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Pickering H - - 1989
A simple method is described for estimating childhood mortality when mothers are seen at or soon after a birth. The main bias in the method arises from omission of reports from mothers not contacted in the immediate postnatal period. Recent work indicates that the key question on the survival of ...
Balarajan R - - 1989
To examine ethnic differences in postneonatal mortality and the incidence of sudden infant death in England and Wales during 1982-5 records were analysed, the mother's country of birth being used to determine ethnic group. Postneonatal mortality was highest in infants of mothers born in Pakistan (6.4/1000 live births) followed by ...
Carr C - - 1989
The increasing infant mortality rate in the United States is of concern to all people, especially those involved in the care of mothers and infants. Of the 20 industrialized countries in the world, Finland, Sweden, and Japan rank first in lowest infant mortality rates. A four-week observational experience at a ...
Biener R - - 1989
The infant mortality rate (IMR) in the Jewish and Arab populations in the Western Galilee was studied during the 2-year period 1985-86, and compared with those of previous surveys conducted since 1964-65. The IMR declined steadily during the two decades, from 33.6 to 8.5/1,000 in the Jewish population and from ...
Huang R - - 1989
The author compares mortality in China and Japan from 1950 to 1985 and analyzes the differences between the two countries. Consideration is given to sex differences, regional differences, and trends in the major causes of death. The analysis shows "the gap between China and Japan in the health standards of ...
Güz K - - 1989
We investigated 2604 marriages in Antalya, a region in the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The 1020 urban and 1584 rural families included in the study were randomly selected and interviewed at their homes by one of the authors. The total consanguinity was 35.2%, rates being 39.6 and 28.3% for rural ...
Parveen S - - 1989
"This paper provides some estimates of fertility level for different periods from 1974 and 1981 census data [for Bangladesh]. The fertility levels were estimated using some indirect methods of estimation. The birth rate during the 70's decade was observed to fall in the range of 45-48 per thousand.... During the ...
Garcia-Gil C - - 1989
This paper is concerned with the question of the role which the psycho-cultural development experienced by women in developed countries throughout this century may have played in the decline of infant mortality, taking in Spain between 1900 and 1979 as a basis for observation. We think that, by studying the ...
Monteiro C A - - 1989
Infant and childhood mortality rates in São Paulo fell by about 50% and 70% respectively between 1973 and 1983. However, surveys in 1973-74 and 1984-85 showed no change in the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition, nor were there marked changes in the socioeconomic characteristics of the population. Improvements in water supply ...
Aksit B - - 1989
This paper is an attempt to review and integrate international and Turkish research on infant and child mortality. Recent research and multivariate analyses in African, Latin American and Asian countries have revealed that in many countries mother's education is a powerful predictor of child survival. The present review of research ...
Uemura K - - 1989
Indicators based on mortality data have long been used to measure the level of health status and to monitor and evaluate the progress and achievements of health programmes. Their usefulness is particularly obvious when dealing with preventable deaths. This article proposes the use of the lowest death rate recorded among ...
Skjaerven R - - 1988
Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, covering more than one million births for the period 1967-1984, were used to study the magnitude and effects of selective fertility, which is the tendency for a woman to replace a perinatal loss. Variation in fertility after the first three births is ...
Pennington R - - 1988
In this paper we develop a model that examines fertility and childhood mortality patterns and their relationship to environmental variables. Interactions among environmental variables can account for different fertility patterns and different mixes of these variables can produce similar patterns of fertility. Our model attempts to quantify the idea that ...
Kintner H J - - 1988
This article investigates how sociodemographic, economic, medical, and public health factors influence infant mortality by using data about German administrative areas from 1871 to 1933. Marital fertility has the largest impact on infant mortality, followed by illegitimacy, medical care, urbanization, and infant welfare centers. The variables considered here account for ...
Johns K A - - 1988
The Cardiff Births Survey (CBS) is a major ongoing study of childbirth in a well defined population, and has formed the basis for a number of important investigations in its field. It started at a time when computers were about to become readily available in United Kingdom universities, and it ...
Barell V - - 1988
Comprehensive evaluation of matched infant death certificate data and livebirth certificate data for 1977-1980 was performed for two areas in Israel: Or Yehuda, a small, low socioeconomic status community which had an infant mortality rate of 19.1 per 1,000, and the rest of Ramat Gan district, which had an infant ...
Shoham-Yakubovich I - - 1988
Both low birthweight (LBW) and infant mortality rate (IMR) have been consistently shown to be associated with maternal level of educational attainment. This paper examines the mortality risk attributable to LBW in different levels of maternal education. Comprising the study population were 18,715 singleton live births to Jewish mothers ages ...
Mukherji D - - 1988
"There is an assumption that family planning leads to less infant mortality, and [that a] lower rate of infant mortality will lead toward the evolution of small family. The present paper, based on the data collected from 472 eligible couples from a suburban area of West Bengal, does not reveal ...
Carmichael G A - - 1988
"This paper links data obtained from a one-in-five systematic sample of New Zealand divorce files covering the period 1940-78 with published marriage and birth statistics to examine socio-demographic differentials in divorce rates among couples married between 1939 and 1973. Differentials investigated are those by age at marriage, relative age of ...
Watterson P A - - 1988
Infant mortality in England and Wales only began its secular decline at the beginning of this century, although mortality among those aged 1-4 began to decline earlier. The 1911 Census of Fertility provides the basis for estimates of infant mortality among occupational groups. A diagrammatic model of decline is elaborated, ...
Wise P H - - 1988
In this study, the determinants of an apparent increase in the infant mortality rate of an urban population with high access to tertiary neonatal care are reviewed. For a 4-year period (1980 to 1983), all infant deaths (n = 422) of the 32,329 births to residents of the City of ...
Stockwell E G - - 1988
Infant mortality differentials in a metropolitan aggregate of eight Ohio cities were examined for the years 1979-81. The primary analytical unit was the census tract of mother's usual residence. The independent variable was defined as the percentage of low-income families in each tract at the 1980 census. Results of the ...
Rip M R MR Department of Community Health, University of Cape - - 1988
Infant mortality rates (IMRs) systematically calculated for the statistical regions of South Africa are presented for those groups of the population for which birth and death data are routinely collected. The geographical variation in the IMR and its statistical significance is presented in a series of maps. A more detailed ...
Jenkins C L - - 1988
In 1984 a rare opportunity arose to document the effects of contact on a previously isolated population in Papua New Guinea. The Hagahai, a small group of hunter-horticulturalists, remained hidden from government and mission influence until the early 1980s. Prior to that time, indirect contact through trade with neighboring peoples ...
Chowdhury A R - - 1988
"The aim of this paper is to analyze empirically the causal relationship, if any, between infant mortality and fertility in thirty-five developing countries." The focus is on possible relationships between the infant mortality rate and the fertility rate. "The hypothesis that infant mortality causes fertility is tested. The possibility of ...
Scott W - - 1988
A development monitoring service at the local level was established in 1978/79 in several communities in Kerala State (India) to collect socioeconomic and health-related data. These were collected from key community members and by household surveys using paid local staff as interviewers. Selected results for five years from three geographically ...
Bonitsis T H - - 1987
"This paper tests for the dynamic causal connection between real income per capita and the birth rate for a subset of developing countries. These countries are Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Uruguay. Our empirical findings show that, for the historical period under review, in several countries real income ...
Berman S M - - 1987
The infant mortality rate for 1982 in Jersey City, a medium-sized urban community, was found to have increased sharply from that for 1981. An investigation by health officials revealed that the increase occurred only among infants delivered to Jersey City residents at a large local municipal hospital. An increase in ...
Goodwin B A - - 1987
The objectives of this study were to: calculate revised estimates and projections of United States annual Down syndrome (DS) births for 1970-2002, and estimate the effects of amniocentesis on these baseline DS birth projections. Three models of amniocentesis utilization among 30-34 and greater than or equal to 35-year-old women were ...
Spencer H C - - 1987
Mortality and fertility rates were measured from 1981 to 1983 by prospective registration of vital events as part of a community-based malaria control and health development programme in Saradidi, Kenya. There was no obvious effect of providing chloroquine phosphate for treatment of malaria in each village on mortality or fertility ...
Gortmaker S L - - 1987
The Rural Infant Care Program (RICP), initiated in 1979, was developed to improve perinatal health care in ten rural sites with histories of high infant mortality rates. Time-series regression models indicate that neonatal mortality rates were reduced, following program initiation, by 2.6 per 1,000 live births (p = .0002); black ...
Apte D V - - 1987
In Illinois, particularly in Chicago, the infant mortality rate is higher than that for the nation as a whole. Unless infant mortality in Illinois declines at a faster rate, the State will not meet the objective for reducing infant mortality specified by the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. ...
Rip M R - - 1987
Numerous surveys at the national and regional level have demonstrated that large inequalities in infant health status exist in Southern Africa. Few studies have assessed infant mortality at the intra-urban scale of geographic analysis. Comparisons between infant mortality rates from different areas are made even more meaningful if the data ...
Opitz J M - - 1987
Western medicine is being sensitized to the enormous extent of prenatal death in humans at a time when such deaths, occurring after the first missed period, involve to an ever increasing degree wanted pregnancies conceived by women with rising mean maternal age, decreasing mean fertility, and ever greater desire and ...
Kunitz S J - - 1987
Efforts to manage Yugoslavia's debt crisis beginning in 1979 led to economic policies which resulted in declining real income in subsequent years. This has been associated with a slowing of the rate at which infant mortality has declined. There is no evidence, however, that populations in poor parts of the ...
Gubhaju B B - - 1987
Infant mortality trends and differentials are estimated from the 1981 Nepal Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NCPS) and compared with similar estimates from the 1976 Nepal Fertility Survey (NFS) and the 1981 Census of Nepal. The analysis indicates that infant mortality rates derived directly from the NFS maternity histories are the most ...
- - 1986
The return of fertility following discontinuation of norethisterone oenanthate (NET EN) 200 mg injectable contraceptive after use for a minimum period of six months or more was studied in 69 women who discontinued the method for planning pregnancy. Former users of copper intra-uterine device (CuT 200) were enrolled as a ...
Westoff C F - - 1986
From the postwar high of 3.8 births per woman at the peak of the baby boom, the total fertility rate in the United States has fallen to 1.8, where it has remained unchanged for nearly a decade. This below-replacement level of fertility has, in recent decades, characterized most Western countries, ...
Heard N M - - 1986
Infant and child mortality rates outside of hospital practice are not widely available for the black population of the RSA, since identification and recording of births and deaths within the community has not been widely established. This community-based study of peri-urban Pietermaritzburg is compared with similar studies covering other areas ...
Brainard J - - 1986
Nomadic pastoral populations appear to have much lower rates of growth than the otherwise very high growth rates now characteristic of populations in developing nations. Because dramatic declines in infant mortality have been a primary contributor to increased population growth rates in these countries, it has been assumed that nomadic ...
Park C B - - 1986
This study investigates the role of a preceding birth interval in infant mortality by considering a causal ordering of seven variables. Data are from the 1974 World Fertility Survey for Korea and cover the survival of 6,161 index children. A two-stage logit model was used. The analysis suggests that infant ...
Pinnelli A - - 1986
This paper analyzes the historical and geographical evolution of fetal and infant mortality (stillbirths + deaths in the 1st year of life) in Italy, starting from the 1950s. Particular attention is given to the last 20 years, which have marked an important turning point. Up to the beginning of the ...
Farhud D D - - 1986
Factors affecting the sex ratio are examined using data for 1,169,489 births occurring in rural and urban districts of Tehran, Iran, between 1971 and 1979. Attention is given to geographic, socioeconomic, psychological, and nutritional factors. It is found that "male births occurred more in Winter and Spring in the urban ...
Kohli K L - - 1986
"This paper attempts to discuss briefly the trends in the level of infant and general mortality and the differentials by age, sex and nationality [for Kuwait for the years 1957-1983]. It also examines socio-economic differentials in mortality. The leading causes of death are briefly highlighted as a mixture of diseases ...
Fuster V - - 1986
"The determinants of complete family size and offspring survival were assessed by means of family reconstitution data from 19th and 20th century rural [populations] of Northwest Spain. The reproductive performances of families were submitted to a stepwise regression analysis in which the number of children born alive and those surviving ...
Mishra R N - - 1986
"A probability distribution for describing the variation in the length of open birth interval regardless of parity has been derived assuming that fecundability varies from female to female and the births are of two types, one which results [in] infant death and the other [which does] not. To get the ...
DaVanzo J - - 1986
This analysis has identified several factors contributing to the dramatic decline in infant mortality since World War II in Malaysia, as well as one factor that prevented the infant mortality rate from declining even more rapidly. Our main findings are the following: On average, mothers' education more than doubled over ...
Yusuf F - - 1986
Historically, immigration has played an important role in the demographic evolution of the modern Australian society. In order to measure the demographic impact of immigration, it is necessary to study the fertility behaviour of various immigrant groups in Australia. In this paper, ethnic differences in Australian fertility have been analysed, ...
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