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Swenson I - - 1993
There was absence of any regional differences in parity progressions and length of birth intervals, although urban-rural differences persisted at most birth orders, suggesting that, as in other studies, the urban-rural differentials are the primary source of variations in fertility between different areas of a country. The significantly higher probability ...
Fricke T - - 1993
Using data from a Nepali population, this analysis argues that marriage style and postmarital living arrangements affect coital frequency to produce variations in the timing of first birth after marriage. Event history analysis of the first birth interval for 149 women suggests that women's autonomy in marriage decisions and marriage ...
Bähr J - - 1993
Life expectancy and infant mortality in Latin America vary extremely on the national level as for example from 20 per thousand and less in Cuba and Chile up to 100 per thousand and more in Haiti and Bolivia. The range of these rates is even greater considering the regional level ...
Curto de Casas S I - - 1993
This paper is an attempt to synthesize several models of health and levels of affluence in Latin America. An analysis is accomplished wherein various countries and regions of Latin America are classified for health purposes as either products of a poverty model or a wealth model. Variables utilized include: mortality ...
Kunstadter P - - 1993
Conventional theories would not predict the 60% decline of infant mortality which has occurred among the Hmong population of Thailand, from 123/1000 in the mid-1960s to 48 in the mid-1980s. The Hmong population in northern Thailand has sustained high fertility and low use of modern health services. Most Hmong live ...
Barnish G - - 1993
Malaria surveys to collect base-line data for an intervention study was carried out in a rural, high rainfall area of West Africa. Methods for the different components of the study are described. A mortality survey, using verbal autopsy questionnaires, established an infant mortality rate of 74/1000 live births/year, a child ...
Alemu W - - 1993
Neonatal tetanus (NNT) is the second most frequent cause of infant mortality among the six vaccine preventable infections in developing countries. However, lack of reliable data has largely obscured the importance of the problem in these countries. A community based NNT mortality survey was conducted, using cluster sample method developed ...
Woelk G B - - 1993
Using the preceding birth technique, 2,229 mothers were interviewed at four antenatal centres (two of which were urban) over a three month period during a pilot study in Zimbabwe. Results of the study showed that there was a small difference between the under two and under five mortality. The smaller ...
Singh K K - - 1993
Life tables of birth intervals and median birth intervals in two Indian states, Uttar Pradesh and Kerala, were computed for several subgroups of the study population. Multivariate hazards modelling technique was used to examine the net effect of each of the variables studied. The results show a substantial effect of ...
de Meer K - - 1993
Among Amerindian children living at high altitude in the Andes in southern Peru, high child mortality rates have been reported in the literature, especially in the perinatal and neonatal period. We compared mortality rates in children calculated from retrospective survey data in 86 rural families from 2 Aymara and 3 ...
Horbar J D - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate a model that predicts mortality risk based on admission data for infants weighing 501 to 1500 grams at birth, and to use the model to identify neonatal ICUs where the observed mortality rate differs significantly from the predicted rate. DESIGN: Validation cohort study. SETTING: University-based, ...
Heymann M - - 1993
The high rate of infant mortality, defined as the number of deaths in the first year of life for every 1000 babies born alive (WHO, 1981), is recognized as an extremely serious problem in the developing world. Worldwide decreases in the number of infant deaths are occurring; however, the gap ...
Taha T E - - 1993
A follow-up study was conducted in six community health centres during the period April 1989 to March 1990 to determine the risk factors which influence neonatal survival in central Sudan. The estimated neonatal mortality rate ranged between 20.0 and 36.0 per 1000 live births per year, and the major cause ...
Wang Z - - 1993
The author investigates the relationship between infant mortality and the birth rate. "For this research, a number of countries with representative features are selected from different parts of the world. The study focuses on mortality and birth in these countries in the 25 year span between 1945 and 1970. A ...
Haglund B - - 1993
Social differences in late fetal death and infant mortality were examined in a population-based prospective study. All singletons born to Nordic citizens in Sweden 1985-86 were included, 185,156 births in all. The overall rates of late fetal death and infant mortality were 3.5 and 5.3 per 1000 respectively. Socio-economic status ...
Lelievre E - - 1993
"Accompanying the rapid rise of unmarried cohabitation and the decline in nuptiality, Britain experienced a sharp increase in the number and proportion of births outside wedlock....84% of this recent increase corresponds to jointly registered births which can therefore be assumed to occur to informal couples. This chapter explores this new ...
Coleman D - - 1993
"This chapter compares fertility patterns and trends in Britain with those in other West European countries. Britain shares many features in common with the rest of Western Europe: fertility below the replacement level, late childbearing with births over age 30 becoming more common. Britain stands out, however, by having one ...
Kutty V R - - 1993
Data relating to birth and death were collected from throughout the state of Kerala, India, in a health survey conducted by the Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishad, a voluntary organization. In this study, the authors analyze birth and death rates as calculated from the sample of 9,940 households (57,665 persons), with ...
Johnson K M - - 1993
"This article delineates the incidence and regional variation [in the United States] of natural decrease since 1950, considers the demographic factors that caused natural decrease, assesses each factor's relative impact, identifies shared characteristics of areas experiencing natural decrease, and considers the implications of natural decrease." Factors considered include shifts in ...
Eberstadt N - - 1993
The author suggests that the general tendency to overestimate the economic success of communist countries by Western scholars before the breakup of the Soviet Union was due primarily to a failure to take proper account of demographic factors, and particularly declines occurring in life expectancy. "The first section reviews the ...
Miah M M - - 1993
"This study examined a host of socio-economic and demographic factors (including their interactions) that determine infant/child mortality of married women at the different parity levels in Bangladesh [using data from] a multivariate analysis of the 1975-76 Bangladesh Fertility Survey.... The major hypothesis of this research is that the higher the ...
Becker S R - - 1993
To estimate baseline infant and child mortality in Liberia, a survey was carried out in 1984 as part of the Combatting Childhood Communicable Diseases (CCCD) project. The project, a collaborative effort of the Liberian Ministry of Health, the US Agency for International Development, and the US Centers for Disease Control, ...
Lindtjørn B - - 1993
To assess the population dynamics of drought-prone communities, we investigated 605 households in the pastoralist Boran community of Dubluk and in the agricultural community of Elka, both located in southern Ethiopia. The age and sex composition of the population as well as records of births, deaths and patterns of migration ...
Materia E - - 1993
The preceding birth technique, an indirect method for estimating early childhood mortality based on ascertaining the survival of previous children, was applied in rural Ethiopia within a system of demographic surveillance. Trained community health workers acted as interviewers and transmission flow of the routine health information system was used for ...
Paim J S - - 1993
Data relating to infant mortality in Salvador, Brazil, were analyzed in order to determine how infant mortality evolved in various parts of the city during the period 1980-1988. This analysis showed sharp drops in the numbers of infant deaths, proportional infant mortality (infant deaths as a percentage of total deaths), ...
Becker S R - - 1993
A baseline survey of childhood mortality in two counties of Liberia in 1984 found the risk of dying before age 5 to be almost one-third. Three years into the Combatting Childhood Communicable Diseases (CCCD) project, a survey using a pregnancy history questionnaire was conducted in the same clusters to determine ...
Quine M P - - 1993
"This paper reports a method of deriving simultaneous confidence intervals for [Australian] infant mortality rates based on a birth sample rather than the birth population. The large sample size employed enables the use of asymptotic multivariate techniques....[The authors find that] where the population distribution of a characteristic such as social ...
Wegman M E - - 1992
Between 1990 and 1991, provisional data show that the infant mortality rate decreased again, from 9.1 to 8.9, a decline of 2% in contrast to the 7% decline from 1989 to 1990. Birth, death, and marriage rates were also lower, but the divorce rate stayed at about the same level ...
Orbeta A C - - 1992
"The paper presents an econometrically estimated model where economic and demographic variables are determined simultaneously. It is used to quantify the importance of human capital expenditures in socioeconomic and demographic development as well as analyze the effects of rapid population growth on human capital expenditures. The simulation results indicate that ...
Bennett T - - 1992
Out-of-wedlock status has long been recognized as a demographic risk factor associated with infant mortality and low birthweight. However, the relationship between marital status and birth outcomes varies by maternal race and age. The negative impact of unmarried status is greatest for white women aged 20 and over. High infant ...
Crook N - - 1992
As Asia becomes increasingly urbanized the effect of new industrial development on child mortality becomes of increasing interest. In India, considerable investment has been made in the social infrastructure of industrial new towns. This survey of Durgapur steel town in West Bengal shows that although the average level of child ...
Prybylski D - - 1992
A simple and inexpensive method for monitoring child mortality in association with birth registration was introduced into the Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Eight thousand two hundred and one newborn infants were registered in 1988, approximately 77% of all children born in that year. The risk of death by ...
Amin R - - 1992
The study, which is based on data from a household level health survey conducted in 1990 in Freetown, Sierra Leone, examines the coverage of an Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), infant mortality, and infant morbidity among children in Greater Freetown, capital of Sierra Leone. The results of the study indicate ...
Feitosa M F - - 1992
A sample based on hospital births recorded for the Latin American Collaborative Study on Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC) program was used in the present study to determine sex ratios for live births and for stillbirths. Sixty-four cities and 147 hospitals in 11 countries (Uruguay, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, Ecuador, ...
Boerma J T - - 1992
The importance of the length of preceding birth intervals for the survival chances of young children has been established, but the debate concerning the causal biomedical or behavioral mechanisms continues. This article uses data from 17 Demographic and Health Surveys to investigate the effect of birth intervals on child mortality: ...
Proctor S R - - 1992
Over recent years, Bradford has had a consistently high perinatal mortality rate (PNMR), especially amongst its Asian population, 66% of whom originate from Pakistan. There is a high incidence of consanguineous marriages reported among Pakistani and Muslim couples. Often, this observation is used to explain their higher PNMR and congenital ...
Verma I C - - 1992
Of 1000 pregnant women studied, consanguinity was observed in 30.8%, with a higher frequency among women from rural areas, and among Hindus. In the consanguineous group, first cousin marriages were present in 47.4%, and uncle niece marriages in 23.4% of women. Coefficient of inbreeding was highest in Harijans (0.0258), followed ...
Huttly S R - - 1992
The associations between birth interval and a range of child health outcomes were examined in a population-based cohort of approximately 3500 urban Brazilian children. The effects of several socioeconomic and maternal confounding factors were controlled for in the analyses. Children born after shorter birth intervals (less than 18 and 18 ...
Suchindran C M - - 1992
This paper examines the ways in which the behavior of twentieth century cohorts of American women changed simultaneously in the three components of fertility that determine age at last birth--age at first birth, spacing between subsequent births, and parity progression ratios of subsequent births--to produce changes in the timing of ...
Brittain A W - - 1992
Ten independent variables were used to predict death before the first birthday for 4411 births that took place from 1878 to 1976 to 978 women of native ancestry on the island of St. Barthélemy. Significant predictors of death include the death of the mother within a year, the birth year, ...
Cleland J - - 1992
The last three decades have witnessed substantial reductions in childhood mortality in most developing nations. Despite this encouraging picture, analysis of WFS and DHS survey data shows that socioeconomic disparities in survival chances have not narrowed between the 1970s and 1980s, and in some cases, have widened. Changes in mother's ...
Rowland R H - - 1992
"This article investigates regional population trends in the city of Moscow during the intercensal period of 1979-1989. Results indicate that the Outer Zone grew more rapidly than the Inner Zone, which experienced population decline overall. As a result, the population of Moscow continued to shift to the Outer Zone. Although ...
Cnattingius S - - 1992
During this century, improvements in fetal and infant mortality have been dramatic in the western world, mainly as a result of improved socio-economic conditions. Relative to many other developed countries, the decrease has been more dramatic in the Nordic countries. Population-based health registries exist in all Nordic countries. By record-linkage ...
Kost K K Alan Guttmacher Institute, New York, New - - 1992
Studies of infant and child mortality have evolved to distinguish between two sets of explanatory variables-factors related to reproductive or maternal characteristics and socioeconomic factors, generally described as characteristics of the family or household. Almost all multivariate analyses include variables from each of these two sets, but there has been ...
Koumans E H EH Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard Medical School, Boston, - - 1992
Childhood mortality rates among rural blacks in South Africa are currently not based on a reliable registration system. National childhood mortality statistics rely on mortality extrapolations and population estimates. This study attempts to provide further information on infant and child mortality among rural blacks in the northern Transvaal, using a ...
Pratt J - - 1992
The infant mortality rate (IMR) at Cherbourg Aboriginal Community in south-eastern Queensland remained high from 1906 to about 1955-60, but since then has dropped from over 200/1000 live births in 1956-60 to 16/1000 live births in 1986-90, compared with the 1987 rate for Queensland (9.2/1000) and Australia (8.6/1000). The rapid ...
Steffen S - - 1992
Gravity has been a pervasive influence on all living systems and there is convincing evidence to suggest that it alters fertilization and embryogenesis in several developmental systems. Notwithstanding the global importance of gravity on development, it has only been recently possible to begin to design experiments which might directly investigate ...
Whitman C - - 1992
Neonatal tetanus (NT) can be effectively prevented through immunization and clean delivery practices. However, NT claimed the lives of over 433,000 infants in 1991. It is endemic in 90 countries throughout the world. Community-based neonatal tetanus mortality surveys helped to determine the true incidence of NT and revealed that, before ...
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