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Swartz M K - - 1990
The relatively high infant mortality rate in the United States has remained stable during the last few years largely as a result of the steady rate of infants born with low birth weight. Further reductions in the infant mortality rate depend on the prevention of low birth weight births and ...
Parazzini F - - 1990
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate factors in stillbirth mortality in Italy. DESIGN: Italian stillbirth data from 1955 to 1979 were analysed using a log-linear Poisson model with arbitrary constraints on the parameters to identify the effects of maternal birth cohort, calendar period of stillbirth and ...
Koenig M A - - 1990
This study investigates the relationship between birth intervals and childhood mortality, using longitudinal data from rural Bangladesh known to be of exceptional accuracy and completeness. Results demonstrate significant but very distinctive effects of the previous and subsequent birth intervals on mortality, with the former concentrated in the neonatal period and ...
Harpending H - - 1990
We derive a method for interpreting information about the reproductive performance of mothers of a sample of informants and apply it to the history of low fertility among the !Kung of the Kalahari desert of southern Africa. The method formalizes the commonsense procedure of weighting mothers with 1 birth by ...
Parsons L - - 1990
All stillbirths and neonatal deaths occurring in the North East Thames region were studied in 1983. This report describes the socio-economic and ethnic differences in that cohort. The stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates of babies born to fathers of social class V (16.8 per 1000 total births) was almost double ...
Wallace H M - - 1990
Sweden had the lowest reported infant mortality rate (IMR) among countries of the world from 1920 until 1980. Since 1981, Sweden, Japan, and Finland have shared this number one ranking on a somewhat rotating basis. The United States ranks 18th. In 1985, the reported IMRs in Japan, Sweden, and Finland ...
Chavkin W - - 1990
The United States has lagged behind other developed nations with respect to infant and maternal mortality. In the past decade, the disparities between races and socioeconomic groups has actually widened. In response, local initiatives have sought to decrease infant mortality by enrolling women into prenatal care programs. These programs have ...
Florez C E - - 1990
This paper investigates the effects of maternal demographic characteristics and social and economic statuses on infant mortality in rural Colombia. Demographic characteristics include the age of the mother, parity and length of preceding interbirth interval, and sex of infant. Measures of women's status at the time of birth include education, ...
Monnier A - - 1990
The author examines "the impact which various pro-natalist measures adopted since 1976 in the German Democratic Republic have had on women's birth cohorts....A period analysis of subsequent birth and fertility trends would seem to indicate that this policy was remarkably effective. The annual number of births...started to rise rapidly in ...
Han J - - 1990
"This paper attempts to present the concept of 'birth number base' as a reflection of the fecundity of women, explain the methods of determining the base, and its application." The birth number base is defined as the number of births in a given year when the total fertility rate is ...
Harris L H - - 1990
The United States ranks behind 19 other industrialized nations in infant mortality. Despite this country's affluence and medical sophistication, Black infants in some U. S. cities have a higher infant mortality rate than infants in some Third World countries. This article examines the impact that maternal prenatal health, teenage pregnancy ...
Entorf H - - 1990
"The paper investigates the interrelationship between fertility and infant mortality and its economic determinants by time-series methods for historical and modern Germany. It is studied whether the causal effects of infant mortality on fertility have to be considered as hoarding or replacement, and whether the costs of nutrition have an ...
Nobile A - - 1990
"This paper examines the progress of infant mortality in the primary developed countries after 1960. A strong decrease of the phenomenon was measured everywhere although its intensity was independent of the starting levels. The most rapid decline occurred in Japan and several countries in southern and northwestern Europe. The slowest ...
Singhi S - - 1989
To identify the individual and household level variables associated with increased risk of mortality, 159 infant and 50 child deaths (cases) and equal number of age matched live infants and children (controls) and their families were studied in a rural area of Haryana. The social, economic, educational and environmental characteristics ...
Bhave S A - - 1989
Although the infant mortality rate (IMR) has reduced by 50% during the past century, it compares poorly with the advanced countries and some developing countries. The observed fall in IMR has been mostly in post-neonatal mortality, with the result that neonatal deaths now account for over 60% of all infant ...
Baron R C - - 1989
Because infant death rates vary within populations, it is important for program managers and planners to identify high-risk subgroups for whom effective interventions can be targeted. Matching infant death certificates with birth records permits us to describe infant mortality and calculate risks by a variety of maternal and infant characteristics ...
David P A - - 1989
This is the second part of a two-part paper in which the authors examine statistical models of marital fertility regulation in rural France from 1749 to 1789. They create a case against the "natural fertility" characterization of the period by presenting "clear indications that marital fertility was being regulated in ...
Awan A K - - 1989
A pilot maternal and child health and family planning service project in urban and rural areas of Lahore, Pakistan, was evaluated after 4 years (1984-1988). In this time the birth rate declined from 41.0 to 19.2, infant mortality from 119.0 to 70.2, and maternal mortality from 560 to 220 per ...
Shoupe D - - 1989
Norplant offers long-term contraception through the use of subdermal capsules filled with levonorgestrel. The six capsules are implanted in the inside part of the upper arm. The levonorgestrel is released from the capsules gradually, providing contraception for about 5 years. The primary mechanism of action of Norplant is suppression of ...
Chandran P E - - 1989
This study examines the biological influence of infant death on subsequent fertility in three Asian countries--Indonesia, Nepal and Sri Lanka, comparing the birth interval between two consecutive births up to the sixth birth by survival status of the preceding infant among breast-feeding women not using contraception. There is consistent evidence ...
Pickering H - - 1989
A simple method is described for estimating childhood mortality when mothers are seen at or soon after a birth. The main bias in the method arises from omission of reports from mothers not contacted in the immediate postnatal period. Recent work indicates that the key question on the survival of ...
Balarajan R - - 1989
To examine ethnic differences in postneonatal mortality and the incidence of sudden infant death in England and Wales during 1982-5 records were analysed, the mother's country of birth being used to determine ethnic group. Postneonatal mortality was highest in infants of mothers born in Pakistan (6.4/1000 live births) followed by ...
Carr C - - 1989
The increasing infant mortality rate in the United States is of concern to all people, especially those involved in the care of mothers and infants. Of the 20 industrialized countries in the world, Finland, Sweden, and Japan rank first in lowest infant mortality rates. A four-week observational experience at a ...
Biener R - - 1989
The infant mortality rate (IMR) in the Jewish and Arab populations in the Western Galilee was studied during the 2-year period 1985-86, and compared with those of previous surveys conducted since 1964-65. The IMR declined steadily during the two decades, from 33.6 to 8.5/1,000 in the Jewish population and from ...
Huang R - - 1989
The author compares mortality in China and Japan from 1950 to 1985 and analyzes the differences between the two countries. Consideration is given to sex differences, regional differences, and trends in the major causes of death. The analysis shows "the gap between China and Japan in the health standards of ...
Güz K - - 1989
We investigated 2604 marriages in Antalya, a region in the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The 1020 urban and 1584 rural families included in the study were randomly selected and interviewed at their homes by one of the authors. The total consanguinity was 35.2%, rates being 39.6 and 28.3% for rural ...
Parveen S - - 1989
"This paper provides some estimates of fertility level for different periods from 1974 and 1981 census data [for Bangladesh]. The fertility levels were estimated using some indirect methods of estimation. The birth rate during the 70's decade was observed to fall in the range of 45-48 per thousand.... During the ...
Garcia-Gil C - - 1989
This paper is concerned with the question of the role which the psycho-cultural development experienced by women in developed countries throughout this century may have played in the decline of infant mortality, taking in Spain between 1900 and 1979 as a basis for observation. We think that, by studying the ...
Monteiro C A - - 1989
Infant and childhood mortality rates in São Paulo fell by about 50% and 70% respectively between 1973 and 1983. However, surveys in 1973-74 and 1984-85 showed no change in the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition, nor were there marked changes in the socioeconomic characteristics of the population. Improvements in water supply ...
Aksit B - - 1989
This paper is an attempt to review and integrate international and Turkish research on infant and child mortality. Recent research and multivariate analyses in African, Latin American and Asian countries have revealed that in many countries mother's education is a powerful predictor of child survival. The present review of research ...
Uemura K - - 1989
Indicators based on mortality data have long been used to measure the level of health status and to monitor and evaluate the progress and achievements of health programmes. Their usefulness is particularly obvious when dealing with preventable deaths. This article proposes the use of the lowest death rate recorded among ...
Skjaerven R - - 1988
Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, covering more than one million births for the period 1967-1984, were used to study the magnitude and effects of selective fertility, which is the tendency for a woman to replace a perinatal loss. Variation in fertility after the first three births is ...
Pennington R - - 1988
In this paper we develop a model that examines fertility and childhood mortality patterns and their relationship to environmental variables. Interactions among environmental variables can account for different fertility patterns and different mixes of these variables can produce similar patterns of fertility. Our model attempts to quantify the idea that ...
Kintner H J - - 1988
This article investigates how sociodemographic, economic, medical, and public health factors influence infant mortality by using data about German administrative areas from 1871 to 1933. Marital fertility has the largest impact on infant mortality, followed by illegitimacy, medical care, urbanization, and infant welfare centers. The variables considered here account for ...
Johns K A - - 1988
The Cardiff Births Survey (CBS) is a major ongoing study of childbirth in a well defined population, and has formed the basis for a number of important investigations in its field. It started at a time when computers were about to become readily available in United Kingdom universities, and it ...
Barell V - - 1988
Comprehensive evaluation of matched infant death certificate data and livebirth certificate data for 1977-1980 was performed for two areas in Israel: Or Yehuda, a small, low socioeconomic status community which had an infant mortality rate of 19.1 per 1,000, and the rest of Ramat Gan district, which had an infant ...
Shoham-Yakubovich I - - 1988
Both low birthweight (LBW) and infant mortality rate (IMR) have been consistently shown to be associated with maternal level of educational attainment. This paper examines the mortality risk attributable to LBW in different levels of maternal education. Comprising the study population were 18,715 singleton live births to Jewish mothers ages ...
Mukherji D - - 1988
"There is an assumption that family planning leads to less infant mortality, and [that a] lower rate of infant mortality will lead toward the evolution of small family. The present paper, based on the data collected from 472 eligible couples from a suburban area of West Bengal, does not reveal ...
Carmichael G A - - 1988
"This paper links data obtained from a one-in-five systematic sample of New Zealand divorce files covering the period 1940-78 with published marriage and birth statistics to examine socio-demographic differentials in divorce rates among couples married between 1939 and 1973. Differentials investigated are those by age at marriage, relative age of ...
Watterson P A - - 1988
Infant mortality in England and Wales only began its secular decline at the beginning of this century, although mortality among those aged 1-4 began to decline earlier. The 1911 Census of Fertility provides the basis for estimates of infant mortality among occupational groups. A diagrammatic model of decline is elaborated, ...
Wise P H - - 1988
In this study, the determinants of an apparent increase in the infant mortality rate of an urban population with high access to tertiary neonatal care are reviewed. For a 4-year period (1980 to 1983), all infant deaths (n = 422) of the 32,329 births to residents of the City of ...
Stockwell E G - - 1988
Infant mortality differentials in a metropolitan aggregate of eight Ohio cities were examined for the years 1979-81. The primary analytical unit was the census tract of mother's usual residence. The independent variable was defined as the percentage of low-income families in each tract at the 1980 census. Results of the ...
Rip M R MR Department of Community Health, University of Cape - - 1988
Infant mortality rates (IMRs) systematically calculated for the statistical regions of South Africa are presented for those groups of the population for which birth and death data are routinely collected. The geographical variation in the IMR and its statistical significance is presented in a series of maps. A more detailed ...
Jenkins C L - - 1988
In 1984 a rare opportunity arose to document the effects of contact on a previously isolated population in Papua New Guinea. The Hagahai, a small group of hunter-horticulturalists, remained hidden from government and mission influence until the early 1980s. Prior to that time, indirect contact through trade with neighboring peoples ...
Chowdhury A R - - 1988
"The aim of this paper is to analyze empirically the causal relationship, if any, between infant mortality and fertility in thirty-five developing countries." The focus is on possible relationships between the infant mortality rate and the fertility rate. "The hypothesis that infant mortality causes fertility is tested. The possibility of ...
Scott W - - 1988
A development monitoring service at the local level was established in 1978/79 in several communities in Kerala State (India) to collect socioeconomic and health-related data. These were collected from key community members and by household surveys using paid local staff as interviewers. Selected results for five years from three geographically ...
Bonitsis T H - - 1987
"This paper tests for the dynamic causal connection between real income per capita and the birth rate for a subset of developing countries. These countries are Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Uruguay. Our empirical findings show that, for the historical period under review, in several countries real income ...
Berman S M - - 1987
The infant mortality rate for 1982 in Jersey City, a medium-sized urban community, was found to have increased sharply from that for 1981. An investigation by health officials revealed that the increase occurred only among infants delivered to Jersey City residents at a large local municipal hospital. An increase in ...
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