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Kaplan Peter S PS Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Denver, United States. - - 2012
Infants of mothers who varied in symptoms of depression were tested at 4 and 12 months of age for their ability to associate a segment of an unfamiliar non-depressed mother's infant-directed speech (IDS) with a face. At 4 months, all infants learned the voice-face association. At 12 months, despite the ...
Tyson J E JE Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA. - - 2012
Aggressive phototherapy (AgPT) is widely used and assumed to be safe and effective for even the most immature infants. We assessed whether the benefits and hazards for the smallest and sickest infants differed from those for other extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW; ≤ 1000 g) infants in our Neonatal Research Network trial, the ...
Wilcox Teresa - - 2012
A great deal is known about the functional organization of the neural structures that mediate visual object processing in the adult observer. These findings have contributed significantly to our conceptual models of object recognition and identification and provided unique insight into the nature of object representations extracted from visual input. ...
Moher Mariko M Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. - - 2012
Although working memory has a highly constrained capacity limit of three or four items, both adults and toddlers can increase the total amount of stored information by "chunking" object representations in memory. To examine the developmental origins of chunking, we used a violation-of-expectation procedure to ask whether 7-month-old infants, whose ...
Wartella Ellen A - - 2012
Should babies be watching television and DVDs? This is a reasonable question to ask but a difficult one to answer. This article reviews the theories and related research to examine what is known about infant media use. The review provides evidence both for and against each theory. The importance of ...
Ramsdell Heather L HL East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA. - - 2012
The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of syllables--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning. In the present ...
Krüger Hanna-Sophie - - 2012
Cholinergic innervation is critically required for cytoarchitectonic maturation of the cerebral cortex as well as functional assembling of neuronal networks and their behavioral readout. Selective lesion of cortically projecting cholinergic neurons initiated immediately after birth by the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin (SAP) led to abnormal wiring of prefrontal-hippocampal networks, yet the ...
Nam Young-Ja - - 2012
Phoneme inventories are biased favoring stop over fricative consonants. A similar bias is evident in acquisition. For example, an asymmetrical pattern was observed when infant word learning was assessed using the switch task with stop-initial and fricative-initial minimal pair CVC nonsense syllables (Altvater-Mackensen & Fikkert, 2010). In this task, Dutch-learning ...
Kuhl Patricia K - - 2012
Cross-cultural studies show that infants are born with innate abilities that make them "citizens of the world." By the end of the first year of life, however, culture produces a dramatic transition. Infants' abilities to discern differences in native-language sounds increase, and their abilities to discriminate sounds from other languages ...
Li Stella - - 2012
Studies have shown that in adult animals the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a critical brain region involved in fear regulation, with the prelimbic (PL) subregion being important for fear expression. However, few studies have examined whether the PL cortex is also involved in fear expression in infant animals. Five ...
Lejeune Fleur - - 2012
This study investigated the ability of preterm infants to learn an object shape with one hand and discriminate a new shape in the opposite hand (without visual control). Twenty-four preterm infants between 33 and 34 + 6 gestational weeks received a tactile habituation task with either their right or left hand followed ...
Lee Hui-Min - - 2012
Background and Objective:Daily experiences are thought to play an important role in motor development during infancy. There are limited studies on the effect of postural and movement experiences on head control. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of postural and movement experiences on head control through ...
Curtin Suzanne - - 2012
We investigated the effect of lexical stress on 16-month-olds' ability to form associations between labels and paths of motion. Disyllabic English nouns tend to have a strong-weak (trochaic) stress pattern, and verbs tend to have a weak-strong (iambic) pattern. We explored whether infants would use word stress information to guide ...
Koulaguina Elena - - 2012
This study tests the hypothesis that distributional information can guide infants in the generalization of word order movement rules at the initial stage of language acquisition. Participants were 11- and 14-month-old infants. Stimuli were sentences in Russian, a language that was unknown to our infants. During training the word order ...
Mather Emily E Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, UK. - - 2012
What mechanism implements the mutual exclusivity bias to map novel labels to objects without names? Prominent theoretical accounts of mutual exclusivity (e.g., Markman, 1989, 1990) propose that infants are guided by their knowledge of object names. However, the mutual exclusivity constraint could be implemented via monitoring of object novelty (see ...
Gerry David - - 2012
Previous studies suggest that musical training in children can positively affect various aspects of development. However, it remains unknown as to how early in development musical experience can have an effect, the nature of any such effects, and whether different types of music experience affect development differently. We found that ...
Loucks Jeff - - 2012
Recent evidence suggests adults and infants selectively attend to features of action, such as how a hand contacts an object. The current research investigated whether this bias stems from infants' processing of the functional consequences of grasps: understanding that different grasps afford different future actions. A habituation paradigm assessed 10-month-old ...
Pruden Shannon M SM Department of Psychology, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA. - - 2012
To learn motion verbs, infants must be sensitive to the specific event features lexicalized in their language. One event feature important for the acquisition of English motion verbs is the manner of motion. This article examines when and how infants detect manners of motion across variations in the figure's path. ...
Segal Osnat - - 2012
Background The ability of infants to develop recognition of a common stress pattern (CSP) that is language specific has been tested mainly in trochaic languages with a strong-weak (SW) CSP. The goals of the present study were: (1) to test Hebrew-learning infants (HLI) on their stress pattern preference in the ...
Bergelson Elika - - 2012
It is widely accepted that infants begin learning their native language not by learning words, but by discovering features of the speech signal: consonants, vowels, and combinations of these sounds. Learning to understand words, as opposed to just perceiving their sounds, is said to come later, between 9 and 15 ...
Disselhorst-Klug Catherine C Department of Rehabilitation and Prevention Engineering, Institute of Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstr. 20, 52074, Aachen, Germany. - - 2012
Coordination between perception and action is required to interact with the environment successfully. This is already trained by very young infants who perform spontaneous movements to learn how their body interacts with the environment. The strategies used by the infants for this purpose change with age. Therefore, very early progresses ...
Brower Tracy - - 2012
A search task was used to assess 5- to 7-month-olds' ability to use property-rich sounds to individuate objects. Results suggest that infants interpret an occlusion event involving two distinct rattle sounds as involving two objects but are unsure of how to interpret two identical rattle sounds.
Kirkorian Heather L - - 2012
Eye movements were recorded while sixty-two 1-year-olds, 4-year-olds, and adults watched television. Of interest was the extent to which viewers looked at the same place at the same time as their peers because high similarity across viewers suggests systematic viewing driven by comprehension processes. Similarity of gaze location increased with ...
Palmer Stephanie Baker - - 2012
Over their 1st year of life, infants'"universal" perception of the sounds of language narrows to encompass only those contrasts made in their native language (J. F. Werker & R. C. Tees, 1984). This research tested 40 infants in an eyetracking paradigm and showed that this pattern also holds for infants ...
Lewkowicz David J - - 2012
The mechanisms underlying the acquisition of speech-production ability in human infancy are not well understood. We tracked 4-12-mo-old English-learning infants' and adults' eye gaze while they watched and listened to a female reciting a monologue either in their native (English) or nonnative (Spanish) language. We found that infants shifted their ...
Redshaw Maggie - - 2012
Background:  Breastfeeding involves learning for women and their infants. For emotional, social, and developmental reasons this type of feeding is recommended for all newborn infants but for those in exceptional circumstances. The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of what is needed in the early days ...
Rideout Bruce A - - 2012
We document causes of death in free-ranging California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) from the inception of the reintroduction program in 1992 through December 2009 to identify current and historic mortality factors that might interfere with establishment of self-sustaining populations in the wild. A total of 135 deaths occurred from October 1992 ...
Hoehl Stefanie - - 2012
Researchers from different backgrounds have an increasing interest in investigating infant cognitive development using electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Although EEG measurements are suitable for infants, the method poses several challenges including setting up an infant-friendly, but interference-free lab environment and designing age-appropriate stimuli and paradigms. Certain specifics of infant EEG data ...
Wang Quan - - 2012
Infants' poor motor abilities limit their interaction with their environment and render studying infant cognition notoriously difficult. Exceptions are eye movements, which reach high accuracy early, but generally do not allow manipulation of the physical environment. In this study, real-time eye tracking is used to put 6- and 8-month-old infants ...
Landers Margo S - - 2012
Survival of altricial infants depends on attachment to the caregiver - a process that requires infants to identify, learn, remember, and approach their attachment figure. Here we review the neurobiology of attachment in infant rats where learning about the caregiver is supported by a specialized attachment neural circuitry to promote ...
Bijeljac-Babic Ranka - - 2012
Monolingual infants start learning the prosodic properties of their native language around 6 to 9 months of age, a fact marked by the development of preferences for predominant prosodic patterns and a decrease in sensitivity to non-native prosodic properties. The present study evaluates the effects of bilingual acquisition on speech ...
Meunier Helene - - 2012
To test the role of gestures in the origin of language, we studied hand preferences for grasping or pointing to objects at several spatial positions in human infants and adult baboons. If the roots of language are indeed in gestural communication, we expect that human infants and baboons will present ...
Mai Xiaoqin - - 2012
Previous studies of auditory recognition memory in sleeping newborns reported 2 event-related potential (ERP) components, P2 and negative slow wave (NSW), reflecting voice discrimination and detection of novelty, respectively. In the present study, using high-density recording arrays, ERPs were acquired from 26 2-month-old awake infants as they were presented with ...
Rabagliati Hugh - - 2012
Infants appear to learn abstract rule-like regularities (e.g., la la da follows an AAB pattern) more easily from speech than from a variety of other auditory and visual stimuli (Marcus et al., 2007). We test if that facilitation reflects a specialization to learn from speech alone, or from modality-independent communicative ...
Rivera-Gaxiola Maritza - - 2012
We report brain electrophysiological responses from 10- to 13-month-old Mexican infants while listening to native and foreign CV-syllable contrasts differing in Voice Onset Time (VOT). All infants showed normal auditory event-related potential (ERP) components. Our analyses showed ERP evidence that Mexican infants are capable of discriminating their native sounds as ...
Stahl Daniel D Department of Biostatistics, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom. - - 2012
Machine learning and other computer intensive pattern recognition methods are successfully applied to a variety of fields that deal with high-dimensional data and often small sample sizes such as genetic microarray, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and, more recently, electroencephalogram (EEG) data. The aim of this article is to discuss ...
Kidd Celeste C Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States of America. - - 2012
Human infants, like immature members of any species, must be highly selective in sampling information from their environment to learn efficiently. Failure to be selective would waste precious computational resources on material that is already known (too simple) or unknowable (too complex). In two experiments with 7- and 8-month-olds, we ...
Ragonesi Christina B CB Infant Motor Behavior Laboratory, Department of Physical Therapy and Biomechanics and Movement Sciences Program, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA. - - 2012
This case report describes the feasibility of quantifying short-term, intensive power mobility training for an infant soon after a diagnosis of cerebral palsy. An 11-month-old infant with significant mobility impairments and her parents were filmed during 14 consecutive daily training sessions. The infant moved the power chair with hand-over-hand assistance ...
Lok Willeke - - 2012
Hearing loss from otitis media (OM) can affect young children's development. Some children with persistent OM-related hearing loss and associated problems can benefit from treatment, but researchers and clinicians are still unclear on how to identify them best. The present study aims to determine which factors are most related to ...
Houzel Didier - - 2012
Psychoanalytic training in the French Societies belonging to the International Psychoanalytic Association does not grant any place to the observation of babies as it exists in certain societies of other countries. Infant observation is even the object of sharp critiques by eminent French theoreticians. The reasons given for condemning infant ...
Poralla C - - 2011
Objective:Little is known about the influence of preterm delivery and perinatal risk factors on development and expression of the coagulation system in extremely preterm infants. The objective of this study was to determine reference values for the components of the coagulation system at the first day of life in extremely ...
Isler Joseph R JR Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. - - 2012
The event-related potential (ERP) effect of mismatch negativity (MMN) was the first electrophysiological probe to evaluate cognitive processing (change detection) in newborn infants. Initial studies of MMN predicted clinical utility for this measure in identification of infants at risk for developmental cognitive deficits. These predictions have not been realized. We ...
Benjasuwantep Banchaun - - 2011
To study the age at which Thai infants start and achieve toilet training and its associated factors. The parents of fifty infants in a research entitled "Bowel movements of normal Thai infants" were interviewed about age at which toilet training started, the process of toilet training and age at which ...
Izevbaye Iyare - - 2011
ABSTRACT: Sudden infant death syndrome is the leading cause of death in infants between the ages of 1 month to 1 year. Sudden infant death syndrome, a diagnosis of exclusion, can only be made after other explanations for unexpected death have been ruled out. Tuberous sclerosis complex is occasionally the ...
Lam Christa - - 2012
Talkers hyperarticulate vowels when communicating with listeners that require increased speech intelligibility. Vowel hyperarticulation is said to be motivated by knowledge of the listener's linguistic needs because it typically occurs in speech to infants, foreigners and hearing-impaired listeners, but not to non-verbal pets. However, the degree to which vowel hyperarticulation ...
Leerkes Esther M - - 2012
Differences in infant distress and regulatory behaviors based on the quality of attachment to mother, emotion context (frustration versus fear), and whether or not mothers were actively involved in the emotion-eliciting tasks were examined in a sample of 98 16-month-old infants and their mothers. Dyads participated in the Strange Situation, ...
Debley Jason - - 2012
There are limited data assessing bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) in infants and toddlers with recurrent wheezing, and factors associated with a positive response. In a multicenter study of children ≤ 36 months old, we assessed the prevalence of and factors associated with BDR among infants/toddlers with recurrent episodes of wheezing. Forced expiratory ...
Casalin Sara - - 2011
This study investigated the factor structure and longitudinal stability of temperament in a multi-informant (i.e., as reported by mothers and fathers), one-year prospective study from infancy (8-13 months) to toddlerhood (20-25 months). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) replicate and extend earlier studies; in that evidence was found for a three-factor structure ...
Yott Jessica - - 2012
It has been suggested that infants' performance on the false belief task can be explained by the use of behavioural rules. To test this hypothesis, 18-month-old infants were trained to learn the new rule that an object that disappeared in location A could be found in location B. Infants were ...
Gamaleldin Rasha - - 2011
To evaluate the importance of total serum bilirubin (TSB) and neurotoxicity risk factors in predicting acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE) at admission or posttreatment bilirubin encephalopathy (BE) in infants with severe hyperbilirubinemia. We analyzed the interaction of TSB and risk factors as determinants of ABE and BE in 249 newborns admitted ...
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