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Results 701 - 750 of 928
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van Tran D - - 1991
A survey on EPI, CDD, child morbidity, and mortality was conducted in 1988 in one province of northeastern Vietnam. Thirty out of 114 communes were randomly selected for the survey and the interviews were made by 60 students from the provincial nursing school, supervised by 10 teachers. It was found ...
Odedokun M O - - 1991
The author applies a simultaneous equations model to data from 40 developed and developing countries to determine the interrelationships between fertility and infant mortality and their combined effect on quality of life. "The following empirical results can be summarized: There is overwhelming evidence that the fertility rate has a positive ...
Willis W O - - 1991
A major health objective of the United States government and the World Health Organization is the reduction of infant mortality by the year 2000. Significant progress in the reduction of infant mortality has been made internationally simply as a consequence of general improvements in public health and nationally as a ...
Bachu A - - 1991
"This report profiles the growth of the foreign-born population in the United States during the 1980s. The socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of this changing population and the fertility differences found among the various immigrant groups are highlighted. This paper will also show the similarities and differences between the foreign-born and ...
Piplai C - - 1991
Demographic data were collected from 185 sedentary Oraon of Gumla district of Bihar, 255 migrant Oraon, and 242 migrant Tamang households, covering a total population of 1009, 1414, and 1537 individuals, respectively. Both migrant groups were tea garden laborers working in the Birpara, Lankapara, and Tulsipara tea gardens in the ...
Dankert G - - 1991
Information on levels, trends and determinants of infant and child mortality was available from the 1985 In-depth Fertility Survey which was conducted in three provinces of China. Mortality of children below age 5 varied from 49 per 1000 live births in Shaanxi to 20 in Shanghai in 1980-85 and has ...
Pebley A R - - 1991
Data from an historical population in which fertility control was minimal and modern health services were mostly unavailable are used to show that there appears to have been a strong association between previous birth interval length and infant mortality, especially when the previous child survived. Although only imperfect proxies for ...
Gubhaju B - - 1991
The Nepal Fertility and Family Planning Survey of 1986 demonstrated that demographic variables, previous birth interval and survival of preceding child, still predominated as determinants of infant mortality, particularly in rural areas of Nepal. However, in urban Nepal, where the level of socioeconomic development is higher, an environmental variable, along ...
Pant P D - - 1991
Infant and child mortality differentials are analysed by education of parents and other family members, access to toilet, electricity and source of drinking water in urban Nepal, using data from the Nepal Fertility and Family Planning Survey, 1986. The analyses showed significant effects of education, access to toilet and electricity ...
Tu P - - 1991
This study shows that most women in Shaanxi Province, China try to have their first birth as soon as possible after their first marriage, and that the length of the interval between marriage and first birth is strongly correlated with the woman's age at first marriage. The length of the ...
Curtis S L - - 1991
The effects of birth spacing on neonatal and post-neonatal mortality in Brazil were found to be very consistent with models based on data from other South American countries. The model for neonatal mortality simplified to three significant variables, whereas the model for post-neonatal mortality included four significant interactions.
Shah K S - - 1991
"In this paper an attempt has been made to examine the crude impact of the factors: birth weight, maternal age, gravida and sex on sema-natal mortality [defined by the author as mortality occurring within the first seven days of life], on the one hand, and the relative effect of each ...
Harpending H C - - 1991
Details of the population pyramid of living Herero and Mbanderu of Botswana suggest that infant and childhood mortality of males has been substantially greater than that of females. Direct tests from reproductive histories show that the hazard ratio is approximately 3 to 1 in favor of female survival in infancy ...
de Pedro-Cuesta J - - 1991
This study is an analysis of the measurements of drug use by populations proposed by the Nordic Council on Medicines, conducted from an epidemiological-theoretical perspective. Particular attention is given to levodopa use (LDU). Several measurements of comparative LDU are proposed here for the assessment of levodopa (LD) consumption, from data ...
Sokhey J - - 1991
India aims at the elimination of neonatal tetanus by 1995 by providing TT immunization services to all pregnant women in the country. Strengthening of the surveillance system is part of the strategy for the elimination of neonatal tetanus. There is a wide range of performance at state and district level. ...
Williams E S - - 1991
A review of the United Kingdom (UK) multiple sclerosis (MS) literature suggests that over the last three decades prevalence and estimated incidence rates have increased, while mortality rates have been declining. UK mortality data over a 30 year period have been studied to examine temporal and geographical variations, to estimate ...
Buchanan A - - 1991
Published infant mortality rates (IMR's) for Mexican-American populations frequently are lower than expected given the socioeconomic status (SES) of these populations. It has been speculated that this is due to bias or incompleteness in Mexican-American vital statistics. In this paper an extensive genealogical data base constructed from Catholic church records ...
Slatyer R O - - 1991
Lithell U B - - 1991
The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the changing Swedish society during the period 1800-1930 and to highlight factors which may have determined the decline in infant mortality during this period. A women's perspective will be used as a method to approach the problem. The following ...
De Beer J - - 1991
"As women's expectations about their own future fertility tend to deviate systematically from realizations, these expectations cannot be used directly for forecasting purposes. This paper discusses a partial-adjustment approach for deriving forecasts from the expectations. The sensitivity of the results to various assumptions is examined. Empirical results obtained for the ...
Clarke L L - - 1991
This research examines the relationship between residence and infant mortality. The purpose of the study was to identify the effects of maternal residence on infant mortality, using a multivariate model which included both individual and county-level variables known to be associated with suboptimal birth outcome. Data on all births in ...
Ofori-sarpong E - - 1991
The author examines fertility and mortality trends in Kenya since 1948. Among the findings it is noted that "the total fertility ratio for Kenya rose from 6.7 in 1948 to 8.1 in 1989. The population growth rate according to the 1989 census was 4.2 per cent, the highest in the ...
Ross P J - - 1991
"A Nigerian case study illustrates how local understandings of health influence perceptions of infant survival in ways that may juxtapose indigenous interpretations to other 'objective' data. Evidence from two extended field investigations of a Hausa-Fulani village, set 12 years apart, suggests a decline in childhood mortality rates attendant upon the ...
Aly H Y - - 1990
This paper analyses the relative importance of demographic and socioeconomic factors with respect to their role in reducing infant mortality in Egypt. Logit analyses of data from a nationally representative sample of Egyptian households, and for urban and rural households separately, indicate that demographic factors have more effect on infant ...
Lewis C - - 1990
Birth and fertility rates by educational attainment of mother are shown for the United States, geographic regions and divisions, and States for 1980 and 1985. The report focuses on differentials in childbearing among educational attainment groups and changes in fertility levels during the period, particularly for well-educated older mothers. The ...
Galdikas B M - - 1990
Comparative studies of birth interval dynamics in wild primates suffer from several problems of analysis and interpretation: (1) the data are always right-censored, (2) sample sizes are usually small, (3) the distribution of birth intervals is expected to be non-normal, (4) early offspring mortality is a confounding variable, and (5) ...
Felt J C - - 1990
Old Colony Mennonites in Mexico appear to demonstrate natural fertility, using no form of artificial birth control and apparently not attempting to limit family size. The resulting fertility is nearly as high as that of the Hutterites, although the Mennonites lack the communal economic system of the latter. Most Mennonites ...
Poston D L - - 1990
Analysis of the general fertility rate in the counties of China shows significant associations with infant mortality, illiteracy, and the percentage of the population employed in industry, but not with industrial or agricultural output. Urban counties differ from rural in the importance of the illiteracy rate. The associations in the ...
Hirschman C - - 1990
Using microdata from the 1970 and 1980 censuses, we specify and test multilevel models of fertility determination for four Southeast Asian societies--Indonesia, Peninsular Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Social context is indexed by provincial characteristics representing women's status, the roles of children, and infant mortality. These contextual variables are hypothesized ...
Sobral F - - 1990
Stature of conscripts from four regions of southern Portugal was evaluated in a secular perspective. Data were drawn from the draft records for each decade between 1930 and 1980, a period that corresponds to a decisive expansion of industry and urbanization. In each region conscripts were divided into two groups ...
Bharati P - - 1990
The present study was conducted on a Mahishya agricultural caste population of Chakpota village, Howrah district, West Bengal, India to enquire into the possible relations of anaemia, and fertility and mortality. The results confirm that negative relations exist between heamoglobin level of the mother, on the one hand, and fertility ...
Swartz M K - - 1990
The relatively high infant mortality rate in the United States has remained stable during the last few years largely as a result of the steady rate of infants born with low birth weight. Further reductions in the infant mortality rate depend on the prevention of low birth weight births and ...
Parazzini F - - 1990
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate factors in stillbirth mortality in Italy. DESIGN: Italian stillbirth data from 1955 to 1979 were analysed using a log-linear Poisson model with arbitrary constraints on the parameters to identify the effects of maternal birth cohort, calendar period of stillbirth and ...
Koenig M A - - 1990
This study investigates the relationship between birth intervals and childhood mortality, using longitudinal data from rural Bangladesh known to be of exceptional accuracy and completeness. Results demonstrate significant but very distinctive effects of the previous and subsequent birth intervals on mortality, with the former concentrated in the neonatal period and ...
Harpending H - - 1990
We derive a method for interpreting information about the reproductive performance of mothers of a sample of informants and apply it to the history of low fertility among the !Kung of the Kalahari desert of southern Africa. The method formalizes the commonsense procedure of weighting mothers with 1 birth by ...
Parsons L - - 1990
All stillbirths and neonatal deaths occurring in the North East Thames region were studied in 1983. This report describes the socio-economic and ethnic differences in that cohort. The stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates of babies born to fathers of social class V (16.8 per 1000 total births) was almost double ...
Wallace H M - - 1990
Sweden had the lowest reported infant mortality rate (IMR) among countries of the world from 1920 until 1980. Since 1981, Sweden, Japan, and Finland have shared this number one ranking on a somewhat rotating basis. The United States ranks 18th. In 1985, the reported IMRs in Japan, Sweden, and Finland ...
Chavkin W - - 1990
The United States has lagged behind other developed nations with respect to infant and maternal mortality. In the past decade, the disparities between races and socioeconomic groups has actually widened. In response, local initiatives have sought to decrease infant mortality by enrolling women into prenatal care programs. These programs have ...
Florez C E - - 1990
This paper investigates the effects of maternal demographic characteristics and social and economic statuses on infant mortality in rural Colombia. Demographic characteristics include the age of the mother, parity and length of preceding interbirth interval, and sex of infant. Measures of women's status at the time of birth include education, ...
Monnier A - - 1990
The author examines "the impact which various pro-natalist measures adopted since 1976 in the German Democratic Republic have had on women's birth cohorts....A period analysis of subsequent birth and fertility trends would seem to indicate that this policy was remarkably effective. The annual number of births...started to rise rapidly in ...
Han J - - 1990
"This paper attempts to present the concept of 'birth number base' as a reflection of the fecundity of women, explain the methods of determining the base, and its application." The birth number base is defined as the number of births in a given year when the total fertility rate is ...
Harris L H - - 1990
The United States ranks behind 19 other industrialized nations in infant mortality. Despite this country's affluence and medical sophistication, Black infants in some U. S. cities have a higher infant mortality rate than infants in some Third World countries. This article examines the impact that maternal prenatal health, teenage pregnancy ...
Entorf H - - 1990
"The paper investigates the interrelationship between fertility and infant mortality and its economic determinants by time-series methods for historical and modern Germany. It is studied whether the causal effects of infant mortality on fertility have to be considered as hoarding or replacement, and whether the costs of nutrition have an ...
Nobile A - - 1990
"This paper examines the progress of infant mortality in the primary developed countries after 1960. A strong decrease of the phenomenon was measured everywhere although its intensity was independent of the starting levels. The most rapid decline occurred in Japan and several countries in southern and northwestern Europe. The slowest ...
Singhi S - - 1989
To identify the individual and household level variables associated with increased risk of mortality, 159 infant and 50 child deaths (cases) and equal number of age matched live infants and children (controls) and their families were studied in a rural area of Haryana. The social, economic, educational and environmental characteristics ...
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