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Tunçbílek E - - 1994
Turkey has a high rate of consanguineous marriage (21.1%), indicating strong preference for this traditional form of marital union. Social and cultural factors are especially important in marriages between first and second cousins. Fertility is high, the closed birth interval is long, and the sterility rate is low among these ...
Mturi A J - - 1994
According to the 1991/92 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey, a Tanzanian woman has, on average, 6.1 births before she reaches age 50, a decline of about one birth per woman since the early 1980s. The major proximate determinant of fertility is universal and prolonged breast-feeding. An analysis of the social ...
Siefert K - - 1994
This article reports findings from a study on infant mortality in Michigan's child welfare system. The findings indicate that postneonatal death rates for infants in foster care placement from 1980 to 1989 are substantially higher than those in the general population. Although infants in the child welfare system are likely ...
Espehaug B - - 1994
In recent years, considerable attention has been attached to the disquieting fact that infant survival is much lower in Norway than in Sweden. In the present study, comprising all live single births in Norway and Sweden during 1985-88, the observed infant mortality was 1.5 times higher in Norway than in ...
Hertz E - - 1994
Using data from United Nations sources we conducted an international comparison study of infant and maternal mortality rates and life expectancy at birth. We examined these three dependent variables in relation to a range of independent variables including dietary factors, medical resource availability, gross national product (GNP/capita), literacy rates, growth ...
Kintner H J - - 1994
"This paper applies regression decomposition procedures to the infant mortality decline in Germany 1871-1925.... Data concern 59 administrative areas at seven times. In contrast to contemporary less developed countries, little of this historical infant mortality decline is explained either by changes in the relationships between infant mortality and the variables ...
Nath D C - - 1994
The traditional preference for sons may be the main hindrance to India's current population policy of two children per family. In this study, the effects of various sociodemographic covariates, particularly sex preference, on the length of the third birth interval are examined for the scheduled caste population in Assam, India. ...
Fernandez E - - 1994
Trends in death certification rates from pancreatic cancer over the period 1955-1989 were analyzed for 25 European countries (excluding the former Soviet Union and a few smaller countries). In 1985-1989, rates for males ranged between 5.3/100,000 (age-standardized world population) in Spain and 10.3/100,000 in Hungary and Czechoslovakia. Other high-mortality areas ...
Kunst A E - - 1994
OBJECTIVES: This study addresses the question of whether inequalities in premature mortality related to educational level differ among countries. METHODS: Data on mortality by educational level were obtained from longitudinal studies from nine industrialized countries. The data referred to men between 35 and 64 years of age. The follow-up periods ...
Ananijevic-Pandey J - - 1994
To evaluate the level of health attained before the war started, premature mortality from all causes in the former Yugoslavia was analyzed by republics and provinces in two respective periods. Premature mortality, measured by the crude rate of years of potential life lost, fell from 12,762.6 in 1970 to 6,320.1 ...
Lee R D - - 1994
Change in marital fertility in 407 Prussian Kreise from 1875 to 1910 is modeled to depend on the gap between the number of desired surviving births, N*, divided by child survival, s, and the number that would be born under natural marital fertility, M, given the age at marriage. Some ...
Ruzicka L T - - 1994
"This paper examines developments in demographic methodology during the past decade or so. It focuses on methodological advances in the analysis of mortality of infants and young children, of adults, and on problems of mortality estimation in small populations. The other major areas reviewed here are related to the study ...
Walsh J A - - 1994
Each year, an estimated half million women die from complications related to child birth either during pregnancy, delivery or within 42 days afterwards. When pregnant women have complications, their infants are at greater risk of becoming ill, permanently disabled or dying. For every maternal death, there are at least 20 ...
Park C B - - 1994
We formulated a two-stage causal model for infant survival and applied it to data drawn from the 1987 Thai Demographic and Health Survey covering the fate of 5,074 index children. The following six variables were considered as the explanatory variables: maternal age, maternal education, birth order, preceding birth interval, survival ...
Mauldin W P - - 1994
What is the likelihood that each of the 37 developing countries with populations of 15 million or more in 1990 will reach replacement fertility by the year 2015? These countries have a combined population of 3.9 billion, 91 percent of the population of all developing countries. For this article, a ...
Pandey G D - - 1994
"This paper aims at finding out the socio-demographic perspective of...tribal and non-tribal females [in India] through a concrete pattern of field survey. The data gathered from 3,428 tribal and 2,447 non-tribal females have been analysed to examine the trends of differences in the status enjoyed by these women belonging to ...
Hoare K - - 1994
Malnutrition is common among young children in developing countries. Often it is caused by poor infant weaning practices. Karen Hoare describes a community-based infant weaning programme in The Gambia which adapted local foods to improve nutritional content. The project also resulted in the development of a simple but effective demonstration ...
Ren X S - - 1994
In the past several decades China has witnessed an unprecedented decline in infant and child mortality. While China's success in reducing infant and child mortality has been ascribed to the unusual level of government intervention, there is evidence that change and variation have been, and are, influenced by socioeconomic conditions, ...
Guinnane T W - - 1994
The Princeton project on the decline of fertility in Europe (the European Fertility Project) suggested that this historical fertility transition occurred virtually simultaneously in a wide variety of economic and social environments. This finding has been cited widely as evidence for an innovation/diffusion view of fertility transitions. We demonstrate that ...
Harris P D - - 1994
Gyrodactylus salaris has recently become a major pathogen of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) in Norway. The survivorship, population age structure and pattern of insemination of G. salaris were studied to determine the extent to which this species reproduces sexually. The age-specific mortality schedule of G. salaris could be described by ...
Galloway P R - - 1994
"North Italy annual population and vital rates are reconstructed from 1650 to 1881 using series of vital event indices from many rural parishes and cities. Inverse projection is applied to the reconstructed series of vital events and population to generate annual age distribution, gross reproduction rate, net reproduction rate, life ...
Babu B V - - 1994
The Individual Fertility Rate (IFR), a measure of current fertility status in small and illiterate preindustrial societies, is estimated for five tribal populations from Andhra Pradesh, India. The Andhra tribes exhibit high individual fertility rates ranging between 49.62 +/- 1.76 (Konda Dora) and 66.63 +/- 3.16 (Manzai Mali) and fall ...
Craig J - - 1994
'Replacement level fertility' is a technical term which seems almost self-explanatory. However there are some important qualifications which make it a more difficult concept than might be supposed. Also, the relationship between replacement level fertility and zero population growth is complicated. The article explains why this is so and thus ...
Desai L - - 1994
Integrated interventions for child survival as carried out in community health project of SEWA-Rural, a voluntary organisation working in tribal area of Gujarat, were discussed. They were introduced in phased manner over a period of ten years. It throws considerable light on field problems and how they can be overcome. ...
Williams B C - - 1994
Western European countries achieve more favorable infant mortality than the United States. Most of the excess U.S. mortality occurs in the first week of life, largely associated with very low birthweight. European countries provide extensive social and financial support for pregnant women and families with young children. Prenatal and obstetric ...
Katzenellenbogen J - - 1993
Three decadal birth cohorts (1837-1846), 1870-1879 and 1900-1909) each of approximately 500 individuals, were constructed retrospectively through the parish records of the Moravian Mission at Mamre in the Western Cape region of South Africa. Nominative data collection techniques were used to determine the infant mortality rates (IMR), quinquennial mortality rates ...
McCormick M C - - 1993
Infant mortality continues to be a major public health issue in the United States. Although some preventive strategies for neonatal mortality are emerging for congenital malformations, notably neural tube defects, the prevention of preterm deliveries among disadvantaged populations remains elusive, suggesting the need for different approaches to women's health needs. ...
Kabir M - - 1993
"This study attempts to estimate by indirect estimation technique the levels of infant and child mortality in Bangladesh using the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey (BFS). The levels of infant and child mortality obtained from the 1989 BFS indicate substantial improvements in child survival, although the fall in infant mortality has ...
Hagekull B - - 1993
The family situation for mothers, in three areas differing in degree of urbanization and an upper middle class control group, in Lahore, Pakistan was described. Area differences in socio-economic, family composition, and housing and sanitary conditions were investigated. Data from a longitudinal sample (n = 1476 newborns) were compared with ...
Boerma J T - - 1993
Demographic and health surveys are a useful source of information on the levels and trends of neonatal mortality in developing countries. Such surveys provide data on mortality occurring at 4-14 days of life, which is a sensitive indicator of neonatal tetanus mortality. We analyze birth history data from 37 national ...
Savitz D A - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: There is obvious potential for war to adversely affect infant and childhood mortality through direct trauma and disruption of the societal infrastructure. This study examined trends in Vietnam through the period of the war. METHODS: The 1988 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey collected data on reproductive history and family ...
Zenger E - - 1993
This paper studies the familial association of neonatal mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh and its relationship to birth-spacing effects on mortality. Findings show that familial association is strongest for siblings of adjacent birth orders. Moreover, birth-spacing effects on neonatal mortality are stronger when the preceding child has survived the neonatal period ...
Jalil F - - 1993
In this paper, details are given of a community based follow up study of four areas: a village, a periurban slum, an urban slum and an upper middle class control group living in and around Lahore, Pakistan. The aim was to characterize the determinants of child health in a rapidly ...
Swenson I E - - 1993
Selected determinants of overall infant mortality in Vietnam were examined using data from the 1988 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey, and factors underlying neonatal and post-neonatal mortality were also compared. Effects of community development characteristics, including health care, were studied by logistic regression analysis in a subsample of rural children ...
Yadava R C - - 1993
"This paper presents a methodology for estimating parity progression ratios (the probability that a woman after delivering...any particular birth will ever proceed to the next birth), utilizing data on births tabulated by birth order and age of the mother in a particular year. This approach...does not need estimates of [gross ...
Swenson I - - 1993
There was absence of any regional differences in parity progressions and length of birth intervals, although urban-rural differences persisted at most birth orders, suggesting that, as in other studies, the urban-rural differentials are the primary source of variations in fertility between different areas of a country. The significantly higher probability ...
Fricke T - - 1993
Using data from a Nepali population, this analysis argues that marriage style and postmarital living arrangements affect coital frequency to produce variations in the timing of first birth after marriage. Event history analysis of the first birth interval for 149 women suggests that women's autonomy in marriage decisions and marriage ...
Bähr J - - 1993
Life expectancy and infant mortality in Latin America vary extremely on the national level as for example from 20 per thousand and less in Cuba and Chile up to 100 per thousand and more in Haiti and Bolivia. The range of these rates is even greater considering the regional level ...
Curto de Casas S I - - 1993
This paper is an attempt to synthesize several models of health and levels of affluence in Latin America. An analysis is accomplished wherein various countries and regions of Latin America are classified for health purposes as either products of a poverty model or a wealth model. Variables utilized include: mortality ...
Kunstadter P - - 1993
Conventional theories would not predict the 60% decline of infant mortality which has occurred among the Hmong population of Thailand, from 123/1000 in the mid-1960s to 48 in the mid-1980s. The Hmong population in northern Thailand has sustained high fertility and low use of modern health services. Most Hmong live ...
Barnish G - - 1993
Malaria surveys to collect base-line data for an intervention study was carried out in a rural, high rainfall area of West Africa. Methods for the different components of the study are described. A mortality survey, using verbal autopsy questionnaires, established an infant mortality rate of 74/1000 live births/year, a child ...
Alemu W - - 1993
Neonatal tetanus (NNT) is the second most frequent cause of infant mortality among the six vaccine preventable infections in developing countries. However, lack of reliable data has largely obscured the importance of the problem in these countries. A community based NNT mortality survey was conducted, using cluster sample method developed ...
Woelk G B - - 1993
Using the preceding birth technique, 2,229 mothers were interviewed at four antenatal centres (two of which were urban) over a three month period during a pilot study in Zimbabwe. Results of the study showed that there was a small difference between the under two and under five mortality. The smaller ...
Singh K K - - 1993
Life tables of birth intervals and median birth intervals in two Indian states, Uttar Pradesh and Kerala, were computed for several subgroups of the study population. Multivariate hazards modelling technique was used to examine the net effect of each of the variables studied. The results show a substantial effect of ...
de Meer K - - 1993
Among Amerindian children living at high altitude in the Andes in southern Peru, high child mortality rates have been reported in the literature, especially in the perinatal and neonatal period. We compared mortality rates in children calculated from retrospective survey data in 86 rural families from 2 Aymara and 3 ...
Horbar J D - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate a model that predicts mortality risk based on admission data for infants weighing 501 to 1500 grams at birth, and to use the model to identify neonatal ICUs where the observed mortality rate differs significantly from the predicted rate. DESIGN: Validation cohort study. SETTING: University-based, ...
Heymann M - - 1993
The high rate of infant mortality, defined as the number of deaths in the first year of life for every 1000 babies born alive (WHO, 1981), is recognized as an extremely serious problem in the developing world. Worldwide decreases in the number of infant deaths are occurring; however, the gap ...
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