Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 943
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Handa, Sudhanshu
High rates of infant mortality in Africa continue to be a major public health concern today, despite the fact that most deaths can be prevented from well known, relatively low cost technologies. Using multiple years of DHS from four countries, we estimate the change in the relative risk of death ...
Ohsuka Keiko - - 2009
This study investigated the incidence of caries in infants and explored the risk factors related to noteworthy variations between urban and rural areas. Subjects were 232 infants (111 males and 121 females) aged 1.6 and 3 years born in "N" town between the fiscal years of 1997 and 2001. Infants ...
Palma-Solís Marco Antonio - - 2009
The aim of this study was to evaluate the worldwide effect of state downsizing policies on achievement of U.N. Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) on infant mortality rates. In an ecological retrospective cohort study of 161 countries, from 1978 to 2002, the authors analyzed changes in government consumption (GC) as ...
Gribble James N - - 2009
It is well understood that undernutrition underpins much of child morbidity and mortality in less developed countries, but the causes of undernutrition are complex and interrelated, requiring a multipronged approach for intervention. This paper uses a subsample of 3853 children under age 5 from the most recent family health survey ...
Gissler Mika - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: The relation of migration to infant outcomes is unclear. There are studies which show that some migrant groups have similar or even better outcomes than those from the receiving country. Equally, raised risk of adverse outcomes for other migrant groups has been reported. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine (1) ...
Hamilton Erin R - - 2009
This study explores rural and urban differences in the relationship between U.S. migration experience measured at the individual, household, and community levels and individual-level infant mortality outcomes in a national sample of recent births in Mexico. Using 2000 Mexican Census data and multi-level regression models, we find that women's own ...
Bailey Beth A - - 2009
CONTEXT: Rates of preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) vary by region, with disparities particularly evident in the Appalachian region of the South. Community conditions related to rurality likely contribute to adverse birth outcomes in this region. PURPOSE: This study examined associations between rurality and related community conditions, ...
Hanson Kara - - 2009
To evaluate the impact of the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme on the coverage and equitable distribution of insecticide treated nets, used to prevent malaria, to pregnant women and their infants. Plausibility study using three nationally representative cross sectional household and health facility surveys, timed to take place early, mid-way, and ...
David Richard - - 2010
We endeavored to construct a transgenerational birth file (TGBF) for use in longitudinal research on perinatal outcomes; such a file should contain social context data for women at the time of their own birth and the birth of their offspring. Births in Illinois from 1989 to 1991 were linked to ...
Pandey, Arvind
Between 1981 and 1990, infant mortality declined 23 percent in India and child mortality declined 34 percent, but mortality rates are still high. Sex differentials in infant and child mortality reflect strong son preference in many states. Among socioeconomic background characteristics, mother's literacy, access to a flush or pit toilet, ...
Byass Peter - - 2008
Long-term birth cohorts from developing countries are uncommon. Here a unique birth to 18-years cohort based on all births during 1987 in a rural area of Ethiopia is presented. This was the first year of the ongoing Butajira Rural Health Programme, since when the sampled population has been followed up ...
Saragusty Joseph - - 2009
Sex allocation theories predict equal offspring number of both sexes unless differential investment is required or some competition exists. Left undisturbed, elephants reproduce well and in approximately even numbers in the wild. We report an excess of males are born and substantial juvenile mortality occurs, perinatally, in captivity. Studbook data ...
Villadsen S Fredsted - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Ethnic minorities constitute a growing part of the Danish population but little is known about ethnic disparity in early life mortality in this population. The aim of this study was to investigate ethnic disparities in stillbirth risk and infant mortality in Denmark from 1981 to 2003. METHODS: From population-covering ...
Baqui Abdullahh - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the newborn health component of a large-scale community-based integrated nutrition and health programme. METHODS: Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated a programme facilitated by a nongovernmental organization that was implemented by the Indian government within existing infrastructure in two rural districts of Uttar Pradesh, ...
Huisman M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation of income inequality and indicators of social capital to self-inflicted injury mortality (suicide) and violence-related mortality, and to the share of total mortality that is due to these two causes of death in 35 developed countries. METHODS: An ecological ...
Hong R - - 2008
We examined the risk of infant mortality among low-birth-weight children (< 2500 g) controlling for other risk factors of infant mortality. We used survival regression analysis on 11,361 childbirths in the 5 years preceding the 2000 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. Higher birth order; shorter birth interval; lack of prenatal ...
Dancer Diane - - 2008
The excess female infant mortality observed in South Asia has typically been attributed to gender discrimination in the intra-household allocation of food and medical care. However, studies on child nutrition find no evidence of gender differences. A natural explanation could be that in environments of high infant mortality of females, ...
Paul David A - - 2008
Delaware's high infant mortality rate continues to be driven by an increasing number of premature births. Premature birth is a complex problem with both social and medical roots. Based on the CDC road map, programs aimed at improving preconception health of women of childbearing age are blossoming in Delaware. In ...
Szwarcwald Célia Landmann - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In view of the limitations of survey-based demographic techniques for infant mortality estimation, the current strategy of some developing countries is to improve vital information. This article presents recent progress in the improvement of national databases in Brazil. METHODS: For the vital information analysis, the data sources are the ...
Tomillo Pilar Santidrián - - 2008
Within 19 years the nesting population of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) at Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas declined from 1500 turtles nesting per year to about 100. We analyzed the effects of fishery bycatch and illegal harvesting (poaching) of eggs on this population. We modeled the population response to different ...
Leonard Jonathan - - 2008
This paper offers evidence that welfare time limits contributed to a deterioration of infant health. We use the fact that the dates at which TANF recipients were first subject to timing out varied by state. We show that by 2000 there was a marked difference in TANF duration spells depending ...
Kramer Karen L - - 2008
Because humans have slow life histories, discussions of the optimal age at first birth have stressed the benefits of delayed reproduction. However, given the diversity of ecological, fertility, and mortality environments in which humans live, reproductive maturity is expected to be highly variable. This article uses reproductive histories to examine ...
Arulampalam Wiji - - 2008
This paper reports an analysis of micro-data for India that shows a high correlation in infant mortality among siblings. In 13 of 15 states, we identify a causal effect of infant death on the risk of infant death of the subsequent sibling (a scarring effect), after controlling for mother-level heterogeneity. ...
Agadjanian Victor - - 2008
This study contributes to the literature on demographic adjustments to societal crises by examining ethnic-specific probabilities of having first, second, and third marital births in late-twentieth-century Kazakhstan. Discrete-time logit models, employing data from the 1995 and 1999 Kazakhstan Demographic and Health Surveys, are fitted. The results show that the probability ...
Walz, Leah Claire
Because infants are the most vulnerable members of a community, their deaths – and the resulting infant mortality rate (IMR) – are said to signal more fundamental problems that are likely to affect the general health of a community. However, a focus on proximate- and intermediate-level risk factors in epidemiological ...
Pavard Samuel - - 2008
The "mother" hypothesis is one of the main adaptive explanations of human menopause. It postulates that reproductive cessation constitutes a strategy that has been selected for during human evolution because mothers at older ages might maximize their fitness by investing resources in the survival and reproduction of their living children ...
Li Jianghong - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The 2000 Census in China registered 55 groups of Indigenous population, including 104.49 million people, making up 8.1% of China's total population. Yunnan Province, located in Southwest China, is the only province where all 55 Indigenous nationalities are represented (14.15 million), making up 33.4% of Yunnan's total population. This ...
Paul David A - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To determine factors contributing to state infant mortality rates (IMR) and develop an adjusted IMR in the United States for 2001 and 2002. DESIGN/METHODS: Ecologic study of factors contributing to state IMR. State IMR for 2001 and 2002 were obtained from the United States linked death and birth certificate ...
Peña Rodolfo R Centro de Investigación en Demografía y Salud, UNAN-León, Nicaragua. - - 2008
To describe the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in León, Nicaragua and to present results from the 2002-2003 baseline. A 22% sample of the total population in León, both urban and rural, was selected in 1993. This sample was updated in 2002 and will be followed up on a ...
Lee Anne C C AC Department of International Health, International Center for Advancing Neonatal Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2008
Our goal was to identify antepartum, intrapartum, and infant risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality in a rural, low-resource, population-based cohort in southern Nepal. Data were collected prospectively during a cluster-randomized, community-based trial evaluating the impact of newborn skin and umbilical cord cleansing on neonatal mortality and morbidity in Sarlahi, ...
Vandresse Marie - - 2008
We developed and evaluated a structural model of the determinants of neonatal mortality in Hungary that embodies the causal mechanisms by which its proximate and indirect determinants--socio-economic, behavioural, and biological--are related. The statistical model used distinguishes between endogenous and exogenous variables and allows the causal effect of each to be ...
Thapa Shyam - - 2008
Demographic and Health Surveys conducted quinquennially in 1996, 2001 and 2006 show that infant, child and under-five mortality in Nepal have declined steadily at least over the past 25 years. Estimates based on exponential-decline regression curves fitted to the 15-year data immediately preceding each survey, aggregated by 5-year period, show ...
Mace Ruth - - 2008
Reproducing in cities has always been costly, leading to lower fertility (that is, lower birth rates) in urban than in rural areas. Historically, although cities provided job opportunities, initially residents incurred the penalty of higher infant mortality, but as mortality rates fell at the end of the 19th century, European ...
Hoa Dinh P - - 2008
AIM: To examine trends in neonatal, infant and under-five mortality rates in a northern Vietnamese district during 1970-2000, and to analyze socioeconomic differences in child survival over time. METHODS: Retrospective interviews with all women aged 15-54 years in Bavi district in Northern Vietnam (n = 14 329) were conducted. Of ...
McCalman Janet - - 2008
There is increasing interest in life course epidemiology. In this article we investigated the relationship between characteristics at birth and survival and year of birth and survival. We have detailed information about birth characteristics and cause of death for 8584 subjects from a cohort of 16,272 registered live births to ...
Mangano Joseph J - - 2008
In the United States, utility companies have recently begun ordering new nuclear power reactors, the first such orders in the country since 1978. One potential site would be the Grand Gulf plant near Port Gibson, Mississippi. In 1983-1984, the first two years in which the existing Grand Gulf reactor operated, ...
Featherstone Lisa - - 2008
Between 1880 and 1910 paediatrics in Australia developed not merely as a response to Enlightenment philosophical understandings of the child as precious and special, but as part of a wider demand for reproduction and population. A brief sketch of the international context will situate the specific Australian conditions, which include ...
See Lai-Chu - - 2008
The nativity composition of the Taiwan population has changed substantially since 1980, which resulted in one in six children being born to foreign-born mothers in 2004. The purpose of this study was to compare the early neonatal mortality rates among babies of foreign-born and Taiwan-born mothers. Data was obtained from ...
Titaley Christiana R - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality accounts for almost 40 per cent of under-five child mortality, globally. An understanding of the factors related to neonatal mortality is important to guide the development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to prevent neonatal deaths. This study aimed to identify the determinants of neonatal mortality in ...
Al-Mazrou Yagob Y - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To estimate levels and trends, gender differentials, effect of modes of living, regional differentials, and the effect of parental educational on infant and child mortality. METHODS: A nationwide stratified random sample was used to estimate levels, trends and differentials of infant and child mortality in Saudi Arabia. The study ...
Birn Anne-Emanuelle - - 2008
Circa 1900 Uruguayan medical authorities prided themselves on their country's health achievement: the lowest recorded infant mortality rate in Latin America and one of the lowest rates in the world. Over the next three decades, however, these doctors' pride suffered blow after blow as Uruguay's infant mortality stagnated at roughly ...
Menifield Charles E - - 2008
Despite numerous advances in technology, medicine, and health care, infant mortality continues to reach very high levels in southern states. The purpose of this paper is to examine demographic, economic, and health care factors that are likely to affect infant mortality. In so doing, we first compare infant mortality and ...
Barros Aluísio J D - - 2008
Three birth cohorts are currently being followed in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in order to assess changes in birth conditions, growth, development, morbidity, and infant mortality, as well as the influence of pre- and perinatal factors on the subsequent morbidity of participants in their adult lives. We provide a description of ...
Barros Fernando C - - 2008
Important changes were observed in maternal characteristics, health care indicators, and child health during the 22 years covered by the three population-based birth cohort studies conducted in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Maternal education levels improved, cigarette smoking during pregnancy was reduced, and birth intervals became longer. Also, there ...
Hentschel Roland - - 2008
The treatment of preterm infants at the lower margin of viability is carried out amid growing tension between increasing survival rates, uncertain clinical outcomes, and financial and ethical considerations. The three German speaking countries have released guidelines on this issue, based on a previous common guideline. That is why the ...
Uthman Olalekan A - - 2008
Multi-foetal pregnancies and multiple births including twins and higher order multiples births such as triplets and quadruplets are high-risk pregnancy and birth. These high-risk groups contribute to the higher rate of childhood mortality especially during early period of life. We examined the relationship between multiple births and infant mortality using ...
Ndugwa Robert P RP Department of Tropical Hygiene and Public Health, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. - - 2008
Malaria is a leading cause of death in children below five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. All-cause and malaria-specific mortality rates for children under-five years old in a mesoendemic malaria area (The Gambia) were compared with those from a hyper/holoendemic area (Burkina Faso). Information on observed person-years (PY), deaths ...
Arntzen Annett - - 2008
BACKGROUND: This study examined changes in the educational gradients in neonatal and postneonatal mortality over a 20-year period in the four largest Nordic countries. METHODS: The study populations were all live-born singleton infants with gestational age of at least 22 weeks from 1981 to 2000 (Finland 1987-2000). Information on births ...
Arokiasamy Perianayagam - - 2008
In India, the eight socioeconomically backward states of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh, referred to as the Empowered Action Group (EAG) states, lag behind in the demographic transition and have the highest infant mortality rates in the country. Neonatal mortality constitutes about 60% of ...
Martin Joyce A - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 2005 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco use); medical care ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >