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Cammu Hendrik - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To assess, in a homogenous population of primiparous women, how fetal and infant (=first year of life) mortality varied by the mothers' level of education. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted an observational study in Flanders (Northern Belgium) involving 170,948 primiparous women who delivered in Flanders during the period 1999-2006, and ...
Rajal V B - - 2010
In the province of Salta, in the Northwest region of Argentina, almost two-thirds of the population live in absolute poverty, and diseases associated with poverty are rampant. Almost 12% of the total population of the province are children below 5 years of age; almost half of these infants are living ...
Lewycka Sonia - - 2010
The UN Millennium Development Goals call for substantial reductions in maternal and child mortality, to be achieved through reductions in morbidity and mortality during pregnancy, delivery, postpartum and early childhood. The MaiMwana Project aims to test community-based interventions that tackle maternal and child health problems through increasing awareness and local ...
Singh Jerome Amir - - 2010
The defining event in the area of infant feeding is the aggressive marketing of infant formula in the developing world by transnational companies in the 1970s. This practice shattered the trust of the global health community in the private sector, culminated in a global boycott of Nestle products and has ...
Raj Anita - - 2010
To assess associations between maternal child marriage (marriage before age 18) and morbidity and mortality of infants and children under 5 in India. Design Cross-sectional analyses of nationally representative household sample. Generalised estimating equation models constructed to assess associations. Adjusted models included maternal and child demographics and maternal body mass ...
Sartorius Benn K D - - 2010
Infant mortality is an important indicator of population health in a country. It is associated with several health determinants, such as maternal health, access to high-quality health care, socioeconomic conditions, and public health policy and practices. A spatial-temporal analysis was performed to assess changes in infant mortality patterns between 1992-2007 ...
Ensor Tim - - 2010
The effect of the recent world recession on population health has featured heavily in recent international meetings. Maternal health is a particular concern given that many countries were already falling short of their MDG targets for 2015. We utilise 20th century time series data from 14 high and middle income ...
Kemkes Ariane - - 2010
Based on a 1900 census sample of 34,166 post-reproductive females (> or =45 years), the birth month effect was put to the test, for both lifetime fertility as well as child survival, controlling for maternal birth cohort (1826-1835, 1836-1845, 1846-1855), Duncan's SEI, urbanity, nativity, literacy and marital duration. Testing for ...
Sayers Susan M - - 2009
Infant mortality and morbidity disparities occur between non-Indigenous and Indigenous populations of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. Neonatal mortality is due to high-risk births, which vary according to prevalence of the maternal risk factors of smoking, alcohol consumption, infection, and disorders of nutritional status, whereas postneonatal mortality ...
Baffour Tiffany D - - 2009
Health disparities among African-American families represent a significant social problem. Nationally, African-American infants have dramatically worse birth outcomes than other racial and ethnic groups. A Community-Based Participatory Research approach was utilized to engage community residents. This study examined participants' definitions of infant mortality, views on the community impact of infant ...
Spangler Andrew H - - 2009
Manganese is an element essential in trace quantities but toxic in high concentrations. As a naturally occurring element in groundwater and a chemical of increasing global significance due to its growing trend of replacing lead in gasoline, vigilant assessment of its detrimental effects is essential. In response to previous research ...
Chan Moon Fai - - 2010
AIM: To investigate the effects of socioeconomic instability and the availability of health resources on infant mortality rate. BACKGROUND: In 1960, the infant mortality rate was 46.3 infants per 1000 live births in Macau but by 2006 it had declined to 2.7 infants per 1000 live births. DESIGN: A retrospective ...
Lahmann Petra H - - 2009
The objectives of this study were to explore temporal changes in birth measures in Queensland, Australia, and examine whether secular trends are similar to those in other countries. This study used data from the Queensland Perinatal Data Collection, including singleton livebirths (n = 831 375) from 1988 to 2005. Recorded ...
MacDorman Marian F - - 2009
Infant mortality is an important indicator of the health of a nation, and the recent stagnation (since 2000) in the U.S. infant mortality rate has generated concern among researchers and policy makers. The percentage of preterm births in the United States has risen 36% since 1984 (1). In this report ...
Van de Poel Ellen - - 2009
The rural-urban gap in infant mortality rates is explained by using a new decomposition method that permits identification of the contribution of unobserved heterogeneity at the household and the community level. Using Demographic and Health Survey data for six Francophone countries in Central and West sub-Saharan Africa, we find that ...
Lalonde Andr?? B - - 2009
In collaboration with member national professional associations, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) has been conducting a Saving Mothers and Newborns Project in 10 low- and middle-resource countries. The project aims to achieve the objectives set out in Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 related to child survival ...
van den Berg Gerard J - - 2009
We analyze the effect of being born in a recession on the mortality rate later in life in conjunction with social class. We use individual data records from Dutch registers of birth, marriage, and death certificates, covering the period 1815-2000, and we merge these with historical data on macro-economic outcomes ...
Wu Mei-Hwan - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: We sought to estimate the incidence of pediatric sudden death (SD) in Taiwan. STUDY DESIGN: Cases of SD were identified from National Health Insurance databases, 2000 to 2006. RESULTS: In the Taiwan pediatric population (age, 0 to 18 years; 5.44 million), the neonatal, infant, postneonatal infant, and under-5 years ...
Livingood William C - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of the social determinants component of a multiple determinants model of pre- and inter-conception care. Health department vital statistics and infectious disease data on birth and factors influencing birth outcomes were analyzed for participants in a program designed to mitigate ...
Stover John J Futures Institute, Glastonbury, CT, 06033, USA. - - 2010
It is widely recognized that family planning contributes to reducing maternal mortality by reducing the number of births and, thus, the number of times a woman is exposed to the risk of mortality. Here we show evidence that it also lowers the risk per birth, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR), ...
Anthony Sabine - - 2009
Perinatal mortality rates differ markedly between countries in Europe. If population characteristics, such as maternal age, parity or multiple births, contribute to these differences, standardised rates may be useful for international comparisons of health status and especially quality of care. This analysis used aggregated population-based data on fetal and neonatal ...
Wang Chengning - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on health outcomes during the first year after newborn discharge among infants with complex chronic conditions (CCCs) insured through a universal health plan. DESIGN: Longitudinal, population-based cohort study. SETTING: Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Infants born in hospitals from April 1, 1996, through ...
Juckett David A - - 2009
Cross-generational effects (grandmother effects) associated with epigenetic imprinting, environmental exposures, and lifestyle choices are beginning to be explored by various investigators. The possibility that low-level background radiation can be a driver of such effects has been suggested previously and is explored further in this study. Age-period-cohort analysis was performed on ...
Tetstall Emma - - 2009
AIMS: To identify maternal, obstetric and neonatal characteristics of opioid-dependent Indigenous Australians in rural and metropolitan settings. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 232 metropolitan and 67 rural infants born to mothers maintained on methadone throughout pregnancy for the treatment of opiate dependency, between January 2000 and December 2006. Medical records ...
Nuwaha Fred - - 2009
The under five mortality rate (U5MR) is measure of wellbeing and decreasing the U5MR by two thirds is the target towards the achievement of the millennium development goal number four (MDG4). To describe the changes in U5MR in Uganda from 1954 to 2000 and use them to project future trends ...
Hatt Laurel - - 2009
BACKGROUND Early neonatal mortality has been persistently high in developing countries. Indonesia, with its national policy of home-based, midwife-assisted birth, is an apt context for assessing the effect of home-based professional birth attendance on early neonatal survival. METHODS We pooled four Indonesian Demographic and Health Surveys and used multivariate logistic ...
Rahman Moshiur - - 2009
This study findings show primarily - amongst the biodemographic and health seeking services factors, delivery-related maternal health complicacies, blindness, higher order births, twin births, lower household size and interaction effect of higher order live births and male child are significantly correlated with higher neonatal mortality. Neonatal deaths are heavily caused ...
O'Donnell Melissa - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Illicit drug use during pregnancy is an important public health issue, with adverse effects on the newborn and implications for subsequent parenting. The aim of this study was to measure the birth prevalence of neonatal withdrawal syndrome over time, associated maternal characteristics and child protection involvement. METHODS: This is ...
Sauve Reg - - 2009
Canada's infant mortality rates appear to be worsening, but this may be due, at least in part, to inconsistencies in registration of births at the edge of viability, variations in international practices for reporting live births, and related factors. There are striking differences in reported infant mortality rates among provinces ...
Song Shige - - 2009
Using retrospective individual mortality records of three cohorts of newborns (1954-1958, 1959-1962 and 1963-1967) from a large national fertility survey conducted in 1988 in China, this paper examines the effect of being conceived or born during the 1959-1961 Great Leap Forward Famine on postnatal mortality. The results show strong evidence ...
Campbell Cameron D - - 2009
We examine the effects on adult and old age mortality of childhood living arrangements and other aspects of family context in early life. We focus on features of family context that have already been shown to be associated with infant or child mortality in historical and developing country populations. We ...
Dale, Pamela
The infant welfare movement in Britain has received considerable scholarly attention but continues to generate controversy and debate. Many of the services began with nineteenth-century voluntary initiative but were later developed by local authorities. Critics have drawn attention to the limitations of such provision; arguing that it was predicated on ...
Handa, Sudhanshu
High rates of infant mortality in Africa continue to be a major public health concern today, despite the fact that most deaths can be prevented from well known, relatively low cost technologies. Using multiple years of DHS from four countries, we estimate the change in the relative risk of death ...
Ohsuka Keiko - - 2009
This study investigated the incidence of caries in infants and explored the risk factors related to noteworthy variations between urban and rural areas. Subjects were 232 infants (111 males and 121 females) aged 1.6 and 3 years born in "N" town between the fiscal years of 1997 and 2001. Infants ...
Palma-Solís Marco Antonio - - 2009
The aim of this study was to evaluate the worldwide effect of state downsizing policies on achievement of U.N. Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) on infant mortality rates. In an ecological retrospective cohort study of 161 countries, from 1978 to 2002, the authors analyzed changes in government consumption (GC) as ...
Gribble James N - - 2009
It is well understood that undernutrition underpins much of child morbidity and mortality in less developed countries, but the causes of undernutrition are complex and interrelated, requiring a multipronged approach for intervention. This paper uses a subsample of 3853 children under age 5 from the most recent family health survey ...
Gissler Mika - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: The relation of migration to infant outcomes is unclear. There are studies which show that some migrant groups have similar or even better outcomes than those from the receiving country. Equally, raised risk of adverse outcomes for other migrant groups has been reported. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine (1) ...
Hamilton Erin R - - 2009
This study explores rural and urban differences in the relationship between U.S. migration experience measured at the individual, household, and community levels and individual-level infant mortality outcomes in a national sample of recent births in Mexico. Using 2000 Mexican Census data and multi-level regression models, we find that women's own ...
Bailey Beth A - - 2009
CONTEXT: Rates of preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) vary by region, with disparities particularly evident in the Appalachian region of the South. Community conditions related to rurality likely contribute to adverse birth outcomes in this region. PURPOSE: This study examined associations between rurality and related community conditions, ...
Hanson Kara - - 2009
To evaluate the impact of the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme on the coverage and equitable distribution of insecticide treated nets, used to prevent malaria, to pregnant women and their infants. Plausibility study using three nationally representative cross sectional household and health facility surveys, timed to take place early, mid-way, and ...
David Richard - - 2010
We endeavored to construct a transgenerational birth file (TGBF) for use in longitudinal research on perinatal outcomes; such a file should contain social context data for women at the time of their own birth and the birth of their offspring. Births in Illinois from 1989 to 1991 were linked to ...
Pandey, Arvind
Between 1981 and 1990, infant mortality declined 23 percent in India and child mortality declined 34 percent, but mortality rates are still high. Sex differentials in infant and child mortality reflect strong son preference in many states. Among socioeconomic background characteristics, mother's literacy, access to a flush or pit toilet, ...
Byass Peter - - 2008
Long-term birth cohorts from developing countries are uncommon. Here a unique birth to 18-years cohort based on all births during 1987 in a rural area of Ethiopia is presented. This was the first year of the ongoing Butajira Rural Health Programme, since when the sampled population has been followed up ...
Saragusty Joseph - - 2009
Sex allocation theories predict equal offspring number of both sexes unless differential investment is required or some competition exists. Left undisturbed, elephants reproduce well and in approximately even numbers in the wild. We report an excess of males are born and substantial juvenile mortality occurs, perinatally, in captivity. Studbook data ...
Villadsen S Fredsted - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Ethnic minorities constitute a growing part of the Danish population but little is known about ethnic disparity in early life mortality in this population. The aim of this study was to investigate ethnic disparities in stillbirth risk and infant mortality in Denmark from 1981 to 2003. METHODS: From population-covering ...
Baqui Abdullahh - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the newborn health component of a large-scale community-based integrated nutrition and health programme. METHODS: Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated a programme facilitated by a nongovernmental organization that was implemented by the Indian government within existing infrastructure in two rural districts of Uttar Pradesh, ...
Huisman M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation of income inequality and indicators of social capital to self-inflicted injury mortality (suicide) and violence-related mortality, and to the share of total mortality that is due to these two causes of death in 35 developed countries. METHODS: An ecological ...
Hong R - - 2008
We examined the risk of infant mortality among low-birth-weight children (< 2500 g) controlling for other risk factors of infant mortality. We used survival regression analysis on 11,361 childbirths in the 5 years preceding the 2000 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. Higher birth order; shorter birth interval; lack of prenatal ...
Dancer Diane - - 2008
The excess female infant mortality observed in South Asia has typically been attributed to gender discrimination in the intra-household allocation of food and medical care. However, studies on child nutrition find no evidence of gender differences. A natural explanation could be that in environments of high infant mortality of females, ...
Paul David A - - 2008
Delaware's high infant mortality rate continues to be driven by an increasing number of premature births. Premature birth is a complex problem with both social and medical roots. Based on the CDC road map, programs aimed at improving preconception health of women of childbearing age are blossoming in Delaware. In ...
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