys. The analysis covered over 30 years and was based on 1443 females with a total of 11,453 pregnancies. Various determinants of fertility were assessed including birth rates, pregnancy loss, infant survival, interbirth intervals, and ...
Monteiro Renata Alves - - 2007
This study examined the trend in the infant mortality rate in the Federal District of Brazil (or Greater Metropolitan Brasilia, the national capital) from 1990 to 2000, analyzing the rate according to 5 administrative areas stratified by mean family income, from 1996 to 2000. An ecological time-series study was conducted ...
Singh Gopal K - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: This study examines changing patterns of inequalities in US infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates between 1969 and 2001 by area deprivation and maternal education. METHODS: A deprivation index was linked to county vital records data to derive annual infant mortality rates by deprivation quintiles from 1969 to 2000. ...
Sims Mario - - 2007
This study examined whether the relationship between high poverty and infant mortality rates (IMRs) varied across race- and ethnic-specific populations in large urban areas. Data were drawn from 1990 Census and 1992-1994 Vital Statistics for selected U.S. metropolitan areas. High-poverty areas were defined as neighborhoods in which > or = ...
Redmond Gerry - - 2007
The purpose of this comment is to counsel caution in some of the conclusions drawn in an otherwise fine article recently published in Economics and Human Biology on infant mortality in Armenia by Hakobyan, Mkrtchyan and Yepiskoposyan. These relate first, to the reliability of estimates and trends in infant mortality ...
Ningal Tine - - 2008
The relation between human population growth and land use change is much debated. Here we present a case study from Papua New Guinea where the population has increased from 2.3 million in 1975 to 5.2 million in 2000. Since 85% of the population relies on subsistence agriculture, population growth affects ...
Jiménez Jorge - - 2007
Latin America, and especially Chile, has done well in reducing infant mortality, with rates of around twenty-five per thousand live births. There are two clear phases of declining mortality: one largely influenced by poverty reduction, primary health care, and environmental and demographic factors; and a second one more sensitive to ...
Nelson Anita L - - 2007
Uncontrolled fertility results in significant infant and maternal mortality and morbidity. Contraception has the potential to reduce this disease burden. Although a rich array of reversible contraceptive methods exists, the need for more effective and user-friendly methods remains. Access to methods and affordability are major barriers in many parts of ...
Betrán Ana P - - 2007
Rates of caesarean section are of concern in both developed and developing countries. We set out to estimate the proportion of births by caesarean section (CS) at national, regional and global levels, describe regional and subregional patterns and correlate rates with other reproductive health indicators. We analysed nationally representative data ...
Xie Wen-xia WX Institute for Soil and Water Resources and Environment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, - - 2007
Field experiments were conducted in farmers' rice fields in 2001 and 2002 to study the effects of nitrogen (N) management strategies on N use efficiency in recovery (RE), agronomy (AE) and physiology (PE) and redistribution of dry matter accumulation (DMA) and nitrogen accumulation (NA) in two typical rice cultivars in ...
Strong Kathleen K Department of Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. - - 2007
Stroke caused an estimated 5.7 million deaths in 2005, and 87% of these deaths were in low-income and middle-income countries. Without intervention, the number of global deaths is projected to rise to 6.5 million in 2015 and to 7.8 million in 2030. The rising burden of stroke, especially in low-income ...
Lopriore C - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Infants aged 0-5 months are not systematically included in assessments of child nutritional status and are generally excluded from surveys conducted in emergencies. We estimated the impact of excluding 0-5-month-old infants on the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight among children under 5 years (U5) and under 3 years ...
Hong R - - 2007
Despite improvements in child survival in recent decades, levels of infant and child mortality remain unacceptably high, particularly among the poor in developing countries recovering from recent wars and civil unrests. Using information on 8498 childbirths in five years preceding the 2000 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey, this study measured ...
Balgir R S - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Haemoglobinopathies, including sickle-cell disease and thalassaemia syndrome, are a group of blood diseases mostly confined to tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The spectrum of haemoglobin variants is a group of commonly encountered genetic conditions, with an average frequency of 19.32% in Orissa, varying from region to region ...
Miriti Maria N - - 2007
Extreme events shape population and community trajectories. We report episodic mortality across common species of thousands of long-lived perennials individually tagged and monitored for 20 years in the Colorado Desert of California following severe regional drought. Demographic records from 1984 to 2004 show 15 years of virtual stasis in populations ...
De Vries Charlotte A - - 2007
Childbirth education was an important social movement in the 20th century but has lost its way in recent years. We describe the reasons for the dwindling importance of childbirth education and offer a proposal for reform that will align childbirth education with the needs of today's birthing mothers. Our plan ...
Shkolnikov Vladimir M - - 2007
Earlier studies have found large and increasing with time differences in mortality by education and marital status in post-Soviet countries. Their results are based on independent tabulations of population and deaths counts (unlinked data). The present study provides the first census-linked estimates of group-specific mortality and the first comparison between ...
Hill Kenneth - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In the late 1980s and early 1990s a generalized HIV epidemic affected Thailand which was relatively well controlled by an intensive national campaign by the mid 1990s. The extent to which the epidemic has slowed or possibly reversed the epidemiological transition in Thailand is relatively unknown. METHODS: Under-five mortality ...
Bishai David - - 2007
Some scholars have suggested that an inverse care law holds for infant mortality--that infant mortality reductions are more rapid in regions with lower infant mortality. This theory has not been subjected to proper quantitative analysis. This paper examines time series data on infant mortality from 21 countries to test whether ...
Hong Rathavuth - - 2007
Despite improvements in public health in recent decades, levels of infant and child mortality remain unacceptably high, particularly in developing countries where primary healthcare services including prenatal care services are not universally available. Using information on 7,001 childbirths in five years preceding the 2004 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, this ...
McAlister Chryssa - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: In terms of social and political development, women's human rights have not evolved in many developing countries to the same extent as they have in the developed world. We examined the relationship between women's status and human development and maternal mortality. METHODS: Using polynomial regression analysis with a sample ...
Hong Rathavuth - - 2006
AIM: Levels of infant and child mortality in many developing countries remain unacceptably high, and they are disproportionably higher among high-risk groups such as newborn and infant of multiple births, particularly in countries where advanced medical cares are available only at regional referral levels with limited access by the poor ...
Martin Joyce A - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 2004 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco use); medical care ...
Hosseinpoor Ahmad Reza - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Although measuring socioeconomic inequality in population health indicators like infant mortality is important, more interesting for policy purposes is to try to explain infant mortality inequality. The objective of this paper is to quantify for the first time the determinants' contributions of socioeconomic inequality in infant mortality in Iran. ...
Amiri M - - 2006
AIM: To assess whether secular trends in stomach cancer mortality were correlated with trends in infant mortality rate (IMR) or gross domestic product (GDP). METHODS: Data from seven European countries were analyzed. We used Poisson regression to describe mortality trends among birth cohorts of 1865-1939 and correlation coefficients to determine ...
Basu Sriparna - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Neonatal tetanus (NNT), a preventable disease, remains an important cause of infant mortality in developing countries such as India. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the demographic and clinical data of NNT in North Bengal, India and determine the risk factors for mortality. METHODS: Hospital records of all cases of NNT admitted ...
Grainger David A - - 2006
Couples with fertility problems seeking treatment with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization should receive preconception counseling on all factors that are provided when counseling patients without fertility problems. Additional counseling should address success rates and possible risks from ART therapies. Success rates from ART are improving, ...
Koupil Ilona - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Inequality in adult health increased in Estonia during the transition period after 1991. We examined inequality in infant survival from 1992 to 2002. METHODS: All 132 854 singleton live births reported to the Estonian Medical Birth Registry in 1992-2001 were linked to the Estonian Mortality Database. The effect of ...
Brannian John - - 2006
One in six couples experience infertility. New assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) have helped thousands of couples worldwide to have a family. IVF has been available in South Dakota for the past ten years. Improvements in the clinic and laboratory have led to better live birth ...
Hakobyan Mihran - - 2006
Health system reforms have been taken in Armenia during a time of dramatic economic and fiscal distress. It is important to assess trends in health indicators and ascertain if the changes in socio-economic systems affected the health status of infants as the most vulnerable part of the population. We find ...
Waldhoer Thomas - - 2006
Over the last 20 years in Austria infant mortality has declined from 11.2/1,000 life births (1985) to 4.7/100,000 (1997) but has remained constant since then. This stagnation is in contrast to the trend in Finland, where the infant mortality rate is both lower than in Austria and continues to decline. ...
Landale Nancy S - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the implications of migration to the United States for infant mortality among Puerto Rican mothers born in Puerto Rico. The roles of selective migration and duration of US residence are assessed. METHOD: Using survey data collected from mothers of infants sampled from computerized birth and infant ...
Yadava R C - - 2007
Most studies of closed birth intervals are regarding their variation at specific orders among females. This paper attempts to study the nature of the distributions of consecutive closed birth intervals. Data from the Uttar Pradesh National Family Health Survey 1998-99 (NFHS-2) were analysed. It was found that, under certain assumptions, ...
Gyimah Stephen Obeng - - 2006
This study is premised on the hypothesis that ethnic specific socio-cultural practices such as dietary taboos and food avoidances on mothers and infants, as well as perceptions of disease aetiology and treatment patterns may be salient to understanding infant mortality differentials in Ghana. To inform policy, the paper explores if ...
Hambidge Simon J - - 2006
To define a clinical prediction rule for underimmunization in children of low socioeconomic status. We assessed a cohort of 1160 infants born from July 1998 through June 1999 at an urban safety net hospital that received primary care at 4 community health centers. The main outcome measure was up-to-date status ...
Sutton Paul D - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: This report presents U.S. and State-level data on births, birth rates, and fertility rates for Hispanic origin subgroups for 1990 and 2000. Data for non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks are provided for comparison. METHODS: Data are presented in detailed tables, graphs, and maps. RESULTS: Between 1990 and 2000, the ...
Blanco Villegas M J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Among determinants of the structure of human populations, consanguineous marriages can be useful in determining to what extent they influence the genetic structure of the population. This knowledge may be gained by comparing the reproductive performance of related and non-related couples. The population studied, La Cabrera, is a mountainous ...
Lee Jungmin - - 2006
Since antiquity, people in several East Asian countries, such as China, Japan, and South Korea, have believed that a person is destined to possess specific characteristics according to the sign of the zodiac under which he or she was born. South Koreans, in particular, have traditionally considered that the year ...
Mielniczuk Lisa M - - 2006
Reports from case series have estimated the incidence of peripartum cardiomyopathy (PC) at 1 case/1,485 live births to 1 case/15,000 live births and probable mortality rates of 7% to 60%. The objective of this study was to produce the first population-based study of the incidence, mortality, and risk factors for ...
Gonzalez Rogelio - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Our objective with this article was to describe the declining trend in neonatal mortality in Chile between 1990 and 2000 and examine potential causal factors. METHODS: Descriptive analysis of data that were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health on all approximately 2,900,000 births occurred in Chile between 1990 ...
Fantini Maria Pia - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Infant mortality rate (IMR) is used as a population health indicator. We provide an updated description of temporal and geographical trends of IMR in Italy. METHODS: Regional data on infant deaths and live births were available for France, Germany, England, Portugal (1999-2000), and Italy (1990-2001). Mortality rates including 95% ...
Bongaarts John - - 2006
An examination of fertility trends in countries with multiple DHS surveys found that in the 1990s fertility stalled in midtransition in seven countries: Bangladesh, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ghana, Kenya, Peru, and Turkey. In each of these countries fertility was high (more than six births per woman) in the 1950s and ...
Hurt L S - - 2006
Mortality in women who have completed their childbearing may increase with the number of births experienced because of maternal depletion or a trade-off between reproduction and mortality. We report a systematic review of the evidence on this association. We searched Medline, Embase, Popline, and the Science Citation Index for published ...
Gibson Mhairi A - - 2006
Evolutionary life history theory predicts that, in the absence of contraception, any enhancement of maternal condition can increase human fertility. Energetic trade-offs are likely to be resolved in favour of maximizing reproductive success rather than health or longevity. Here we find support for the hypothesis that development initiatives designed to ...
Rao V G - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted among the Onge tribe of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands with the objectives of identifying demographic factors responsible for the decline in their population and assessing their nutritional status, which is an important determinant of child survival. STUDY DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: The study included estimation ...
Paterson Janis - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper is to describe maternal reports of various health problems experienced by their Pacific infants in the first six weeks of their lives and to examine the infant, maternal and socio-demographic factors associated with infant health problems. MATERIAL/METHODS: The data were gathered as part of ...
Mazahir Samia - - 2006
Head and neck cancers are a major cancer burden in Pakistan. They share a common risk factor profile including regular consumption of products of betel, areca and tobacco. Use of paan, chaalia, gutka, niswar and tumbaku is acceptable in Pakistan and is considered a normal cultural practice. This cross-sectional study ...
Kotelchuck Milton - - 2006
The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) was established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1987 in five states, and today 32 states participate. Using states' vital statistics (birth certificates) as its population-based sampling frame, PRAMS "follows back" a stratified sample of women several months post-partum, ...
Nhacolo Ariel Q - - 2006
In Mozambique most of demographic data are obtained using census or sample survey including indirect estimations. A method of collecting longitudinal demographic data was introduced in southern Mozambique since 1996 (DSS -Demographic Surveillance System in Manhiça district, Maputo province), but the extent to which it yields demographic measures that are ...
Paul Vinod K - - 2006
Of the 4 million neonatal deaths that occur worldwide each year 99% of these occur in developing countries. South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa regions account for two thirds of the global burden. Skilled professionals attend only 35% deliveries in South Asia and 41% in sub-Saharan Africa. Known, affordable interventions delivered ...
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