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Results 701 - 750 of 946
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Cleland J - - 1992
The last three decades have witnessed substantial reductions in childhood mortality in most developing nations. Despite this encouraging picture, analysis of WFS and DHS survey data shows that socioeconomic disparities in survival chances have not narrowed between the 1970s and 1980s, and in some cases, have widened. Changes in mother's ...
Rowland R H - - 1992
"This article investigates regional population trends in the city of Moscow during the intercensal period of 1979-1989. Results indicate that the Outer Zone grew more rapidly than the Inner Zone, which experienced population decline overall. As a result, the population of Moscow continued to shift to the Outer Zone. Although ...
Cnattingius S - - 1992
During this century, improvements in fetal and infant mortality have been dramatic in the western world, mainly as a result of improved socio-economic conditions. Relative to many other developed countries, the decrease has been more dramatic in the Nordic countries. Population-based health registries exist in all Nordic countries. By record-linkage ...
Kost K K Alan Guttmacher Institute, New York, New - - 1992
Studies of infant and child mortality have evolved to distinguish between two sets of explanatory variables-factors related to reproductive or maternal characteristics and socioeconomic factors, generally described as characteristics of the family or household. Almost all multivariate analyses include variables from each of these two sets, but there has been ...
Koumans E H EH Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard Medical School, Boston, - - 1992
Childhood mortality rates among rural blacks in South Africa are currently not based on a reliable registration system. National childhood mortality statistics rely on mortality extrapolations and population estimates. This study attempts to provide further information on infant and child mortality among rural blacks in the northern Transvaal, using a ...
Pratt J - - 1992
The infant mortality rate (IMR) at Cherbourg Aboriginal Community in south-eastern Queensland remained high from 1906 to about 1955-60, but since then has dropped from over 200/1000 live births in 1956-60 to 16/1000 live births in 1986-90, compared with the 1987 rate for Queensland (9.2/1000) and Australia (8.6/1000). The rapid ...
Steffen S - - 1992
Gravity has been a pervasive influence on all living systems and there is convincing evidence to suggest that it alters fertilization and embryogenesis in several developmental systems. Notwithstanding the global importance of gravity on development, it has only been recently possible to begin to design experiments which might directly investigate ...
Whitman C - - 1992
Neonatal tetanus (NT) can be effectively prevented through immunization and clean delivery practices. However, NT claimed the lives of over 433,000 infants in 1991. It is endemic in 90 countries throughout the world. Community-based neonatal tetanus mortality surveys helped to determine the true incidence of NT and revealed that, before ...
Kidanemariam A - - 1992
The authors analyze differentials in infant mortality rates in developing countries and attempt to go beyond the usual economic interpretations of these differences and identify some of the relevant social and political factors affecting infant mortality. In particular, they apply "a 'political economy of health' perspective to infant mortality and ...
Siniarska A - - 1992
The paper concerns the biological status of the Polish population. A comparison was made for inhabitants of towns, villages, and areas under different levels of industrialization and environmental pollution. It has been found that urban populations as compared with rural ones were characterized by a smaller number of children within ...
Larson E H - - 1992
It is often assumed that poor birth outcomes are more common among rural women than urban women, but there is little substantive evidence to that effect. While the effectiveness of rural providers and hospitals has been evaluated in previous studies, this study focuses on poor birth outcomes in a population ...
Bronfman M - - 1992
Data derived from the Encuesta Nacional de Fecundidad y Salud (ENFES) confirm that overall levels of infant mortality in Mexico have been steadily declining. However, a more specific analysis furnishes evidence that this decline has occurred at varying rates within different social groups, reflecting an increase in social inequalities. The ...
Mahmood M A - - 1992
"The hypothesis of the inverse relationship of socio-economic status of the parents and child infant mortality rates has been retested by introducing 'personal illness control' as an intervening variable. The data obtained in the 1984/1985 Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey have been used. The infant and child mortality rates have been ...
Wilson A L AL Department of Pediatrics, University of South Dakota School of Medicine, Sioux - - 1992
This annual report describes the continuing trend of a decreasing birth rate in South Dakota. Infant mortality data show that South Dakota's neonatal mortality rates continue to be below those of the nation and post neonatal mortality rates exceed those of the United States. A very high Native American post ...
Liu K K Urban Institute, Washington, DC - - 1992
The very unfavorable infant mortality ranking of the United States in international comparisons is often used to question the quality of health care there. Infant mortality rates, however, implicitly capture a complicated story, measuring much more than differences in health care across countries. This article examines reasons behind international infant ...
van Tran D - - 1991
A survey on EPI, CDD, child morbidity, and mortality was conducted in 1988 in one province of northeastern Vietnam. Thirty out of 114 communes were randomly selected for the survey and the interviews were made by 60 students from the provincial nursing school, supervised by 10 teachers. It was found ...
Odedokun M O - - 1991
The author applies a simultaneous equations model to data from 40 developed and developing countries to determine the interrelationships between fertility and infant mortality and their combined effect on quality of life. "The following empirical results can be summarized: There is overwhelming evidence that the fertility rate has a positive ...
Willis W O - - 1991
A major health objective of the United States government and the World Health Organization is the reduction of infant mortality by the year 2000. Significant progress in the reduction of infant mortality has been made internationally simply as a consequence of general improvements in public health and nationally as a ...
Bachu A - - 1991
"This report profiles the growth of the foreign-born population in the United States during the 1980s. The socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of this changing population and the fertility differences found among the various immigrant groups are highlighted. This paper will also show the similarities and differences between the foreign-born and ...
Piplai C - - 1991
Demographic data were collected from 185 sedentary Oraon of Gumla district of Bihar, 255 migrant Oraon, and 242 migrant Tamang households, covering a total population of 1009, 1414, and 1537 individuals, respectively. Both migrant groups were tea garden laborers working in the Birpara, Lankapara, and Tulsipara tea gardens in the ...
Dankert G - - 1991
Information on levels, trends and determinants of infant and child mortality was available from the 1985 In-depth Fertility Survey which was conducted in three provinces of China. Mortality of children below age 5 varied from 49 per 1000 live births in Shaanxi to 20 in Shanghai in 1980-85 and has ...
Pebley A R - - 1991
Data from an historical population in which fertility control was minimal and modern health services were mostly unavailable are used to show that there appears to have been a strong association between previous birth interval length and infant mortality, especially when the previous child survived. Although only imperfect proxies for ...
Gubhaju B - - 1991
The Nepal Fertility and Family Planning Survey of 1986 demonstrated that demographic variables, previous birth interval and survival of preceding child, still predominated as determinants of infant mortality, particularly in rural areas of Nepal. However, in urban Nepal, where the level of socioeconomic development is higher, an environmental variable, along ...
Pant P D - - 1991
Infant and child mortality differentials are analysed by education of parents and other family members, access to toilet, electricity and source of drinking water in urban Nepal, using data from the Nepal Fertility and Family Planning Survey, 1986. The analyses showed significant effects of education, access to toilet and electricity ...
Tu P - - 1991
This study shows that most women in Shaanxi Province, China try to have their first birth as soon as possible after their first marriage, and that the length of the interval between marriage and first birth is strongly correlated with the woman's age at first marriage. The length of the ...
Curtis S L - - 1991
The effects of birth spacing on neonatal and post-neonatal mortality in Brazil were found to be very consistent with models based on data from other South American countries. The model for neonatal mortality simplified to three significant variables, whereas the model for post-neonatal mortality included four significant interactions.
Shah K S - - 1991
"In this paper an attempt has been made to examine the crude impact of the factors: birth weight, maternal age, gravida and sex on sema-natal mortality [defined by the author as mortality occurring within the first seven days of life], on the one hand, and the relative effect of each ...
Harpending H C - - 1991
Details of the population pyramid of living Herero and Mbanderu of Botswana suggest that infant and childhood mortality of males has been substantially greater than that of females. Direct tests from reproductive histories show that the hazard ratio is approximately 3 to 1 in favor of female survival in infancy ...
de Pedro-Cuesta J - - 1991
This study is an analysis of the measurements of drug use by populations proposed by the Nordic Council on Medicines, conducted from an epidemiological-theoretical perspective. Particular attention is given to levodopa use (LDU). Several measurements of comparative LDU are proposed here for the assessment of levodopa (LD) consumption, from data ...
Sokhey J - - 1991
India aims at the elimination of neonatal tetanus by 1995 by providing TT immunization services to all pregnant women in the country. Strengthening of the surveillance system is part of the strategy for the elimination of neonatal tetanus. There is a wide range of performance at state and district level. ...
Williams E S - - 1991
A review of the United Kingdom (UK) multiple sclerosis (MS) literature suggests that over the last three decades prevalence and estimated incidence rates have increased, while mortality rates have been declining. UK mortality data over a 30 year period have been studied to examine temporal and geographical variations, to estimate ...
Buchanan A - - 1991
Published infant mortality rates (IMR's) for Mexican-American populations frequently are lower than expected given the socioeconomic status (SES) of these populations. It has been speculated that this is due to bias or incompleteness in Mexican-American vital statistics. In this paper an extensive genealogical data base constructed from Catholic church records ...
Slatyer R O - - 1991
Lithell U B - - 1991
The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the changing Swedish society during the period 1800-1930 and to highlight factors which may have determined the decline in infant mortality during this period. A women's perspective will be used as a method to approach the problem. The following ...
De Beer J - - 1991
"As women's expectations about their own future fertility tend to deviate systematically from realizations, these expectations cannot be used directly for forecasting purposes. This paper discusses a partial-adjustment approach for deriving forecasts from the expectations. The sensitivity of the results to various assumptions is examined. Empirical results obtained for the ...
Clarke L L - - 1991
This research examines the relationship between residence and infant mortality. The purpose of the study was to identify the effects of maternal residence on infant mortality, using a multivariate model which included both individual and county-level variables known to be associated with suboptimal birth outcome. Data on all births in ...
Ofori-sarpong E - - 1991
The author examines fertility and mortality trends in Kenya since 1948. Among the findings it is noted that "the total fertility ratio for Kenya rose from 6.7 in 1948 to 8.1 in 1989. The population growth rate according to the 1989 census was 4.2 per cent, the highest in the ...
Ross P J - - 1991
"A Nigerian case study illustrates how local understandings of health influence perceptions of infant survival in ways that may juxtapose indigenous interpretations to other 'objective' data. Evidence from two extended field investigations of a Hausa-Fulani village, set 12 years apart, suggests a decline in childhood mortality rates attendant upon the ...
Aly H Y - - 1990
This paper analyses the relative importance of demographic and socioeconomic factors with respect to their role in reducing infant mortality in Egypt. Logit analyses of data from a nationally representative sample of Egyptian households, and for urban and rural households separately, indicate that demographic factors have more effect on infant ...
Lewis C - - 1990
Birth and fertility rates by educational attainment of mother are shown for the United States, geographic regions and divisions, and States for 1980 and 1985. The report focuses on differentials in childbearing among educational attainment groups and changes in fertility levels during the period, particularly for well-educated older mothers. The ...
Galdikas B M - - 1990
Comparative studies of birth interval dynamics in wild primates suffer from several problems of analysis and interpretation: (1) the data are always right-censored, (2) sample sizes are usually small, (3) the distribution of birth intervals is expected to be non-normal, (4) early offspring mortality is a confounding variable, and (5) ...
Felt J C - - 1990
Old Colony Mennonites in Mexico appear to demonstrate natural fertility, using no form of artificial birth control and apparently not attempting to limit family size. The resulting fertility is nearly as high as that of the Hutterites, although the Mennonites lack the communal economic system of the latter. Most Mennonites ...
Poston D L - - 1990
Analysis of the general fertility rate in the counties of China shows significant associations with infant mortality, illiteracy, and the percentage of the population employed in industry, but not with industrial or agricultural output. Urban counties differ from rural in the importance of the illiteracy rate. The associations in the ...
Hirschman C - - 1990
Using microdata from the 1970 and 1980 censuses, we specify and test multilevel models of fertility determination for four Southeast Asian societies--Indonesia, Peninsular Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Social context is indexed by provincial characteristics representing women's status, the roles of children, and infant mortality. These contextual variables are hypothesized ...
Sobral F - - 1990
Stature of conscripts from four regions of southern Portugal was evaluated in a secular perspective. Data were drawn from the draft records for each decade between 1930 and 1980, a period that corresponds to a decisive expansion of industry and urbanization. In each region conscripts were divided into two groups ...
Bharati P - - 1990
The present study was conducted on a Mahishya agricultural caste population of Chakpota village, Howrah district, West Bengal, India to enquire into the possible relations of anaemia, and fertility and mortality. The results confirm that negative relations exist between heamoglobin level of the mother, on the one hand, and fertility ...
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