Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 920
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Szwarcwald Célia Landmann - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In view of the limitations of survey-based demographic techniques for infant mortality estimation, the current strategy of some developing countries is to improve vital information. This article presents recent progress in the improvement of national databases in Brazil. METHODS: For the vital information analysis, the data sources are the ...
Tomillo Pilar Santidrián - - 2008
Within 19 years the nesting population of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) at Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas declined from 1500 turtles nesting per year to about 100. We analyzed the effects of fishery bycatch and illegal harvesting (poaching) of eggs on this population. We modeled the population response to different ...
Leonard Jonathan - - 2008
This paper offers evidence that welfare time limits contributed to a deterioration of infant health. We use the fact that the dates at which TANF recipients were first subject to timing out varied by state. We show that by 2000 there was a marked difference in TANF duration spells depending ...
Kramer Karen L - - 2008
Because humans have slow life histories, discussions of the optimal age at first birth have stressed the benefits of delayed reproduction. However, given the diversity of ecological, fertility, and mortality environments in which humans live, reproductive maturity is expected to be highly variable. This article uses reproductive histories to examine ...
Arulampalam Wiji - - 2008
This paper reports an analysis of micro-data for India that shows a high correlation in infant mortality among siblings. In 13 of 15 states, we identify a causal effect of infant death on the risk of infant death of the subsequent sibling (a scarring effect), after controlling for mother-level heterogeneity. ...
Agadjanian Victor - - 2008
This study contributes to the literature on demographic adjustments to societal crises by examining ethnic-specific probabilities of having first, second, and third marital births in late-twentieth-century Kazakhstan. Discrete-time logit models, employing data from the 1995 and 1999 Kazakhstan Demographic and Health Surveys, are fitted. The results show that the probability ...
Walz, Leah Claire
Because infants are the most vulnerable members of a community, their deaths – and the resulting infant mortality rate (IMR) – are said to signal more fundamental problems that are likely to affect the general health of a community. However, a focus on proximate- and intermediate-level risk factors in epidemiological ...
Pavard Samuel - - 2008
The "mother" hypothesis is one of the main adaptive explanations of human menopause. It postulates that reproductive cessation constitutes a strategy that has been selected for during human evolution because mothers at older ages might maximize their fitness by investing resources in the survival and reproduction of their living children ...
Li Jianghong - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The 2000 Census in China registered 55 groups of Indigenous population, including 104.49 million people, making up 8.1% of China's total population. Yunnan Province, located in Southwest China, is the only province where all 55 Indigenous nationalities are represented (14.15 million), making up 33.4% of Yunnan's total population. This ...
Paul David A - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To determine factors contributing to state infant mortality rates (IMR) and develop an adjusted IMR in the United States for 2001 and 2002. DESIGN/METHODS: Ecologic study of factors contributing to state IMR. State IMR for 2001 and 2002 were obtained from the United States linked death and birth certificate ...
Peña Rodolfo - - 2008
AIM: To describe the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in León, Nicaragua and to present results from the 2002-2003 baseline. Design and METHODS: A 22% sample of the total population in León, both urban and rural, was selected in 1993. This sample was updated in 2002 and will be ...
Lee Anne C C - - 2008
Our goal was to identify antepartum, intrapartum, and infant risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality in a rural, low-resource, population-based cohort in southern Nepal. Data were collected prospectively during a cluster-randomized, community-based trial evaluating the impact of newborn skin and umbilical cord cleansing on neonatal mortality and morbidity in Sarlahi, ...
Vandresse Marie - - 2008
We developed and evaluated a structural model of the determinants of neonatal mortality in Hungary that embodies the causal mechanisms by which its proximate and indirect determinants--socio-economic, behavioural, and biological--are related. The statistical model used distinguishes between endogenous and exogenous variables and allows the causal effect of each to be ...
Thapa Shyam - - 2008
Demographic and Health Surveys conducted quinquennially in 1996, 2001 and 2006 show that infant, child and under-five mortality in Nepal have declined steadily at least over the past 25 years. Estimates based on exponential-decline regression curves fitted to the 15-year data immediately preceding each survey, aggregated by 5-year period, show ...
Mace Ruth - - 2008
Reproducing in cities has always been costly, leading to lower fertility (that is, lower birth rates) in urban than in rural areas. Historically, although cities provided job opportunities, initially residents incurred the penalty of higher infant mortality, but as mortality rates fell at the end of the 19th century, European ...
Hoa Dinh P - - 2008
AIM: To examine trends in neonatal, infant and under-five mortality rates in a northern Vietnamese district during 1970-2000, and to analyze socioeconomic differences in child survival over time. METHODS: Retrospective interviews with all women aged 15-54 years in Bavi district in Northern Vietnam (n = 14 329) were conducted. Of ...
McCalman Janet - - 2008
There is increasing interest in life course epidemiology. In this article we investigated the relationship between characteristics at birth and survival and year of birth and survival. We have detailed information about birth characteristics and cause of death for 8584 subjects from a cohort of 16,272 registered live births to ...
Mangano Joseph J - - 2008
In the United States, utility companies have recently begun ordering new nuclear power reactors, the first such orders in the country since 1978. One potential site would be the Grand Gulf plant near Port Gibson, Mississippi. In 1983-1984, the first two years in which the existing Grand Gulf reactor operated, ...
Featherstone Lisa - - 2008
Between 1880 and 1910 paediatrics in Australia developed not merely as a response to Enlightenment philosophical understandings of the child as precious and special, but as part of a wider demand for reproduction and population. A brief sketch of the international context will situate the specific Australian conditions, which include ...
See Lai-Chu - - 2008
The nativity composition of the Taiwan population has changed substantially since 1980, which resulted in one in six children being born to foreign-born mothers in 2004. The purpose of this study was to compare the early neonatal mortality rates among babies of foreign-born and Taiwan-born mothers. Data was obtained from ...
Titaley Christiana R - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality accounts for almost 40 per cent of under-five child mortality, globally. An understanding of the factors related to neonatal mortality is important to guide the development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to prevent neonatal deaths. This study aimed to identify the determinants of neonatal mortality in ...
Al-Mazrou Yagob Y - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To estimate levels and trends, gender differentials, effect of modes of living, regional differentials, and the effect of parental educational on infant and child mortality. METHODS: A nationwide stratified random sample was used to estimate levels, trends and differentials of infant and child mortality in Saudi Arabia. The study ...
Birn Anne-Emanuelle - - 2008
Circa 1900 Uruguayan medical authorities prided themselves on their country's health achievement: the lowest recorded infant mortality rate in Latin America and one of the lowest rates in the world. Over the next three decades, however, these doctors' pride suffered blow after blow as Uruguay's infant mortality stagnated at roughly ...
Menifield Charles E - - 2008
Despite numerous advances in technology, medicine, and health care, infant mortality continues to reach very high levels in southern states. The purpose of this paper is to examine demographic, economic, and health care factors that are likely to affect infant mortality. In so doing, we first compare infant mortality and ...
Barros Aluísio J D - - 2008
Three birth cohorts are currently being followed in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in order to assess changes in birth conditions, growth, development, morbidity, and infant mortality, as well as the influence of pre- and perinatal factors on the subsequent morbidity of participants in their adult lives. We provide a description of ...
Barros Fernando C - - 2008
Important changes were observed in maternal characteristics, health care indicators, and child health during the 22 years covered by the three population-based birth cohort studies conducted in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Maternal education levels improved, cigarette smoking during pregnancy was reduced, and birth intervals became longer. Also, there ...
Hentschel Roland - - 2008
The treatment of preterm infants at the lower margin of viability is carried out amid growing tension between increasing survival rates, uncertain clinical outcomes, and financial and ethical considerations. The three German speaking countries have released guidelines on this issue, based on a previous common guideline. That is why the ...
Uthman Olalekan A - - 2008
Multi-foetal pregnancies and multiple births including twins and higher order multiples births such as triplets and quadruplets are high-risk pregnancy and birth. These high-risk groups contribute to the higher rate of childhood mortality especially during early period of life. We examined the relationship between multiple births and infant mortality using ...
Ndugwa Robert P RP Department of Tropical Hygiene and Public Health, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. - - 2008
Malaria is a leading cause of death in children below five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. All-cause and malaria-specific mortality rates for children under-five years old in a mesoendemic malaria area (The Gambia) were compared with those from a hyper/holoendemic area (Burkina Faso). Information on observed person-years (PY), deaths ...
Arntzen Annett - - 2008
BACKGROUND: This study examined changes in the educational gradients in neonatal and postneonatal mortality over a 20-year period in the four largest Nordic countries. METHODS: The study populations were all live-born singleton infants with gestational age of at least 22 weeks from 1981 to 2000 (Finland 1987-2000). Information on births ...
Arokiasamy Perianayagam - - 2008
In India, the eight socioeconomically backward states of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh, referred to as the Empowered Action Group (EAG) states, lag behind in the demographic transition and have the highest infant mortality rates in the country. Neonatal mortality constitutes about 60% of ...
Martin Joyce A - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 2005 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco use); medical care ...
Alam Nurul - - 2007
To examine trends in incidence of multiple births (MB) and their survival in infancy, we used population-based, longitudinal data derived from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Matlab, Bangladesh, from 1975 to 2002. Logistic regression was applied to determine the impact of a number of variables on mortality among ...
Hossain Mian Bazle - - 2007
In this article, we examine the relationship between child mortality and subsequent fertility using prospective longitudinal data on births and childhood deaths occurring to nearly 8000 Bangladeshi mothers observed over the 1982-1993 period, a time of rapid fertility decline. Generalized hazard-regression analyses are employed to assess the effect of infant ...
Helle Samuli - - 2007
Our current knowledge on climate-mediated effects on human population dynamics is based on preindustrial agrarian societies where climate-induced crop failures had a major impact on fertility and mortality rates. However, because most of the human evolutionary history has been shaped by hunter-gatherer lifestyle relying on diverse plant and animal food ...
Kerkeni Emna - - 2007
To assess the association among social status, prevalence of consanguineous marriages, and the effects of consanguinity on reproductive behavior and mortality in Tunisia. The study included data on a total of 1741 live-births born from November 1989 to October 1990 in the maternity ward of the University-Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of ...
Hertel-Fernandez Alexander Warren - - 2007
To measure socioeconomic inequalities and differential risk in infant mortality on national and regional levels in Chile from 1990 to 2005, and propose new policy targets. The study analysed Chilean vital events registries from 1990 to 2005 for infant mortality by maternal education, head of household occupational status, cause, age ...
Li C Y - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the chronological trend of low-birth weight in full-term babies (TLBW) in Taiwan in the 1980s and 1990s when the nation experienced a rapid economic advancement, and assessed the association between TLBW and parental education and marital status. DESIGN: Data from liveborn singletons from Taiwan's birth registry, ...
Henretta John C - - 2007
This article examines the relationship between a woman's childbearing history and her later health and mortality, with primary focus on whether the association between them is due to early and later socioeconomic status. Data are drawn from the Health and Retirement Study birth cohort of 1931-1941. Results indicate that, conditional ...
Batty G D GD MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. - - 2007
The objectives of this overview are to describe the past and potential contributions of birth cohorts to understanding chronic disease aetiology; advance a justification for the maintenance of birth cohorts from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC); provide an audit of birth cohorts from LMIC; and, finally, offer possible future directions ...
Luna F - - 2007
We study the effects of several variables on the prereproductive mortality pattern in the isolated and rural population of La Alpujarra, located on the western Mediterranean coast (southeast Spain), in the first half of the 20th century. The study is a retrospective analysis from a total sample of 2,200 deliveries, ...
Rasheed P - - 2007
To determine perceptions towards birth spacing, actual birth interval and associated sociodemographic factors, we carried out a cross-sectional study on 436 mothers aged 15-50 years in Al-Khobar. All had had > or = 2 children within the previous 10 years. Only 5.2% preferred a birth interval of < 2 years, ...
Draper Elizabeth S - - 2007
Direct comparisons of neonatal outcomes at any level (unit, regional or international), require detailed validation and standardisation to ensure 'like for like' evaluation. Reported variation in neonatal performance may be either real or the result of one or more artefacts of the data collection. These issues need to be understood ...
Arevshatian L - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To assess the progress made towards meeting the goals of the African Regional Strategic Plan of the Expanded Programme on Immunization between 2001 and 2005. METHODS: We reviewed data from national infant immunization programmes in the 46 countries of WHOs African Region, reviewed the literature and analysed existing data ...
Li J - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Yunnan Province, located in southwest China, is one of the poorest province in China. The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is about twice the national average (56.2/100,000 live births), and in remote mountainous regions, the rate is five times higher. This study aimed to examine the progress in reduction of ...
Green K E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a country that has undergone remarkable physical, economic and social shifts in its short modern history. And while the economic and structural transformations of the society have been well documented and publicized, information about the changes and transformations of family processes is sparse. ...
Pagliaro Heloisa - - 2007
This paper analyses the demographic dynamics of the Suyá, a Jê people, inhabitants of the Xingu Indigenous Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, during the years 1970-2004. Data was gathered from medical records of the São Paulo Federal University Health Program at the Xingu Indigenous Park. The demographic characteristics addressed include ...
van der Werf Marieke J - - 2007
The targets of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes are to detect 70% of new sputum smear-positive cases of TB and to cure 85% of these. The Stop TB Partnership has set additional targets related to the Millennium Development Goals: to halve TB prevalence and mortality between 1990 and 2015. This paper ...
Heyberger Laurent - - 2007
A sample of 237,782 individual observations was obtained in four areas of France: rural Alsace, urban Alsace, Limousin, and Brie (Ile-de-France). Trends in the biological standard of living of conscripts born in these regions between 1780 and 1920 fit well with the recently estimated trends for other parts of Europe. ...
Hill Kenneth - - 2007
BACKGROUND: International targets for reducing health inequalities, such as the Millennium Development Goals, are stated in terms of national targets. However, dramatic health differentials exist within countries, even developed ones. Studies indicate that the Indigenous population of Australia suffers a life expectancy disadvantage greater than differentials found in Indigenous populations ...
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